Imágenes de páginas

among others the Bishop of Gloucester (Warburton), and Lord ment against him, carried by a large majority a vote expelling Sandwich himself. It was on the point of insult to the bishop, him the House. however, that the Earl of Sandwich denounced the work as a By a majority of 800 votes, the Middlesex electors immediately breach of privilege. Only fourteen copies had been printed at returned him again, but the House of Commons declared that he Wilkes' private press, but of this number the Government got could not sit, and that Colonel Luttrell, who had not polled hold of one, and this was the copy to which the attention of the more than 300_votes, was duly returned. The Middlesex men House of Lords was invited. In the same book was a lewd were furious ; Lord Chatham warmly reprehended the vote of paraphrase of the “Veni Creator," and the House oi Lords, after the House of Commons, and Lord Camden resigned the Great some discussion, voted both the poems to be blasphemous and Seal rather than continue in a Government which upheld that breaches of privilege, but adjourned the further consideration vote. of them for forty-eight hours, in order to give Wilkes time to In April, 1770, Wilkes was released from prison, and having defend himself.

been, while still in durance, elected alderman of Farringdon In the House of Commons, at the same time that the Lords Ward Without, was sworn in, and forthwith threw himself once were coming to this vote, Wilkes rose to complain of the breach i more into politics. But eight years had wrought a change in of privilege which had been committed in arresting him; where public affairs; Wilkes' old occupation was to a great extent upon Lord North, one of the ministers, and the Attorney gone; and he himself, made wiser by experience, was anxious to General, Sir Fletcher Norton, caused the depositions of the exchange the part of a mere agitator for some more staple printers who had confessed that Wilkes wroto No. 45 of the position. Though he continued to be a staunch Liberal, he was North Briton, to be read, and asked the House to authorise less noisy in ventilating his opinions; and, as a magistrate, he proceedings at law. After some discussion the House voted conducted himself with great propriety, and increased his repuNo. 45 to be a false, scandalous, and seditious libel, tending to tation with the better class of citizens. In 1775 he was chosen traitorous insurrections, and ordered it to be burnt by the Lord Mayor, and having been once more returned to Parliament common hangman.

for the county of Middlesex, was allowed to sit without question. One result of the debate was a duel between Wilkos and Mr. In the end he became city chamberlain, an office which he filled Samuel Martin, a member who had spoken of the writer, whoever with ability and success; and so little did this old demagogue he might be, of certain other personal articles in the North Briton, habit survive in him, that when, in 1782, he moved in the House as “a cowardly, malignant, and infamous scoundrel.” Wilkes of Commons that the resolutions respecting his own expulsion sent Martin a letter repeating the accusations made in the should be expunged, there was not found any enemy to gainsay North Briton, and avowing the authorship of them. At the him. meeting, Wilkes was badly wounded in the body, but as soon as Accident made Wilkes a political hero, accident bound him up he could be moved he went to France, to hide himself from the in the affections of the people with the cause of public liberty, storm which he saw was about to burst upon him. The House but it does not seem that on the whole he was unworthy of his of Commons expelled him from their body, the House of Peers position ; and while we cannot fail utterly to condemn the asked the Crown to prosecute him for his "Essay on Woman,” immorality by which his earlier life was marked, to condemn, and when, after some time, he failed to appear in answer to the also, the tone in which he vindicated the principles he professed, indictments which were preferred against him, the courts of law we cannot refuse some share of admiration for the popular pronounced sentence of outlawry against him. Then resolutions, favourite, nor can we fail to see the meaning of those who with reference to the late decision of the Chief Justice, were identified him with the canse that was symbolised by the passed through both Houses of Parliament, to the effect "that cry of “Wilkes and Liberty !” privilege of Parliament does not extend to the case of writing and publishing seditious libels.” Even the Earl of Chatham, while objecting to the words and form of the resolutions, was LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.–VIII. careful not to speak in favour of the subject of them, whom ho described as anworthy" to be ranked among the human species ;


THE TERMS USED IN ARCHIhe is the blasphemer of his God, and the libeller of his king."

