Imágenes de páginas


claim for the Crustaceans a certain kind of superiority for them;

but we find in the class Insecta the greatest development of INSECTA.

those peculiar excellences for which the whole articulate branch The remaining three classes of the articulated animals which is noted. The great characteristic of the Articulates is their we have yet to describe-namely, the Crustacea, Arachnida, external skeleton, and the adaptation of this to the purposes of and Insecta—are collateral groups. Each has occupied the locomotion is, so to speak, the aim of this sub-kingdom. Other highest position in the estimation of different classifiers. Each | organs and systems of organs are elaborated in an unsteady

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Refs. to Nos. in Figs.—III. 1, labrum, or upper lip; 2, 2, roots of the mandibles ; 3, 3, roots of the maxillæ ; 4, mandibles and maxillæ com

bined into a piercer; 5, antennæ ; 6, 6, eyes. IV. 1, sophagus ; 2, gizzard ; 3, stomach ; 4, entrance of the secreting organs; 5, sinall intestine; 6, large intestine ; 7, ovaries ; 8, spermotheca ; 9, accessory glands ; 10, common cloaca. V. 1, esophagus; 2, crop; 3, stomach ; 4, entrance of the secreting organs; 5, small intestine; 6, large intestine ; 7, common cloaca; 8, ganglionic chain.

possesses forms whose simplicity of organism and general in- and fluctuating manner, sometimes cppearing to be degraded feriority of structure make the comparison of them with the or altogether altering their type, as we proceed from one order highest members of the other groups, with any idea of rivalry, to another; but the perfection of the external investment, and its absurd. Each class, too, culminates in organisms whose varied better adaptation to the most efficient kind of locomotion, is parts and elaborateness of detail seem to place them at an ele- seen in every upward step we make in our classification. And vation beyond which it seems impossible to mount. In many it is in the class Insecta we find such marvellous finish and respects, as in their respiratory and circulatory systems, the efficiency in this part of the organism as to fill not only the spiders seem to show an advance upon the Insecta ; while their naturalist, but even the casual observer, with wonder. The larger size and the greater complexity of their nutritive organs strength and beauty of the elegant body and sculptured limbs-


o esplendour of | suggest the idea that it consists of but one ring, corresponding

decaler expressed in with one annulus of a worm, and some have thought this was

ar0 all so exqui- really the case. Others, however, believe, and apparently with istig wird all. With man, reason, that short as it is in its fore and aft or axial diamoter, it

wa seems to be incon. nevertheless is compounded of at least six rings, each of which

Vistus is it with the Creator. has its pair of appendages. Thus, the first bears the eyes; the mas be the variety while the second, the feelers; the third, the undivided labrum ; the Emma ägnater number of species fourth, the maxillæ ; the fifth, the mandibles; and the sith, så put together. One order of the more or less split and complex labram. This view may

eos than 80,000 different kinds appear fanciful, especially when tho large rounded areas of Leorded by naturalists; and yet so pavement-like eyes are spoken of as appondages or limbs ; bot

for these hiding and burrowing if we follow the comparison to the almost precisely similar orgus what it would not be a matter of sur. in crustaceans, where they are sometimes cot on long and jointed wat duble the number of known species. stalks, it ceases to be so. 2 ts first, because they occupy a central The thorax, although it forms a more or less globular or i odusely on to the class Myriapoda, that cubical box, which lodges the muscles which ply the legs aná

have included theso latter in the class. The wings, plainly consists of three rings or segments. Tnis is appa****, show so marked a difference to the insects rent, not only on account of the number of appendages, but also,

aber of rings, in the similarity of theso to one on examination, the plates of which it is composed show the Du whole of them being furnished with limbs, and lines of junction by sutures on the outside ; while on the inside

lug any traces of wings, that they may be well the edges of these are doubled in so as to form ridges, to which

i while tho name Insecta, or notched animals, is the muscles are attached. To the first segment, or prothoras, in the true hexapod (six-legged) order.

are attached a pair of legs. They spring from below, and in fier must have seen insects so often that it seems are extended outwards. The second segment, or mesothorus, wwwus to describe their general form and constant pecu- has a pair of legs below, and generally a pair of wings, spring. berriak; yet we are so often accustomed to see without ex. ing from the back.

