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first English writer on music, adopts the same principle of as a crime. But apart from this reason which was no reason, measuring interval from the key-note. (See his "Introduction there were other causes which conspired to kindle animosity to Practical Music,” published A.D. 1597.) We have an old against the earl. He was not an eloquent man, not an able man, English black-letter Bible, dated A.D. 1629, with Sternhold and either as diplomatist or politician-not a man who, by any act of Hopkins' Metrical Psalms appended. Here we find the tunes his own, had given warrant for the confidence which was reposed printed over the psalms, and the initial letters of the sol-fa in him-and it was scarcely concealed that the motives which syllables, as then used, printed on the staff close to the head of induced the king so to confide in him sprang only from conthe notes; and, notwithstanding the curious perplexity which siderations of private friendship. With Lord Bute, however, arises from the want of the seventh syllable si (which we call it is possible the people might have put up, so long as he did TE, to distinguish its initial letter from son), it is perfectly clear not interfere dangerously with the important principles of the that the syllables move with the key-note. The following Constitution ; but he was suspected to be under the influence advertisement "to the Reader" is prefixed to the book : and dominion of one whom the people wholly distrusted-the“Thou shalt vnderstand (Gentle Reader) that I haue (for the Princess Dowager of Wales, the mother of the king. The helpe of those that are desirous to learne to sing) caused a new princess had many times shown herself to be anything but print of note to bee made, with letters to bee ioyned to every friendly to popular rights, and though her son had been but note: Whereby thou maist know, how to call euery note by his three years on the throne, the people fancied they detected in right name, so that with a very little diligence (as thou art his conduct proofs not only of the school in which he had been taught, in the introduction printed heretofore in the psalms) brought up, but of a continuance of the tutorship. Lord Bute thou maist the more easily, by the viewing of these letters, had been under the authority of the princess, the future king's come to the knowledge of perfect solefaying: whereby thou guide and elder companion up to the very moment of his mount. mayest sing the psalms the more speedily and easily. The ing the throne, and had been appointed to the supreme command letters be these, v for vt, R for RE, M for my, F for FA, 8 for of public business immediately on his pupil's accession. The SOL, L for LAH. Thus when you see any letter ioyned by the views of the princess and of Lord Bute were known to coincide note, you may easily call him by his right name.' This old in every particular, and it was said, probably with truth, that book, circulated and used with the Bible itself throughout the the lady took frequent occasion to exhort her friend to continue kingdom more than 200 years ago, contains, in fact, a "Tonic in their common political faith. The king was believed to be Sol-fa Notation!” The perplexity above mentioned led to the almost wholly under their influence, and when he acted indecommon use throughout England of what was called the pendently it was said that, clearly enough, the seed, sown by Tetrachordal Systom, in which the notes of the scale are thus the mother and watered by the tutor, had taken deep root. named: Fa, Sol, La, Fa, Sol, La, Mi, Fa. Wo saw this recently Lord Bute had many times been burned in effigy, and whenever in & well-known old book by Tansur. Here the syllable FA is opportunity offered for a burning but no effigy was available, used for the key-note, and also for the fourth-of course moving the people acted the gross pun of burning a jack-boot (for John, with them. “Look well to your Fas, my boy," is the instruc- Earl of Bute) as the unpopular minister's representative. More tion which many an old sight-singer, now living, received from often than not, a petticoat was added, as typifying the princess, his father or teacher. This, also, is a tonic (or key-note) who was equally disliked. On the occasion mentioned at the method of solfa-ing. The far-famed French writer Rousseau beginning of this article, both the boot and the petticoat were gives strong and most satisfactory reasons for the “movable destroyed, to the cry, repeated again and again, of “ Wilkes and UT or Doh.” (See his “ Dictionary of Music," vol. ii., p. 223.) liberty!" But why Wilkes ?