For five years Wilkes lived abroad, afraid of the outlawry, It is now time to give an explanation of the terms used in and seeing no chance, in the state of politics which existed during speaking of the different orders of architecture. Among the that time, of making his peace with the Government. In 1768, Greeks, an order was composed of columns and an entablature. an attempt which he made towards that end failed, and Wilkes The Romans added pedestals under the columns of various resolved to make a bold dash upon the popular favour as the orders, to increase their height. The column is generally a means of his getting back again. He came over at the disso- round pillar, constructed either to support or to adorn an lution of Parliament in the same year, and put up for the repre- edifice. sentation of London, but not succeeding in the city, he went to Besides columns, the Greeks employed human figures to the county, and beat the Government candidates in the contest support the entablature. Vitruvius informs us that when male for Middlesex.

figures were employed, they were called Persians, to indicate As soon as Parliament assembled, a question was raised the contempt in which that nation was held; and they reprewhether Mr. Wilkes, being an outlaw, could sit; and when, on sented these figures, accordingly, in the most suffering posture, Wilkes surrendering, as he had promised to do, at the court of and loading them, as it were, with the heaviest entablature, King's Bench, the outlawry was declared null and void on that of the Doric order; and when female figures were used, technical grounds, a further question arose upon the judgments they were called Caryatides, to signify their contempt for the to which he submitted himself, on account of his " Essay on Carians, whose wives had been taken away captive in their Woman” and No. 45. Wilkes was fined £1,000, and sentenced wars with the Athenians. Some critics doubt the truth of to two years' imprisonment; the mob rescued him, and swore he these stories of Vitruvius, and endeavour to account for the should be at liberty, but he evaded their kindness, and sur- origin of the figures and their names in a different manner. rendered at the King's Bench prison. Riots followed in St. Whether the Greeks were the inventors of this mode of supGeorge's Fields on account of "Wilkes and Liberty," and the porting entablatures, or copied it from the ancient Egyptian troops having been called out, several persons were shot. edifices, or from the tombs and temples of India and Persia, it

In prison, Wilkes, who was looked upon as a man persecuted is needless to inquire. Fragments of male figures, apparently for political conscience' sake, was visited by many of the leading employed for the same purposes, have been found among the liberal politicians, and continued to write fervid letters to his ancient Roman monumental remains. friends on public affairs. Having in one of these commented on The pilaster is a square pillar used for the same purpose as Lord Weymouth's letter to the Lambeth magistrates, warning the column. Instead of standing isolated like the column, it is them of an apprehended riot, and advising them to apply for generally inserted in the wall of an edifice, showing only a troops, he described the advice as "a hellish project," tending to fourth or a fifth of its thickness. Pilasters have their bases, "a horrid massacre.” For this he was brought in custody to capitals, and entablatures with the same parts, heights, and the bar of the House, where his letter was condemned as an projections as columns have; and they are distinguished, like "insolent libel ;” and on the 3rd of February, 1769, Lord them, by the names of the five orders of architecture-Doric, Barrington, after recapitulating Wilkes' offences, and the judg. Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite. They are supposed




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PACIA (1).





to be of Roman origin, as they only appear in the later periods i base is that part of the column which is beneath the shaft and of Greek architecture, and they are much more numerous in upon the pedestal, when a pedestal is used. It has a plinth, a the Roman monuments. Vitruvias calls them parastatæ, from member of a flat and square form like a brick, called in Greek the Greek mapa (para), near or by, and lotnui (his-tee'-mi), I Tudos (plin'-thos), with mouldings that represent rings, with stand, because of their standing close to a building, or forming which the bottoms of pillars were bound, to prevent their part of it. The Greeks, though they did use pilasters in their cleaving. These rings, when large, are called tori, and when designs, had a kind of square pillars at the end of their walls, small, astragals. The tori have generally hollow spaces cut which they called antæ, and which sometimes projected a good round between each torus. This hollow is called & rundel, way from the principal front. They were also at the entrances scotia, or trochilus. to a building.

The shaft of the column is the round and even part extending Attics were a sort of low square pillars with their cornices, from the base to the capital. This part of the column is which originated in Athens, and were used in buildings to con- narrower at the top than at the bottom. Some architecta oeal the roof. These were ranged in a continued line, and would give the column a greater breadth at the third part of raised above the rest of the structure, in front of the roof, so its height than at the bottom of the shaft. There is no as to hide it entirely, presenting a new order, as it were, above instance of this being practised among the ancients. Others that of the building. The Greek atties are not now to be make the shaft a cylinder from the bottom to the third part of found among the ruins of Athens. Roman attics are seen in its height, and thus lessen it from this to the top; and some the remains

consider that of the trium

it should be phal arches,

gin to lessen and in the

from the bot piazza of

tom. The Nerva. In the

capital is the arch of Con

upper part of stantine, the

the column columns are

immediately surmounted

above the with pedes

shaft. tals, as high

The entabas the base

FACIA (2).