The hind segment, or metathoras, has ****nx and to examine without noting, that perhaps the fact the same limbs as the preceding one.

The legs are all that s tly or a gnat has six legs may be now to some persons jointed, the joints being of beautiful structure. The limb who have been plagued by these creatures all their summers. starts from a movable plate wedged in between the fixed plates The body, then, of a typical insect in its final and perfect of the body; this is called the coxa. Then comes a small stato consists of three well-defined divisions, called (beginning joint which assists in allowing the limb to be rotated, and is from the front) the head, the thorax (chest), and abdomen. So called the trochanter. Beyond this is the femur, and to its deep is the notoh which divides them from one another, and end is attached, by a joint which only permits of an up and so small is the stalk or connection which unites them in bees down movement, the usually long serrated or spined tibis and flies, that the divisions of the bodies of these insects A string of five beaded joints forms the foot, the last of which cannot have escaped notice. In beetles and butterflies, the is furnished with two curved hooks to lay hold on the minuta divisions, though not quite so marked, are evident enough, but roughnesses in the surface over which the insect crawls. Besides in such insects as crickets and plant-bugs they are traced with the claws, there are often two or three cushions of stiff hair, some difficulty. To the head is deputed the faculty of sensation which, aided by a sticky secretion, are very good sustainers of and prehension; to the thorax the office of locomotion; while the light and strong creatures when they walk on the ceiling of almost all the functions of organic life, such as digestion and

This description applies to the limb when most devereproduction, are delegated to the abdomen. The head is loped, as there is a vast variety in the composition of the limbs variously shaped, commonly resembling a disc, and presenting of insects. The legs are used not only for walking, but also for a flattened but still convex surface forwards, on the expanse of cleaning the body, the antennæ, and the wings. They are some which are situated two antennæ or feelers. These are almost times furnished with curious brushes and combs for effecting constantly present, but their form is so modified in different this purpose. The use which the working bee makes of its insects, that no general description can be given of them. hind legs-namely, to store lumps of wax upon them, and so to Usually they are jointed, but the numbers of the joints, their carry a supply of this substance to its hive—will also occur to relation, size, and shape, and all connected with them, are so all bee-keepers. different in different families, that they form an important The reader will probably wonder why the wings have not means of distinguishing one family from the other. The been spoken of as appendages to the body-rings. He will ask, mouth opens on the bottom part of the edge of the disc, whilo if the number of so-called appendages is made to determine the the large complex eyes cover the lateral edges, and extend number of rings of which the body is composed, why the wings often both in front and to the middle lino at the top of tho do not count for limbs whereby to determine the number of head. When this is not tho case, it is no uncommon thing for the annuli of the thorax ? A careful comparison of these three simple eyes to be placed on the very apex of the head, organs throughout the class, with their mode of development in the form of a triangle. These, however, are by no means has led naturalists to suppose that tho wings are modified gilla constant in all insects. The organs which, standing round tho corresponding to the gill covers of crustaccans, and not with mouth, minister to all the accessory functions of gaining and the limbs of these. If this correspondence be genuine, it is : swallowing food, have, though very diverse in shape, been har- curious instance of how the same organ may have very different monised by the labours of entomologists so as to represent one uses in different animals. The skin or integument of insecte plan. There is in front the labrum, or upper lip, then two consists essentially of three layers. The outermost is a thin

, pairs of jaws, one

pair behind the other, but each single jaw transparent membrano; beneath this is the hard, horny-colored playing from the side to meet its fellow in the miq-line. layer, to the inside of which the live vascular skin is applied. Behind these is the under lip, which is sometimes very com- The wing consists of an extension oî the outer layer into a long plex, being split into three or five divisions. Additional bag, the two sides of which are smoothed down and applied to feelers like the antennæ, but usually smaller and of fewer one another so as to form one sheet, while this is strengthened joints, are often placed both on the hind pair of jaws and the and kept in shape by a framework of stiff fibres derived from lower lip. When the mouth organs are spoken of as lips and the second layer. Derivatives from the blood system and the lateral jaws, it must be remembered that theso organs are so respiratory system in some instances enter the fibres, but are much modified that in some insects the terms seem hardly not conveyed into the membranous part of the wing, so that the applicable. Thus, a reference to the illustration of the head torn wing of an insect is never repaired. The pattern of the of that insect which is found too commonly in our metropolis framework of fibres, or nervures, as thoy are called, is well will show that the four jaws, though springing from separate worthy of study, not only because it is beautiful and made roots, are united to fora a single style-like puncturing appa- much use of in describing and distinguishing insects, but on ratus, and this is enclosed in the lower lip, which is a tube account of its wonderful adaptation to the requirements of the through which juices are sucked.