John Wilkes was the author of the articles in the North

Briton which had excited so much attention, and drawn down HISTORIC SKETCHES-XXIII.

the anger of the Houses of Parliament. He had ever since the

paper started been one of the most constant contributors, and it WILKES AND LIBERTY.

was pretty well known that all the fiercest denunciation, all the On the 3rd of December, 1763, the Royal Exchange was the most malignant writing, all the most scurrilous abuse which apscene of a serious disturbance. The people tried, and to a great peared in the paper was from his pen. At the present day we are extent succeeded, to prevent the execution of an order of the accustomed to the greatest freedom in the public press; names House of Commons. Londoners of the better sort encouraged are mentioned readily and without reserve, whatever the position the people, and the sheriffs had much difficulty in carrying out of their owners may be, and an editor feels no more compunction their duty.

in quoting the names of high personages in connection with what The occasion was a curious one. Certain papers were to be he is writing about than ho has in naming the most obscure man solemnly burnt in public by the common hangman. But the in the kingdom. But in 1763 things were different. It was people objected to the process, and hence the riot. The sheriffs' uncertain how far the law would hold an editor or publisher folk had lighted the fire in which the condemned papers were to harmless who should criticise too freely the conduct of public be destroyed, when the populace thrust them aside, and substi- men; and it was certain, according to the principle of a law tuted for the papers a jack-boot and a woman's petticoat, which which had among its maxims the monstrous proposition that the were burnt amid loud acclamations. “Wilkes and liberty for truth of a libel was the reverse of a justification for uttering it, ever!” shouted the people, who, content with having carried that, unless the defendant could show he was directly benefiting their point in respect of the boot and the petticoat, suffered the the public by his publication, he would be severely punished sheriffs to perform the harmless pastime of burning some files in damages. Writing, such as we see every day in the nows. of a newspaper in the bonfire.

papers, about public men and public affairs was at that time The paper thus destroyed was No. 45 of the North Briton, an unheard of thing except in Grub Street, or when it issued a nowspaper which was written and published by the bitterest from some secret printing-press that dared not let its whereenemies of the existing Government, the Government of which abouts be known. Lord Bute was the head. Started originally as the organ of John Wilkes was the first journalist who wrote plainly and at invective against the king's favourite ministers, it had on several full length the names of the persons of whom he was writing. occasions exceeded itself in the tone and sting of its abuse, and Before he did so, the practice was to allude to and not mention had commended itself, therefore, to the general public, who were a public man, and various expedients were resorted to—somo heartily obnoxious to the persons libelled. A belief had taken ingenious, others coarse and vulgar-for making the allusions hold of the public mind that the king intended to rule through sufficiently pertinent to identify the person signified. In the his " friends," as the trusted statesmen called themselves, that North Briton, not only were the names of Lord Bute, the Duke is, through those who aimed at exalting the royal authority far of Grafton, George Grenville, and other ministers set forth above the authority derived from the people ; and they feared plainly, but even the name of His Majesty was used with a for the abuses to which such a system of government is liable. freedom quite unprecedented, and the novelty of this personal They objected also personally to the chief instrument employed style of writing made it only the more stinging. On a calm by His Majesty. At that time, there was an unreasoning and review of the North Briton articles, at the present day, we might violent hatred on the part of Englishmen towards the Scotch as consider them tame, abusive and irritating though they were, a nation ; Lord Bute was a Scotchman, and vulgar prejudice did beside much that we now read daily as a matter of course; but not fail to impute that fact to him as a disqualification, if not a hundred years ago the leaders of our party political organs

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would have been looked upon as simply libellous and intolerable, conduct of the ministers, whose names were printed at length not to say in many cases treasonable.

in order to prevent the possibility of mistake, and in order to No. 45 of the North Briton, published on the 23rd of April, make the attack more felt. 1763, came out immediately after the king had closed, with The articles were always written from the popular side, and a speech from his own lips, the parliamentary session of April, were calculated to mako political capital for the writer, cape1763. Referring to the peace lately concluded with France cially when they were upon those topics--as the cider tar, and and Spain--a peace, the terms of which, considering the im. the peace which the people had particularly at heart. Wilkes portant successes of the British arms, had created the profoundest appealed, in writing them, to the popular passions, but succeeded disgast in England, and for agreeing to which Lord Bute was in steering clear of expressions which could properly be construed vehemently accused, and even charged with having received into treason. bribes from the nation's enemies--the king said it had been The North Briton was no respecter of persons, even Sir Francis concluded on terms so honourable to my crown, and so bene- Dashwood, Wilkes' former boon companion, being severely ficial to my people.” The words fell coldly on the ears of the handled in it as soon as he became Chancellor of the Exchequer members of Parliament, and excited great anger in the breasts No one was secure from the bite of the literary mosquito, and of most of their representatives. The North Briton expressed Wilkes, being known as the principal purveyor of its sting, was the feelings of the advanced Liberals of the day, though in subjected on several occasions to the resentment of those he terins that were then at least considered scurrilous in the ox. libelled. Lord Talbot fought a duel with him on Bagshot Heath. treme. The king's words were commented upon with merciless and there were other persons who took moro questionable means severity, but they were designated as part of the “minister's" to be revenged on him. It is more than likely that Wilkes speech, the writer carefully distinguishing, in accordance with would have gone on with the North Briton, either until he haul constitutional practice, betwoon the king, who can do no wrong, been quieted by a good Government appointment, or until the and the ininister, who can.