lature is the of the attic,

part of the upon which

order above are placed iso

the columns, lated statues.

and is conThere

posed of three various other

parts: (1) the ancient ruins

architrave or which exhibit

lower part; these attics,

(2) the frieze but they ap

middle pear to be of

part; and (3) different pro

the cornice or portions, some

upper part being nearly

The archi. one-half of

trave reprethe height of

sents a beam, the order.

and lies imThe moderns

mediately nake the

above the keight of the

capitals of the attics equal

columns: the to that of the

Greeks called entablature.

it epistylion A series of

The word ar. colamns, 8e

chitrave is deparate or conROMAN ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE.

rived partly nected, used

from in the support of an entablature, is called a colonnade. It re- | Greek, and partly from the Latin, being componnded of the ceives a specific name from the number of columns employed; as, Greek apxos (ar kos), chief, or principal, and the Latin trabs, a tetrastyle, when there are four, from the Greek tetpz (tet’-ra), beam. The frieze is the space between the architrave and the four, and otUnos (stylos), a column; hexastyle, when there are cornice. The cornice is composed of several mouldings, which six; octostyle, when eight; and decastyle, when ten. The project over each other and shelter the order from the rain. space between the columns is called the intercolumniation. The pedestal is cubical in form, and consists of three parts : There are five kinds of intercolumniation-namely, the areo (1) the base or foot, which stands on the area or pavement ; (2) style, or thinly set, where the columns are at the distance the die or middle part, which rests upon the base; and (3) the of four diameters of the column; the diastyle, when they cornice or wave, upon which the column is placed. Pedestala are at the distance of three diameters; the eustyle, when at appear to have been introduced into architecture after the loss a distance of two and a quarter; the systyle, when at two ; of political independence in Greece. In the early examples of and the pycnostyle, or thickly set, when at one diameter and Greek architecture, the columns are generally formed standing a half. of these, the custyle was most generally used by on the uppermost of two or three steps. When the Romans the ancient architects. Other names have been given to the elevated the floors of their temples, they were obliged to disconintercolumniation of the Doric order, according to the number tinue the erection of front stairs, becanse they occupied so much of the triglyphs placed over them, as monotriglyph, when there ground around the building, and to adopt the pedestal raised was one ; ditriglyph, when there were two, etc. Coupled, to a level with the top of the stairs, and projecting to the front grouped, or clustered columns appear not to have been used by of the steps which profiled it on all sides. Vitruvius makes no the ancients, with some apparent exceptions at Rome.

mention of pedestals, in treating of the Doric, Tuscan, and Every column, except the Doric, to which the Romans give Corinthian orders; and

in treating of the Ionic, speaks of the no base, is composed of a base, a shaft, and a capital. The pedestal as a part of the construction, but not of the order.





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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXXIII. the second hair-stroke in a larger loop than usual, and termi.

nating it below the line like a j; we have no letter like it GERMAN HANDWRITING.

The letter q is like g with this difference, that it is pointed In the present lesson in Penmanship we set before our readers below the line, and the hair-stroke is brought up from this examples of the large and small letters of the German written point to the right instead of to the left. The letter r is very alphabet on a larger scale than that in which are written the peculiar, and unlike any of ours. It consists first of an ele. specimens of German handwriting given in our Lessons in mentary leg; but the second hair-stroke, instead of being brought German, Vol. I., page 37.

up, is looped at the bottom contrary to the usual way, and then In learning these written characters, it will be useful to brought up and made to terminate in an elementary leg to the : observe that m is the leading letter of the small alphabet, right, of half the usual size. The letter s is very much like which is written, for the most part, in the angular style usually the letter f, with this difference, that it is hooked above the » adopted by ladies in our own country, and therefore called line like a shepherd's crook, instead of being looped; while the Ladies' or Angular Hand. Taking one leg of the m, which elementary leg, instead of crossing it in the middle, is placed we shall call the elementary leg, we find that it consists of a entirely to the left at this point. Another 8, which is also shown black middle-stroke, drawn in a slanting direction from right in the examples of the small letters given below, is made by to left, and two hair-strokes, one at the upper end of the thick forming a loop at bottom from right to left, and terminating in a