wing, furnishing strength and resistance where strength and The head is so consolidated that it would at first sight resistance are required. The wings are very variously devo

a room.

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loped. The fore wings are the most constant and generally the the irritation caused would have been cqually disturbing to the largest, bat in one family (Strepsiptera) they are rudimentary, drinking insect and the victim of its attack. and in another largo order (Coleoptera) they are converted into One of the greatest peculiarities of insects-though, as we hard covers for the hind wings, and never employed in flight. have seen, the apparatus is not confined to them—is the tracheo. The hind wings, though largely developed in the beetle and system. In insects the necessary process of the aëration of the grasshopper, and quite as large as the foro wings in dragon-flies, blood is not accomplished through a soft membranous skin, for are often only adjuncts to tho fore wings, being much smaller this in them is hard and dry; nor by protrusions of the circu. than these, and fastened to them or dissevered from them as tho latory system, so as to oxpose the contained blood to the influence insect wills. Thero are various and elaborate contrivances by of the surrounding medium ; nor even by setting apart some inwhich this junction of the hind wings to the fore ones is effected in ternal cavity for the process; but the air is introduced and sent insects. In flies, the hind wings are reduced to little sticks with by small dividing and sub-dividing vessels into every organ of the knobs at the end, and why they should be retained at all in this body, and so the function of respiration is diffused through all form is a puzzle to entomologists. The abdomen or hind division parts. The entrance of the air to the body is not through the of the body is elongated, and tapering towards the end. It con mouth, as in vertebrate animals, but through a number of oval sists of nine segments, but the last two or three or four are often holes in the sides of the body. As a rule, it might be said that reduced in size, and applied, not to contain the viscera, but to there are a pair of these to each segment of the body, but they purposes of reproduction, defence, etc. Thus, in the bee, the are by no means always present in every segment. These ova) sting consists of two modified rings, and the ovipositor of the holes are called spiracles, or breathing pores. They are well seen saw-fly is of the same nature. The rings of the abdomen are in the illustrations of the caterpillar and chrysalis of the privet not firmly applied to one another along their edges, as is the hawk-moth. Their presence in the perfect moth would be oba case with the rings of the thorax, but tho front one overlaps the scured by the thick coating of scales and hairs, even if the sid hind ones, and these can be retracted ono into the other like the view were given. These orifices need some protection, especially joints of a telescope. The muscles running from one ring to at certain times, and thus they are often placed in situations another, which retract tho hinder joints into thoso before them, where they cannot readily be seen. In the abdomen of the are so elastic, and they originate so far forward into the front beetle they are often placed under tho deck-like fore-wings. In segment that the whole abdomen may often be at one time the bees and wasps they are found in the side-pieces, which doubly as long as at another time. This looseness in the joint- are covered by the back and belly-plates of the rings. Besides ing is not only found to be very' useful to the insect in these methods of protection, they are often defended by a thick order to enable it to bend that part of the body, and so apply fringing of hair, or by plates, or by membrane. These organs the tail organs as the insect requires, but also it allows the in- at the spiracles are sometimes vibratile, and the humming of ternal organs to be distended without inconvenience; and in insects is sometimes thus caused. many of the most active insects a rhythmical breathing is In the sketch of the tracheal system of a species of parasite observed, caused by the shortening and elongating of this part given in the picture, it will be seen that each spiracle has a little of the body.