accession of more popular ministers had left him without emThe article was received with satisfaction by those who dis- ployment as a political writer, but for the proceedings which liked the Government, and who looked upon the North Briton the ministers commenced against him. As soon as he was as the champion, rough and ill-bred, perhaps, but still the arrested on account of the articles in which he had given champion of public liberty ; but by the ministers it was regarded expression, albeit savagely, to the popular opinion, he was looked as a wilful and impardonable insult to the king. Unwisely they upon as a political martyr, and his writings in the North Briton determined to notice it, and Lord Halifax, Secretary of State, were magnified into a series of sustained, patriotic efforts on issued his warrant for the arrest of "the authors, printers, and behalf of the popular cause. publishers" of the obnoxious article. Wilkes was arrested on No time was lost in serving out & writ of Habeas Corpus. the 30th of April, and after examination before Lords Halifax Wilkes was, on the 3rd of May, brought before Lord Chief and Egremont, was sent a prisoner to the Tower. His private Justice Pratt in the Court of Common Pleas, where arguments papers were also seized. Before giving an account of the were heard on both sides as to the propriety of the prisoner's proceedings taken upon his arrest, and those further mea. commitment, the question being, not whether the general warrant sures which flowed as a consequence out of them, it will be well under which he had been arrested was valid or not, but whether

, to give some account of Wilkes himself, and to show how he as a member of Parliament, he was not protected by the privilege came to be identified with popular liberty, an event which his of that assembly. There is a privilege attaching to the dignity connection with the North Briton would scarcely have brought of representative of the people which exempts the person of the about.

holder from arrest on civil process, and absolutely from arrest John Wilkes was born in 1727, the son of a distiller, who left except on a charge of treason, felony, or breach of the peace. him with a good business and ample means for carrying it on; The crown lawyers contended that a libel was a breach of the but the young man disliked occupation, and, like others who do peace, and they cited the opinions of the judges who committed Bo, got into mischief. He relinquished the business, squandered the Seven Bishops, in support of their view-a precedent which, his patrimony in riotous living, and became known as a wit of the circumstances considered, they were rather unfortunate in the coarser kind, a fast liver, and an adventurer. For a time using. The court took time to consider their judgment, and he was steadied by his marriage, an event by which he acquired the prisoner, highly elated by the reception he had met with on a fortune ; but he grew tired of his wife, and spent her money, his way to Westminster, and in Westminster Hall, was led back and then went into Parliament to retrieve his position. He was to the Tower, amid the acclamations of the multitude. On the returned for Aylesbury in 1757, and sat as member for some fourth day afterwards the court gave judgment in favour of time; but he was not a successful man in the House of Commons, the prisoner. “ We are all of opinion,” said Chief Justice Pratt where his peculiar talents were not appreciated, and his style of (afterwards Lord Camden), “that a libel is not a breach of the oratory was out of place. He was more at home in taverns and peace; it tends to a breach of the peace, and that is the utmost. behind the scenes at theatres; and, in company with Sir Francis But that which only tends to a breach of the peace cannot be Dashwood, Lord Sandwich, and other men of pleasure, he became an actual breach of it. In the case of the Seven Bishops, Judge notorious as one of the licentious inmates of Medmenham Abbay, Powell, the only honest man of the four judges, dissented, and I near Maidenhead, where revels of the most ungodly kind were am bound to be of his opinion, and to say that case is not law carried on, and where morality and religion were alike ostenta

Let Mr. Wilkes be discharged from his imprisonment." tiously set at nought.