stroke, slanting downwards to the left, and the other at the hair-stroke above the line, with a hook from left to right, somelower end of the stroke, slanting upwards to the right. If you what like our written figure 6 made from the bottom to the top, make the last hair-stroke curved instead of straight when you or contrary to the usual way. The letter t is made in the form bring it up, and add a small turn or loop at the top, you have generally used for this letter in small-hand, terminating at the then made an o. If now, as soon as you have made the loop bottom in a straight, square stroke, instead of being turned of the o, you draw downwards from the very short hair-stroke upwards with a hair-stroke to the right. It is crossed by a of the loop another black stroke, and then turn a hair-stroke curved stroke from left to right. The letter u is exactly like upwards to the right, you have at last made an a. You make the letter n, with a cirolet or curve over it for the sake of disa b by adding to the o a large top-loop, as we do in making our tinction. own written b. You have learned to make c already, as it is The letter v is another peculiarly-formed letter. The first the leg of the m already described. If you take this same part of it is exactly like the letter r, but it terminates in a elementary leg, and carry up its second hair-stroke, as we do round black stroke curved towards the right, or hollow towards in one form of our written d, making this hair-stroke end in a the first part of the letter, and giving it somewhat the appear. loop or circlet at top, you have the letter d complete.

ance of an inverted a. Prefix to the letter v the elementary The letter e is peculiar; it is formed of the elementary leg leg so often mentioned, and you have the letter w. The letter

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without the second hair-stroke, to which is joined a shorter ele- x is formed like the letter p, with this difference, that the part mentary leg by a hair-stroke drawn from the former very near the below the line is turned to the right instead of to the left, and top of the black stroke. The letter f is very like our own written terminates in a small scroll. The letter y is like the letter v f; and is made by a long hair-stroke, looped above the line, and with its curve to the right extended below the line, and its haiiterminating below it in a long, straight stroke; the letter is stroke brought up like a j. The last letter, 2, is very like oui completed by crossing it in the middle by the elementary leg of own manuscript z, and consists of the elementary leg rounded, the m, made diagonally downwards from left to right, instead and the second hair-stroke replaced by a curved part below the of from right to left. To make the letter g, first make an o, line, like the letter j. The double consonants given in the and then from the short hair-stroke of the loop draw a hair- examples of letters in Vol. I., page 37, and which it is needless stroke downwards, making it terminate below the line like our to repeat here in our illustrations, are so manifestly formed of own written g. The letter h is exactly like the long s used the simple letters which enter into their composition, that it is in writing by ourselves; it seems to have consisted of the ele- unnecessary to make this lesson any longer by describing them. mentary leg with a loop of hair-stroke above and another below. It may just be observed that double s is a combination of the The letter i consists of the elementary leg with a dot above it; two different forms of s above described ; that the double f is if you forget the dot, it will be taken for a c. The letter j is like the double s without the elementary leg behind it, and that part added to o which makes it a g, with a dot above it. with a dash or flourish across it; and that in combination 2 is The letter k is so like our own that it can hardly be mistaken, written on the line, instead of below it, and in form resembling bat it has no loop at the top. The letter 1 is just the letter b our manuscript capital letter B. without the small final loop. The letter m has been described ; In the German handwriting, as regards the capital letters, the letter n consists of two legs of the letter m; the letter o there are three elementary legs, so to speak, from which all the has also been described.

letters may be formed. The first is the initial leg of the capital The letter p is formed of the elementary leg by turning round letter M, which is not like any of our manuscript capitals, but

rather like that of a small m enlarged into a capital with loops singular. Learn both the contracted and the uncontracted at bottom, as employed often by ourselves when writing Mr., forms I am about to give of d, ý oaons, clear, to capes, and or Mrs., or Messrs. It consists of an oval loop commencing Ý Tpimpns, a trireme, or galley with three banks of rowers. with a hair-stroke on the left, becoming thick and curved as it


Plural. turns round from left to right, and becoming again a hair-stroke Nom. o, n oanns,

το σαφες ; (σαφε-ες) σαφείς, (σαφεα) σαφή. in the same direction as before, but lower, in order to form the

Gen. (σαφεος) σαφούς; (σαφε-ων) σαφών. complete loop. The second is the body of the letter I, which


(σαφε-ϊ) σαφεί; σαφεσι. . is the same in German as in English handwriting ; and the

Acc. (σαφε-α) σαφή, σαφες ; (σαφε-ας) σαφείς, (σαφε-α)σαφή. third is like the ordinary pot-hooks of our text-hand, tapered at

Voo. σαφες, , σαφες; (σαφε-ες) σαφείς, (σαφε-a) σαφή. the commencement of their formation. The capital letter A is formed of the first elementary leg

Dual. inverted, and the third added to it with a small loop joining the

N.A.V. σαφε-€, σαφη.