globular enlargement below it, and that canals lead from these The food-canal of insects is usually not very long or very to join a large lateral canal which runs down the side of the complex. From the mouth a narrow throat runs right through body, uniting with its fellow both before and behind. From to the abdomen, thus interfering as little as possiblo with tho certain parts of this similar vessels are given off which run to play of the muscles of that part. When it has arrived at that the more important parts of the body, and there break up into division of the body, it enlarges into a bulb or crop, which is branches. In this creature the tracheal system is of the simplest sometimes, as in bees, an enlargement lying in the track of tho kind, but in the generality of insects it is very complex, the two canal, and sometimes a bag or reservoir connected with the lateral canals sending off cross branches, while from all parts throat by a narrow duct which enters sideways into the canal. of the main canals branches spring, and by dividing and subBelow this, or occupying its place when it is absent, a gizzard is dividing, run into all the organs, so that no small portion of the often found, whose horny internal longitudinal ridges grind the viscera, whether taken from the nervous or any other system, food. Below this is the true stomach-a long back with trans- can bo examined under a microscope without revealing some of

les, in the folds of which secreting glands are found. hese ve ls. Indeed, it would seem that, united with he At the lower end of this, a number of long tubes enter. Six of function of respiration, they perform the additional one of these are seen in the beetle in the illustration, and in the beo sustaining the internal organs. there are a large number. These long tubes, which lie in the It may be asked, how can these minute vessels be distin." body cavity tangled and twisted among the other organs, com- guished from others when under a microscope ? This is easily mence in blind ends. Their function has been much disputed, done on account of the peculiarity of their structure. Each some thinking them organs of secretion, and others organs of tube consists of two thin membranes, with a spiral thread lying excretion—that is, some suppose their products are needful for between them. The membranes are transparent, and the closely the better digestion of the food, while others think it worthless coiled thread within them looks like the wire spring of a bell. The and injurious if not thus got rid off. The first-named function use of these spiral threads is manifest. The air tubes must be is performed by the liver in vertebrates, and the last-named kept open in order that respiration may be carried on, and yet by the kidney. The names of these organs have, therefore, been the movement of the body, or any pressure, is liable to close applied to these blind tubes by the advocates of the respective them. These elastic coils, therefore, maintain the tube, and by view3. Such names are liable to confuse tho reader, as there heir resiliency open it when it has been closed by pressure. can be no correspondence between organs taken from different The nervous system is quite after the type of all Articulates, sub-kingdoms, so far as structure is concerned. Hence, a new which we have described elsewhere. name has been applied to them, which is not liable to mislead, One of the most striking and interesting of phenomena in that of Malpighian vessels. Below the entrance of these vessels, nature is the transformation at certain stages of the developthe alimentary canal contracts, and has been called the small ment of insects. Such transformations are not confined to this intestine. At the end of this is a valve which prevents an class, but they were first noted in it, and are better defined and entrance of matter from behind. Beyond the valvo is the large studied in insects than in any other class. Most animals have intestine, which sometimes dilates into a chamber into which a protective epidermis, which, being extra-vascular, is dead or the reproductive products and the poison from the poison-bag, dying. Some have this constantly wearing off, while others where it exists, empty themselves. The orifice of exit is always retain it for a time, and slough it off at one act. Many creatures at the extremo end of the animal. It should have beon men- also, during growth, go through considerable change in the protioned that into the mouth of the @sophagus two or more portion and structure these parts. Now, in insects, since the salivary glands usually empty themselves. These aro often more whole form of the animal is dependent on the external integu. or less attached to the sides of the canal, but are sometimes ment, and the whole of this is thrown of together, whilo at free and floating in the juices of the body. Sometimes the liquid the same time extreme changes have gone on in the internal secreted by these is very pungent and irritating, thongh why it structure, we have, as a result, periodical changes of so radical should be so it is difficult to conjectnre, unless, by being poured a character that they are called metamorphoses. These changes into the wound made by the compound lancet, it causes a flow are, however, very different in different insects. In all there is of blood to that part. Otherwise, cne would have supposed that a growing state, in which they eat enormously. This state is


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called the larva. Then there is a state of change, in which the Die Engʻländer suchten mit aller The English sought with all forms of the organs of the perfect insect are being developed : Macht die D'berherrschaft in Ame's (their) power to obtain the e.g., the wings grow, and the body is transformed into a shape rifa zu gewin'nen.

supremacy in America. convenient for flight. This is called the pupa state. Lastly, Durch ein solches Betra'gen muß By such conduct, a breach be there is the perfect state, in which the insect never grows nor nothwen'diger Weise ein Bruch tween the two friends must changes, and in which its most serious business seems to be zwischen beiden Freunden entste'hen. necessarily arise. the reproduction of its kind. In this state it is called the Gr bindet sich an keine beson'deren He confines himself to no par. imago.