Released from prison, Wilkes began to make reprisals. He Ruined by his extravagance and by the expenses of his elec brought actions against the Secretary of State and his mestions, for he had to fight for his seat at Aylesbury both in 1757 sengers for having taken his papers ; he threatened Lord Egriand 1761, Wilkes cast about for some employment under the mont with a challenge, and he set up a private printing-press in Government, by which he might at all events live comfortably. his house, from which he could issue squibs and pamphlets under Lord Temple, the friend and relative of Pitt, had favoured him ' his own immediate direction. The rejoioings in London and the in politics, seeing many good points in him, and deeming that provinces at the triumph of what was considered to be the his abilities under good guidance might be useful in the contest popular cause, were general and demonstrative; Wilkes becama which was inevitably coming on between the Crown and the the hero of the hour, and his name was associated with the Parliament. To Lord Temple Wilkes applied, in hope of getting sacred name of liberty, in the rallying cry of the people. an appointment as ambassador, or as colonial governor; but the On the 15th of November, 1763, Parliament met after the lieutenant-colonelcy of the Bucks Militia was all that he could recess, and to the surprise of every one, Lord Sandwich, who get; and when, in 1761, Lord Temple seceded from the Govern- had been an associate of Wilkes in his profligate career, ment, Wilkes chances disappeared altogether, for from Lord whose morals were certainly no better than his companion's, Bute, to whose adverse influence he ascribed his disappoint- rose in his place in the House of Lords, and on the very first ment hitherto, he could expect nothing. Wilkes then betook day of the session, denounced as a scandalous, obsceno, and himself to political writing against the Government, wrote a impious libel, a performance of Wilkes called " An E-say on pamphlet full of hostile criticism on the lately-concluded peace, Woman." The poem was a burlesque on Pope's " Essay on and in June, 1762, started the North Briton in conjunction with Man," and was dedicated to Lord Sandwich, having been written Churchill, a spirit more wicked than himself. In this paper by Wilkes several years before in the days of Mormenbaum were publisbed from time to time most violent attacks on the Abbey. It contained scurrilous references to various public mea,

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among others the Bishop of Gloucester (Warburton), and Lord ment against him, carried by a large majority a vote expelling Sandwich himself. It was on the point of insult to the bishop, him the House. however, that the Earl of Sandwich denounced the work as a By a majority of 800 votes, the Middlesex electors immediately breach of privilege. Only fourteen copies had been printed at returned him again, but the House of Commons declared that he Wilkes' private press, but of this number the Government got could not sit, and that Colonel Luttrell, who had not polled hold of one, and this was the copy to which the attention of the more than 300 votes, was duly returned. The Middlesex men House of Lords was invited. In the same book was a lewd were furious ; Lord Chatham warmly reprehended the vote of paraphrase of the “Veni Creator," and the House oi Lords, after the House of Commons, and Lord Camden resigned the Great some discussion, voted both the poems to be blasphemous and Seal rather than continue in a Government which upheld that breaches of privilege, but adjourned the further consideration vote. of them for forty-eight hours, in order to give Wilkes time to In April, 1770, Wilkes was released from prison, and having defend himself.

been, while still in durance, elected alderman of Farringdon In the House of Commons, at the same time that the Lords Ward Without, was sworn in, and forthwith threw himself once were coming to this vote, Wilkes rose to complain of the breach more into politics. But eight years had wrought a change in of privilege which had been committed in arresting him; where- public affairs; Wilkes' old occupation was to a great extent upon Lord North, one of the ministers, and the Attorney- gone; and he himself, made wiser by experience, was anxious to General, Sir Fletcher Norton, caused the depositions of the exchange the part of a mere agitator for some more staple printers who had confessed that Wilkes wrote No. 45 of the position. Though he continued to be a staunch Liberal, he was North Briton, to be read, and asked the House to authorise less noisy in ventilating his opinions; and, as a magistrate, he proceedings at law. After some discussion the House voted conducted himself with great propriety, and increased his repuNo. 45 to be a false, scandalous, and seditious libel, tending to tation with the better class of citizens. In 1775 he was chosen traitorous insurrections, and ordered it to be burnt by the Lord Mayor, and having been once more returned to Parliament common hangman.