G.D. two together. It is, in fact, the small a enlarged, with round

σαφε-οιν, σαφούν. instead of angular turns at top and bottom. The capital letter


Plural. B is formed of the second elementary leg, with a loop at top Nom.

η τριηρης,

(τριηρε-ες) τριηρεις. and bottom, the whole being made like our capital writing letter Gen. (τριηρε-ος) τριηρους, τριηρε-ων and τριηρων. L, with a small loop terminating the last hair-stroke exactly Dat. (τριηρε-1) τριηρει, τριηρε-σι. like our small writing b. The letter C is exactly like our letter Aco.

(τριηρε-α) τριηρη, (τριηρε-ας) τριηρεις. L in writing, with a small hook placed at the top loop. The Voo.


(τριηρε-ες) τριηρεις. letter D is more like the form 9 of the Greek letter th, or theta,

Dual. than anything we know. It scarcely deserves the name of a

N.A.V. τριηρε-€ and τριηρη. letter, being a mere flourish of the pen. The letter E is like

G.D. our manuscript C with its lower half written below the line,

τριηρε-οιν and τριηρούν. and crossed by a curve, indicating the separation of the loop

I subjoin the declension of the proper names Ewxpatris, and the scroll. The letter F is the second elementary leg with Socrates, and Pepidens, Pericles ; as strictly proper names, they a small hook at the top, and crossed in the middle with a fine are found only in the singular, hair-stroke. The letter G is formed of the first elementary leg Nom. Σωκρατης. . (Περικλεης) Περικλής. . inverted, with the second attached to it by a small loop at the Gen. Σωκρατους. . (Περικλεε-ος) Περικλεους. top, and lengthened below the line like our own G. It is, in Dat. Σωκρατει. . (Περικλεε-ϊ) (Περικλεει) Περικλεί. fact, like the small letter g enlarged, with the angular turn of Acc. Σωκρατη. . (Περικλεε-α) Περικλεά. its elementary leg rounded. The letter H is like our capital Voc. Σωκρατες. (Περικλεες) Περικλεις. . Ginverted, with a small loop between the top and bottom parts Mark the contraction in the dual of τριηρεε into τριηρη, and of it. The letters I and J are like our own letters of similar not into the usual form in -el. name, sound, and position in the alphabet. The letter K is In adjectives in -NS, -ES, when these terminations are preceded like our R badly shaped, and having a small hook at the top of" by a vowel, ea is commonly contracted into ă, as in the proper the middle stroke. The letter L is exactly like our own. The noun IIepukleā, and not into n, as in capra, caoñ; for example, letter M consists of the first elementary leg doubled, and the axlens, unrenowned, makes ardca into akarā, in the masculine third attached to the second by a small hook at the top. The and feminine accusative singular, and in the neuter nomina. letter N is of the same form, excepting that the first leg is not tive, accusative, and vocative; so vying forms vylā. doubled. The letter O is the first part of the letter A, with Proper names of this termination, as well as Apns, Mars, in a small loop at top.

the accusative singular, follow the first as well as the third The letter P is very like the P used by us in writing the

declension, and are therefore denominated heteroclite, (that is word per, in per cent., per pound, etc., only the top is round,

of different declensions) ; accordingly we have both Ewkpain and and the final loop is more marked. The letter Q is like the

Ewepatny. But in those ending in -alns, the accusative in -9v letter G, with the bottom sharpened, and the hair-stroke from

is not Attic, and therefore not allowable. it turned the contrary way; It is sometines made like the

VOCABULARY. letter O, with a hook attached to it at the bottom. The letter R is very like onr own, only its first part consists of the first Αισχρος, ,


-οι, Δουλεια, -ας, ή, sla. Ποταμος, -ου, ο, 2 elementary leg. The letter S consists of the first elementary

very, servitude.

river. leg, terminating in a small hook or curve at top. The letter T Ακρατης, -ες, immo- Ελεαιρω, I pity. Σοφιστης, -ου, ο, και consists of the letter I terminated squarely at the bottom, and


'Elwồns, -eç, marshy. sophist. near that point crossed by the elementary leg of the small

Αληθης, ,

-ES, true, Επαμεινωνδας, -ου, ό, Σοφοκλής, -ους, ό, alphabet from left to right. The letter U consists of a double


Epaminodas. Sophocles. pot-hook, to which is attached the third elementary leg by a

Αναξαγορας, -ου, ο, Ηρακλής,

, Σωτηρια, ας, ή, εalAnaxagoras.