Stunden, sondern ar'beitet nad ticular hours, but works &c. The modifications the method of metamorphosis con- Muße.

cording to (his) leisure. sist in the condition of the insect in the second or pupa state. In butterflies and flies, it has no mouth nor organs of locomotion,

EXERCISE 126. and is inverted in a coffin-like box, so that its external appear- 1. Die Franzosen eroberten Spanien mit Gewalt der Waffen. 2. 1x ance is quite unlike that of the perfect insect. In bees and Schneelawinen in der Schweiz stürzen oft mit furchtbarer Gewalt in die beetles the pupa has already taken on the form of the perfect Thaler. 3. Die Einwohner dieses Landes schleppt man gewaltium bin insect, and the limbs are detached from the body, but it is quite weg. 4. Mit aller Macht fonnte er nichts ausrichten. 5. Die Griechen quiescent, while in grasshoppers and plant-bugs the three states vertheidigten sich mit aller Macht gegen die Perser. 6. Der Schwachete are much alike. The only thing which distinguishes the different muß nothwendiger Weise dem Starteren gehorchen,

7. Beinahe gang states of these latter from one another is the growth of the Asien gehorchte dem Willen der Römer. 8. Um sein Leben zu fristen, mußte wings during the pupa state. At the top of the illustration er nothwendiger Weise arbeiten. 9. Themistoclet suchte nothgerrungener the three states of a sphinx-moth, called the privet hawk-moth, Wcise eine Zufluchtsstätte am persisden Hofe. 10. Mein Freund vertraute are represented. The larva, or caterpillar, is holding its head mir gestern Abend unter vier Augen ein wichtiges Geheimniß an. 11. aloft after its peculiar manner, from which habit it derived the | Nadidem die Schule aus war, spielten die Kinder unter den Blumen name of sphinx. On the left hand there is a representation of des Gartens. 12. Alle Anwesenden fleiteten sich nach der Mete box two cells, one of which contains a wasp larva, which is fed in its siebenzehn hundert noun und achtzig. 13. Wegen seiner Amtsgesifte cell by the workers. Another cell contains a papa wasp, which hatte er wenig Muße zu Vergnügungen übrig. 14. Sốiller konnte sich is sealed up to protect it while it no longer eats. On the side a nun nach Muße in Mannheim literarischen Beschäftigungen witmen, 15. perfect insect is represented as climbing up the comb.

Ich habe aus Versehen einen andern Regenschirm mitgenommen. 16. In a future lesson we propose to give some account of the Irrungen entstehen aus Mißverständnissen und Versehen. 17. Glüdlicher olassification of insects.

Weise fonnte er sich vermittelst seines Passes legitimiren. 18. Glüdliche
Weise hatte ich noch zur rechten Zeit die Gefahr entdect. 19. Glüdliga

Weise traf ich ihn auf der Straße. 20. Es ist bei dieser großen geurs

brunst glädlicher Weise tein Menschenleben verunglüdt. 21. Saritek

darf man sich schon Manches erlauben. 22. Gr berührte diese Sant SECTION LXVI.-VARIOUS IDIOMS (continued).

scherzweise. 23. Ich liebe vorzugsweise die französische Sprache. 24. Gr Weise, way, manner; as :-Auf diese Weise, in this way (on this durfte ohne besondere Erlaubniß in das Zimmer des Fürsten gehen. wise). It is often compounded with adjectives and nouns, and

EXERCISE 127. used adverbially. Scherzweise, jestingly. Glüdlicher Weise, fortu. nately ; in a fortunate manner. (105.)