for the county of Middlesex, was allowed to sit without question. One result of the debate was a duel between Wilkes and Mr. In the end he became city chamberlain, an office which he filled Samuel Martin, a member who had spoken of the writer, whoever with ability and success; and so little did this old demagogue he might be, of certain other personal articles in the North Briton, habit survive in him, that when, in 1782, he moved in the House as "a cowardly, malignant, and infamous scoundrel.” Wilkes of Commons that the resolutions respecting his own expulsion sent Martin a letter repeating the accusations made in the should be expunged, there was not found any enemy to gainsay North Briton, and avowing the authorship of them. At the him. meeting, Wilkes was badly wounded in the body, but as soon as Accident made Wilkes a political hero, accident bound him up he could be moved he went to France, to hide himself from the in the affections of the people with the cause of public liberty, storm which he saw was about to burst upon him. The House but it does not seem that on the whole he was unworthy of his of Commons expelled him from their body, the House of Peers position; and while we cannot fail utterly to condemn the asked the Crown to prosecute him for his “Essay on Woman, immorality by which his earlier life was marked, to condemn, and when, after some time, he failed to appear in answer to the also, the tone in which he vindicated the principles he professed, indictments which were preferred against him, the courts of law we cannot refuse some share of admiration for the popular pronounced sentence of outlawry against him. Then resolutions, favourite, nor can we fail to see the meaning of those who with reference to the late decision of the Chief Justice, were identified him with the cause that was symbolised by the passed through both Houses of Parliament, to the effect "that cry of “Wilkes and Liberty!” privilege of Parliament does not extend to the case of writing and pablishing seditious libels.” Even the Earl of Chatham, while objecting to the words and form of the resolutions, was LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-VIII. careful not to speak in favour of the subject of them, whom he described as unworthy" to be ranked among the human species; he is the blasphemer of his God, and the libeller of his king.”

For five years Wilkes lived abroad, afraid of the outlawry, It is now time to give an explanation of the terms used in and seeing no chance, in the state of politics which existed during speaking of the different orders of architecture. Among the that time, of making his peace with the Government. In 1768, Greeks, an order was composed of columns and an entablature. an attempt which he made towards that end failed, and Wilkes The Romans added pedestals under the columns of various resolved to make a bold dash upon the popular favour as the orders, to increase their height. The column is generally a means of his getting back again. He came over at the disso round pillar, constructed either to support or to adorn an lution of Parliament in the same year, and put up for the repre- edifice. sentation of London, but not succeeding in the city, he went to Besides columns, the Greeks employed human figures to the county, and beat the Government candidates in the contest support the entablature. Vitruvius informs us that when male for Middlesex.

figures were employed, they were called Persians, to indicate As soon as Parliament assembled, a question was raised the contempt in which that nation was held; and they reprewhether Mr. Wilkes, being an outlaw, could sit; and when, on sented these figures, accordingly, in the most suffering posture, Wilkes surrendering, as he had promised to do, at the court of and loading them, as it were, with the heaviest entablature, King's Bench, the outlawry was declared null and void on that of the Doric order; and when female figures were used, technical grounds, a further question arose upon the judgments they were called Caryatides, to signify their contempt for the to which he submitted himself, on account of his “Essay on Carians, whose wives had been taken away captive in their Woman" and No. 45. Wilkes was fined £1,000, and sentenced wars with the Athenians. Some critics doubt the truth of to two years' imprisonment; the mob rescued him, and swore he these stories of Vitruvius, and endeavour to account for the should be at liberty, but he evaded their kindness, and sur-origin of the figures and their names in a different manner. rendered at the King's Bench prison. Riots followed in St. Whether the Greeks were the inventors of this mode of sup. George's Fields on account of “Wilkes and Liberty," and the porting entablatures, or copied it from the ancient Egyptian troops having been called out, several persons were shot. edifices, or from the tombs and temples of India, and Persia, it

In prison, Wilkes, who was looked upon as a man persecuted is needless to inquire. Fragments of male figures, apparently for political conscience' sake, was visited by many of the leading employed for the same purposes, have been found among the liberal politicians, and continued to write fervid letters to his ancient Roman monumental remains. friends on public affairs. Having in one of these commented on The pilaster is a square pillar used for the same purpose as Lord Weymouth's letter to the Lambeth magistrates, warning the column. Instead of standing isolated like the column, it is them of an apprehended riot, and advising them to apply for generally inserted in the wall of an edifice, showing only a troops, he described the advice as "a hellish project," tending to fourth or a fifth of its thickness. Pilasters have their bases, "a horrid massacre." For this he was brought in custody to capitals, and entablatures with the same parts, heights, and the bar of the House, where his letter was condemned as an projections as columns have; and they are distinguished, like "insolent libel ;” and on the 3rd of February, 1769, Lord them, by the names of the five orders of architecture-Doric, Barrington, after recapitulating Wilkes' offences, and the judg. Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite. They are supposed