Hercules. small loop at top. The letters V and W are only the letters

vation. of the small alphabet enlarged, with the angular torns rounded Arvxns, •ES, unfor. Ivềun, , India. Τοπος, -ου, ο, και

tunate. like the first two in the letter M. The letter X is exactly like

Kulapos, ov,ó, a reed. place. our own. The letters Y and Z are like the small letters y

Αφανης, -ες, αnknown, Ομιλια, 1 inter. Tpaypčia, -as,o,traand z enlarged, with their angular turns rounded.

course (with dat.) gedy.


1. Αί Σοφοκλεους τραγωδιαι καλαι εισιν. 2. Τον Σωκρατη επι THIRD DECLENSION (continued).

τη σοφια θαυμαζομεν. 3. Σωκρατει πολλοι μαθηται εισιν. 4. Η

Ινδικη παρα τε τους ποταμους και τους έλωδεις τοπους φερει I must now direct your attention to nouns ending in -9S, ES; •WS καλαμους πολλους. 5. Λεγε αει τα αληθη, ω παι. 6. Αναξαγορος, (gen.-wos),-wç and .w (gen. -ooc), and in-as (gen. -aos),-os (gen.

ο σοφιστης, διδασκαλος ην Περικλεους. 7. Ω Ηρακλεις, τους -eos). The stem of these words ends in o; the o remains at

ατυχεσι σωτηριαν παρεχε. 8. Επαμεινωνδας πατρος ην αφανούς. the end and before a consonant, but disappears in the middle

9. Ελεαιρε τον ατυχή ανθρωπον. 10. Ορεγεσθε, ω νεανια, αληθων between two vowels. In the dative plural one σ disappears; λογων. 11. Οι ακρατείς αισχραν δουλειαν δουλευουσιν. for example, ó Onç, a jackal, toig Ow.oi. Of these words, let'us consider first those which end in ons,

EXERCISE 36.- ENGLISH-GREEK. The terminations -ns (m. and f.), -ES (v.), beloog only to 1. Socrates had (in Greek, to Socrates was) wonderful wisdom. adjectives, and to proper names terminating in adjective forms 2. Pity unfortunate men. 3. We pity unfortunate men. 4. in -νης, -λης, γενης, -κρατης, -μηδης, -πειθης, -σθενης, and (-κλεης) | Many youths were disciples of Socrates. 5. Socrates had (in alñs. The neuter presents the pure stem.

Greek, to Socrates was) much wisdom. 6. They admire the The words of this class suffer contraction in all the cases, wisdom of Socrates. 7. The immoderate

(man) serves a shamefal except the nominative and vocative singular, and the dative servitude. 8. We admire the beautiful tragedies of Sophocles. plural, after dropping the o. The words ending in - dens being 9. True words are believed. 10. I pity the life of immoderate contracted into a dis, again undergo contraction in the dative men. 11. Have not intercourse with immoderate men.





a hero.



η ηχω,

Ν.Α.V. ηχω.

G.D. ηχοιν.

I next take up words in -ws (gen. -wos); and in ws and -w the they may be contracted in the same manner; kepas follows (gen. -oos=-ous). The terminating o belongs to the stem. And kpeas throughout, but with the contracted forms. It has also first -ως (gen. -ωος); for example, ο, ή θως, ο jackal, and ο ήρως, | regular forms with τ; thus, κερας, κερατος, and κερως και κερατι

and kepa, etc.; tepas, however, has the two forms only in the Singular. Plural. Singular. . Plural. plural, the contracted are the more common-thus, τερά, τερών. Nom. , ή θως, θω-ες.

ο ήρως,

Gen. θω-ος, θω-ων. ήρω-ος, ήρω-ων.

•ας, ή, Ευεξια (ευ & εχω),-ας, Σαλπιγξ, -ιγγος, ή, ήρω-ι, ηρω-σι.

Ανδρεια, Acc. θω-α, θω-ας. ηρω-α αnd ήρω, ήρω-ας αnd ήρως.


ή, well-being, weal. a trumpet. Voc.