1. The inhabitants of Holstein defended themselves with all 1. Unter vier Augen, literally, under four eyes ; that is, secretly, their power against the Danes. 2. William the Conqueror in confidence; between two persons. Man hat eß mir unter vier overcame England by force of arms. 3. Those brave soldiers Augen gesagt, it has been told to me in confidence.

forced their way with tremendous violence through the ranks VOCABULARY.

of the enemy. 4. They forcibly hindered him from making his

escape. 5. Do you like the German language ? 6. Yes, I do; Amts'geschäft, n. offi-| Hinweg'ichleppen, to, Scherz'weise, by way but I especially like the Italian language. 7. At the present

cial duty, business. draw away, to take of jest, jokingly. time he is especially occupied with the German and Spanish lanA'ften, n. Asia.

array by force.

Schnee'lawine, f. ava- guages (say language). 8. Fortunately I found my friend at Aut'richten, to do, per. Hof, m. court.


home. 9. He is obliged to listen to the orders of his superiors. form.

Irrung, f. error, mis- Schweiz, f. Switzer- 10. Most people dress themselves after the French fashion. 11. Beina'he, almost,near,



I took unknowingly the hat of another. 12. My friend fortu. about.

Kleiten, to dress, lle'brighaben, to have nately discovered the danger which threatened him. 13. By Berüh'ten, to touch, clothe.


way of jest he told me many a truth. 14. Secretly you may to come in contact legitimi-ren, to legiti- | Vergnü'gung, t. plea- tell many insults. 15. The princes of Germany proceed arbiwith. mate, identify.

trarily in ruling their dominion. Beschafftigung, f. busi- Litera'risch, literary. Verhin'dern, to hinder, ness, employment, Men'schenleben, n. hu. stop from.

SECTION LXVII.–VARIOUS IDIOMS (continued). oocupation.

man life.

Verse'hen, n.oversight, The syllables chen and lein are suffixed to nouns, and form dimi Feu'ersbrunst, f. fire, Miß'verständniß,n.mis. inadvertence. nutives. These diminutives are always of the nenter gender

, conflagration. understanding Verun'glüden, to be and change the radical vowel, when it admits of it :-Der Sügel

, Flucht, f. flight, es- | More, f. mode, come unfortunate, the hill. Das Hügelchen, the hillock. Die Kugel, the globe or ball. cape. fashion, custom. to be lost.

Das Kügelchen, the globule or the little ball. Nearly all nouns Fristen, to prolong. Muße, f. leisure, Vor zugeweise, prefer. may take these suffixes, and drop a final e or en; as:--Der Anube, Furchtbar, tremen

ably, especially. the boy. Das Knäblein, the little boy. Die Stube, the room. dous, terrible. Noth'gedrun'gen, com. Wcisc, f.way, manner. Das Stübchen, the little room. They are used also as tertos of Vefahr', f. danger. pulsory, forcedly. Wichtig, considerable, endearment or familiarity, especially by children; as :

:- Batet Gehor'chen, to obey, Pab, m. passport. important. dien, dear father. Mütterchen, dear mother. Sowesterden, dear

to be obedient. Perser, m. Persian. Wille, m. will, mind. sister, etc. Gewalt'jam, violently, Persisch, Persian(adj.). Zu'fluchtsstätte, f. asy. 1. In die Höhe, in the high, on high, upward, etc. ; as :

:forcibly. Nimer, m. Roman. lum, refuge. sprang in die Höhe, he sprang up. In die Gohe richten, to raise, to

elevate, to direct upward. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

2. Velten is variously translated, “ to be worth, to pass for,", Mit Güte richtet man in ten meisten With kindness, one in most etc.; as :-Diese Bücher werden für alte gelten, und ich werte tendals Fällen mehr aus, als init Gewalt. cases accomplishes keinen Eingang8zoll zu bezahlen haben, these books will pass for old

than with violence.

ones, and I shall therefore have no duty to pay. Die Fürsten Europa's vcrfahren The princes of Europe proceed gilt viel in der Stadt, this man has great influence in the city

. ei'genmichtig und gewalt'jam ge. arbitrarily and violently Was gilt dieses Pferd ? what is this horse worth ?

Was gilt't? or gen ihre Unterthanen.

against their subjects. Was gilt die Wette? is equivalent to our " what will you bet?" Uus Versehen fann oft das größte By inadvertence the greatest “how much is the stake ?" etc. Go gilt ein Leben, there is a linglid entste'hen.

misfortune may often occur. life at stake, etc.