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to be of Roman origin, as they only appear in the later periods base is that part of the column which is beneath the shaft and of Greek architecture, and they are much more numerous in upon the pedestal, when a pedestal is used. It has a plinth, a the Roman monuments. Vitruvias calls them parastatæ, from member of a flat and square form like a brick, called in Greek the Greek tapa (para), near or by, and fornui (his-tee'-mi), I alivdos (plin'-thos), with mouldings that represent rings, with stand, because of their standing close to a building, or forming which the bottoms of pillars were bound, to prevent their part of it. The Greeks, though they did use pilasters in their cleaving. These rings, when large, are called tori, and when designs, had a kind of square pillars at the end of their walls, small, astragals. The tori have generally hollow spaces cut which they called antæ, and which sometimes projected a good round between each torus. This hollow is called & rundel, way from the principal front. They were also at the entrances scotia, or trochilus. to a building.

The shaft of the column is the round and even part extending Attics were a sort of low square pillars with their cornices, from the base to the capital. This part of the column is which originated in Athens, and were used in buildings to con- narrower at the top than at the bottom. Some architects veal the roof. These were ranged in a continued line, and would give the column a greater breadth at the third part of raised above the rest of the structure, in front of the roof, so its height than at the bottom of the shaft. There is no as to hide it entirely, presenting a new order, as it were, above instance of this being practised among the ancients. Others that of the building. The Greek attics are not now to be make the shaft a cylinder from the bottom to the third part of found among the ruins of Athens. Roman attics are seen in its height, and thus lessen it from this to the top; and some the remains

consider that of the trium

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chitrave is de parate or conROMAN ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE.

rived partly nected, used

from the in the support of an entablature, is called a colonnade. It re- | Greek, and partly from the Latin, being componnded of the ceives a specific name from the number of columns employed; as, Greek' apxos (ar kos), chief, or principal, and the Latin trabs, a tetrastyle, when there are four, from the Greek Terpa (tet’-ra), beam. The frieze is the space between the architrave and the four, and otulos (stylos), a column ; hexastyle, when there are cornice. The cornice is composed of several mouldings, which six; octostyle, when eight; and decastyle, when ten. The project over each other and shelter the order from the rain. space between the columns is called the intercolumniation. The pedestal is cubical in form, and consists of three parts : There are five kinds of intercolumniation-namely, the areo- (1) the base or foot, which stands on the area or pavement; (2) style, or thinly set, where the columns are at the distance the dio or middle part, which rests upon the base; and (3) the of four diameters of the column; the diastyle, when they cornice or wave, upon which the column is placed. Pedestala are at the distance of three diameters ; the eustyle, when at appear to have been introduced into architecture after the loss a distance of two and a quarter; the systyle, when at two ; of political independence in Greece. In the early examples of and the pycnostyle, or thickly set, when at one diameter and Greek architecture, the columns are generally formed standing a half. Of these, the custyle was most generally used by on the uppermost of two or three steps. When the Romans the ancient architects. Other names have been given to the elevated the floors of their temples, they were obliged to discon. intercolumniation of the Doric order, according to the number tinue the erection of front stairs, becanse they occupied so much of the triglyphs placed over them, as monotriglyph, when there ground around the building, and to adopt the pedestal raised was one; ditriglyph, when there were two, etc. Coupled, to a level with the top of the stairs, and projecting to the front grouped, or clustered columns appear not to have been used by of the steps which profiled it on all sides. Vitruvius makes no the ancients, with some apparent exceptions at Rome.

mention of pedestals, in treating of the Doric, Tuscan, and Every column, except the Doric, to which the Romans give Corinthian orders ; and in treating of the Ionic, speaks of the no base, is composed of a base, a shaft, and a capital. The pedestal as a part of the construction, but not of the order.




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the second hair-stroke in a larger loop than usual, and termi.

nating it below the line like a j; we have no letter like it GERMAN HANDWRITING.