-ης, θω-ς. ήρως,


Διατροφη, ή, Θεμελιον, -ου, τo, a Σημαινω, I give a

sign (σημα, a sign), Dual,

Δυσκολος, -ον, dis-| Πεμπω, I send. I signify. Ν.Α.Υ. θω-. G.D. θω-οιν Ν.Α.V. ηρω-6. G.D. ήρω-οιν. satisfied, grum- Προβατον, -ου, το, ο Υπαρχω, I exist.

bling, hard.
sheep. .

Φαρμακον (whence I also give specimens of nouns in -ws and -w (gen. -005=.


Ελαφος, -ου, ή, These are all feminine. The ending -ws, in ordinary speech, is

8 Προτρεπω, I turn to

pharmacy), -ου, το, stag.

wards, exhort, en. medicine, , means preserved only in the substantive aidws, modesty, sense of shame;


of healing. . the dual and plural are formed according to the termination -os of the second declension : thus, αιδοι, ηχοι, κ. τ. λ. Here follow

EXERCISE 39,--GREEK-ENGLISH. the forms of us aidws, modesty, respect, and i nxw, echo.

1. Οι θεοι τοις ανθρωποις τερα πεμπουσιν.

2. Των εν γήρα Singular, Plural.

Singular. Plural. κακων φαρμακον ο θανατος εστιν. 3. Τα γερα τους στρατιωτας εις Nom. ή αιδως, αιδοι.

ανδρειαν προτρεπει. 4. Εξ αιγων και προβατων γαλα και κρεα

ήχοι. Gen. (αιδο-ος) αιδούς, αιδων. (ηχο-ος) ηχούς, ηχων.

προς διατροφην υπαρχει. 5. Κερασι και σαλπιγξιν οι στρατιωται Dat. (αιδο-ϊ) αιδοί,

7. Καλου γήρως αιδοις. (ηγo-i) ηχοι,

6. Ποικιλων κρεών γευομεθα. σημαινουσιν.

ηχοις. Aco. (αιδο-α) αιδώ, αιδους. (::::ο-α) ηχώ,

θεμελιoν εν παισιν εστιν ή του σωματος ευεξια. 8. Αι ελαφοι

ηχους. Voc. (αιδο-ϊ) αιδοί, αιδου

(χω-7) ηχοι,

κερα εχουσιν. 9. Δυσκολος και εν γηρα βιος (εο. εστιν).

ήχοι. Trial.

EXERCISE 40.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Ν.Α.Υ. αιδω. G.D. αιδοιν.

1. Prodigies are sent by (ÚTo with gen.) the gods to men, VOCABULARY.

2. Soldiers are delighted with horns and trumpets. 3. We

taste milk and flesh. 4. Death puts an end to (anoAvei) the Βλεπω, I see. Κλειω, ή, the Muse Προσβλεπω,I lookat. | evils of old age. 5. The king sends presents to the soldiors. Topyw, n, the Gorgon. Clio.

Προσειμι, I am pre- | 6. Presents encourage soldiers. 7. Soldiers are encouraged by Δμως, o, a slave. Λυπηρος, α,


sent, I am near, (dat.) presents. Epatw, 1, Erato, one sad.

at, belong to. of the Muses. Λυρικος, , -ον, lyric. Προσωπον, -ου, το, και

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-X. Ευεστω, ή, good con- Λυσιας, -ου, και, Lysias. face, countenance. dition.

EXERCISE 31.–GREEK-ENGLISH. Πατρως,,an uncle on Σεβας, το (only with “Ιστοριογραφος, -ου, the father's side. the nom. and acc.),

1. All men have not the same mind. 2. We masticate our food

with our teeth. d, an historian. Πειθω, ή, power of

3. Dolphins are man-loving (animals). 4. It is the reverence.

5. Many districts Κηπος,-ου,δ, agarden persuasion. | Vevow, I lie, deceive. part of a good man to bear all evils with courage.

of Lybia abound in ivory. 6. All people hate a loquacious man. 7. EXERCISE 37.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

Once the giants had a fight with the gods. 8. We rejoice in the rays

of the sun. 9. It is the office of the nostrils to smell. 1. “Όμηρος αδει πολλους ήρωας (or ηρως). 2. Την των ηρωων αρετην θαυμαζομεν. 3. Οι δμωες βιον λυπηρoν αγoυσιν. 4. Ο