The letter a like g with this difference, that it is pointed In the prosent lesson in Penmanship we set before our readers ' below the line, and the hair-stroke is brought up from this examples of the large and small letters of the German written point to the right instead of to the left. The letter r is very alphabet on a larger scale than that in which are written the peculiar, and unlike any of ours. It consists first of an ele. specimens of German handwriting given in our Lessons in mentary leg ; but the second hair-stroke, instead of being brought German, Vol. I., page 37.

up, is looped at the bottom contrary to the usual way, and then In learning these written characters, it will be useful to brought up and made to terminate in an elementary leg to the observe that m is the leading letter of the small alphabet, ' right, of half the usual size. The letter s is very much like which is written, for the most part, in the angular style usually the letter f, with this difference, that it is hooked above the adopted by ladies in our own country, and therefore called line like a shepherd's crook, instead of being looped; while the Ladies' or Angular Hand. Taking one leg of the m, which elementary leg, instead of crossing it in the middle, is placed we shall call the elementary leg, we find that it consists of a entirely to the left at this point. Another s, which is also shown black middle-stroke, drawn in a slanting direction from right in the examples of the small letters given below, is made by to left, and two hair-strokes, one at the upper end of the thick forming a loop at bottom from right to left, and terminating in a





stroke, slanting downwards to the left, and the other at the hair-stroke above the line, with a hook from left to right, somelower end of the stroke, slanting upwards to the right. If you what like our written figure 6 made from the bottom to the top, make the last hair-stroke curved instead of straight when you or contrary to the usual way. The letter t is made in the form bring it up, and add a small turn or loop at the top, you have generally used for this letter in small-hand, terminating at the then made an o. If now, as soon as you have made the loop bottom in a straight, square stroke, instead of being turned of the o, you draw downwards from the very short hair-stroke upwards with a hair-stroke to the right. It is crossed by a of the loop another black stroke, and then turn a hair-stroke curved stroke from left to right. The letter u is exactly like upwards to the right, you have at last made an a. You make the letter n, with a circlet or curve over it for the sake of disa b by adding to the o a large top-loop, as we do in making our tinction. own written b. You have learned to make c already, as it is The letter v is another peculiarly-formed letter. The first the leg of the m already described. If you take this same part of it is exactly like the letter r, but it terminates in a elementary leg, and carry up its second hair-stroke, as we do round black stroke curved towards the right, or hollow towards in one form of our written d, making this hair-stroke end in a the first part of the letter, and giving it somewhat the appear. loop or circlet at top, you have the letter d complete.

ance of an inverted a. Prefix to the letter v the elementary The letter e is peculiar; it is formed of the elementary leg leg so often mentioned, and you have the letter w. The letter

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without the second hair-stroke, to which is joined a shorter ele. x is formed like the letter p, with this difference, that the part mentary log by a hair-stroke drawn from the former very near the below the line is turned to the right instead of to the left, and top of the black stroke. The letter f is very like our own written terminates in a small scroll. The letter y is like the letter v f; and is made by a long hair-stroke, looped above the line, and with its curve to the right extended below the line, and its haiiterminating below it in a long, straight stroke; the letter is stroke brought up like a j. The last letter, 2, is very like oui completed by crossing it in the middle by the elementary leg of own manuscript z, and consists of the elementary leg rounded, the m, made diagonally downwards from left to right, instead and the second hair-stroke replaced by a curved part below the of from right to left. To make the letter g, first make an o, line, like the letter j. The double consonants given in the and then from the short hair-stroke of the loop draw a hair- examples of letters in Vol. I., page 37, and which it is needless stroke downwards, making it terminate below the line like our to repeat here in our illustrations, are so manifestly formed of own written g. The letter h is exactly like the long 8 used the simple letters which enter into their composition, that it is in writing by ourselves; it seems to have consisted of the ele- unnecessary to make this lesson any longer by describing them. mentary leg with a loop of hair-stroke above and another below. It may just be observed that double s is a combination of the The letter i consists of the elementary leg with a dot above it; two different forms of s above described ; that the double f is if you forget the dot, it will be taken for a c. The letter j is like the double s without the elementary leg behind it, and that part added to o which makes it a g, with a dot above it. with a dash or flourish across it; and that in combination 2 is The letter k is so like our own that it can hardly be mistaken, written on the line, instead of below it, and in form resembling but it has no loop at the top. The letter 1 is just the letter b our manuscript capital letter B. without the small final loop. The letter m has been described ; In the German handwriting, as regards the capital letters, the letter n consists of two legs of the letter m; the letter o there are three elementary legs, so to speak, from which all the has also been described.

letters may be formed. The first is the initial leg of the capital The letter p is formed of the elementary leg by turning round letter M, which is not like any of our manuscript capitals, but

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