EXERCISE 32.- ENGLISH-GREEK. του πατρωος κηπος καλος εστιν. 5. Ορεγου, ω παι, της αιδους. 1. “Ημιν εστιν ελεφας. 2. Εν χωραις της Λιβυης ο ελεφας γιγνεται. 3. Ας 6. Αιδως αγαθοις ανδρασιν έπεται. 7. Λυσιαν επι τη πειθοι και του ήλιου ακτινες τους ποιμενας τερπουσι. 4. Οι αδελφοι τε και αι αδελφοι χαριτι θαυμαζομεν. 8. Τη αιδοι προσεστι το σεβας. 9. Μη | χαιρoυσιν εν ταις ακτισι του ήλιου. 5. Η αδελφη εστι χαλη. 6. Θαυμαζομεν προσβλεπε το Γοργούς προσωπον. 10. Ω Ηχοί, ψευδεις πολλακις τον καλον τον ελεφαντα. 7. Πολλοι ελεφαντες εισιν εν τη Λιβυη. 8. Οδοντων τους ανθρωπους. 11. Παντες ορεγονται ευεστους. 12. Πρεπει | εστιν εργον λεαινειν το βρωμα. 9. Παντος εστι σεβειν το θείον. 10. Τοις

θεοις ποτε ην πολεμος προς τους γιγαντας. παιδι και νεανια αιδώ εχειν. 13. Κλειω και Ερατω Μουσαι εισιν.


1. Kings have a care for their subjects. 2. The flock follows its 1. Homer sings (of) the hero Achilles. 2. The hero Achilles shepherd. 3. Hector is slaughtered by Achilles. 4. The prieste is sung by Homer. 3. The bravery of the hero is wonderful. sacrifice oxen to the gods. 5. Cyrus was the son of good parents. A We admire the bravery of heroes. 5. Slaves have (say, to 6. The ungrateful dishonour their parents. 7. My son, obey your the slaves is) a sad life. 6. The uncle has (say, to the uncle is) parents. 8. Telemachus was the son of Ulysses. 9. Be willing to fine garden. 7. All rejoice at their (the) good condition. 8. honour your parents beforo everything. 10. The idle tales of old women

11. You rule gloriously, o king. 12. Idmire, O youth, with (ueta and gen.) modesty the deeds of wear away (weary) the ears. ood men.

Old women are very talkative. 13. Shepherds drive the flock of cattle 9. By (dat.) the echo we are often deceived.

to pasture. 14. Homer likens the eyes of Juno to those of an ox.

16. We admire Cyrus, the Nouns in -as and -aos are declined as follows. Only a few 15. Patroclus was the friend of Achilles. enters belong to this head. The terminating o belongs to the king of the Persians, because of his virtue as well as his wisdom. το σελας, splendour και το κρεας, lesh.

Singular. .

1. Αί αγελαι επονται τα νομεί. 2. Ο αναξ εχει επιμελειαν του πολιτου,

3. Τα ωτα τειρεται ληρη των γραων. 4. Η γρανς εστι πολυλογος. 5. Ο Ν.Α.Υ. 10 σελας.

πoιμην αγει την αγελην των βοων προς την πολιν. 6. Βο€ς θυονται τοις θεοις Gen. σελα-0s. (κρεα-) κρεως.

υπο των ιερεων. 7. Οι γονεις στεργονται υπό των τεκνων. 8. Αγαθου εστι Dat. σελα-ϊ and σελα. (κρεα-ι, κρεα.

ποιμενος εχειν επιμελειαν των αγελων. Plural. Ν.Α.Υ. σελα-α aud σελα. (κρεα-α) κρεα. Gen. σελα-ων. (κρεα-ων) κρεών.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXIV. Dat. σελα-σι. (κρεα-σι)

EUROPE (continued).

In our present lesson, with a page map of the countries of N.A.V. σελα-€.

(κρεα-6) κρεα.

Southern and Central Europe, we give in a tabular form many G.D. σελα-Οιν. (κρεα-οιν) κρεών.

useful facts relating to the most important of the independent After gelas decline to deras, a goblet; after kpeas decline states of Europe. The first table, as will be seen, exhibits the mpas, old age, and to repas, a present. With these two capitals of these states with the rivers, etc., on which they stand, t may be connected two nouns whose stem ends in r-namely, the area and population of each, and the pumber of inhabitants Tepas, & prodigy, and to kepas, a horn, since after dropping to every square mile.

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το κρέας.

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