Dimer Mamm



surrounded Queen Elizabeth, and made the glory of her reign, An'erfennung, f. recog. Fabrit', f. manufac-, lämmchen, n. lamb. the soldiers, scholars, statesmen, who upheld the queen and her nition, acknow- tory, factory.


religion against the power and malice of many enemies, Raleigh ledgment.

“ The noblest deer of all the herd” was left Fischchen, n. little fish. Leistung, f. perform. remained alone. Antrieb, m. impulse, Bändchen, n. gosling. ance, accomplish to be stricken by the poorest huntsman that ever rode a motive.

little ment.

field. Well might Sir Walter say, as he said before his judges, Betrieb', m. business, garden.

Leutchen, little people. that “life was wearisome to him, and all he entreated was to trade.

Häuschen, n. cottage. Niedlich, neat, nice, have leave to speak freely at his farewell, to satisfy the world Bewun'dern, to admire Höle, f. height, alti- pretty.

that he was ever loyal to the king, and a true lover of the Brauchbar, useful, ser

A true lover of the commonwealth he astude. (See above, Prophet', m. prophet. commonwealth.” viceable.

R. 1.)

Republifa'nisch, repub- suredly was, though not perhaps of the commonwealth as it Brüder'chen, n. little Hüpfen, to hop, jump, lican.

presented itself to him under James I. ; loyal to the king brother, darling skip.

Samstag,m. Saturday. he was, in the sense of not endeavouring to dethrone him ; that brother. Hütchen, n. little hat. Spät, late.

is to say, he was negatively loyal. Positively so he could not Der gestalt, in such a Kärchen, n. pussy. Thierchen, n. little ani. be. As well might light bow down to darkness, wisdom to manner, so. Sciónesíalle, in no wise. mal.

ignorance, valour to cowardice, as the “ valiant and wise”-for Gin-richten, to arrange, Kitchen,n. little chest. Trieb, m. impulse, in- so even his judges called him-bow down willingly to the man order. Klatíden, to clap. stinct, inclination. who was his opposite in every good particular of his character.

That he was weary of life we shall have occasion to see before RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

we have done, though if we may trust the report of his con&r traf ihn der gestalt mit seinem He struck him with his sword temporaries, we shall learn that his enemies gained nothing by Schwerte, daß er zu Boden fiel. so (in such a manner) that his death, since " he hath purchased here, in the opinion of

he fell to the ground. men, such honour and reputation, as it is thought his greatest Das Bübchen freut sich sehr über The little boy rejoices much enemies are they that are most sorrowful for his death, which. sein neues Hütchen.

over his little) new hat. they see is like to turn so much to his advantage." Ich werte es so ein‘richten, daß ich I will so arrange it, that I can Let us examine the circumstances of Sir Walter Raleigh's. Sie bald besu'chen fann.

scon visit you.

death, and those of his life also, which enabled him to quit, with Der Mensch soll im Glüce, wie im In prosperity, as in affliction, so good a will, the world which, in his own words, “is but a.

leiten, seine Blide in die Höhe man should direct his look large prison, out of which some are daily selected for execution.” richten upward.

With some particulars of Sir Walter's life, most peoplo EXERCISE 128.

are more or less familiar. The story of his introducing him.

self to Queen Elizabeth's notice by spreading his fine cloak 1. Haben Sie dieses niedliche Gärtchen gesehen? 2. Nein, denn ich bes

on the muddy ground where the queen had to pass, is one of wunderte jenes hübsche Häuschen. 3. && gehört zwei alten Leutchen, welche the most commonly reported. Stories of his splendid extravaich fenne. 4. Was sind das für niedliche Thierchen ? 5. Es sind in dem

gance in dress, and of his other courtly qualities, are also rife, Garten eine Menge ganz junger Lämmchen. 6. Dieses Mädchen spielt but not so well known is the history of the nobler traits in his mit seinem Brüderchen. 7. Wollen Sie mir jenes Kistchen geben? 8. character. Rightly to understand the man one ought to be Wollen Sie dieses auf dem Tischchen haben? 9. Sehen Sie, welch ein acquainted to some extent with the political history of the hübsches Hütchen! 10. Das Kintchen hat große Freude an seinem Käßchen

time in which he lived. It will be sufficient for the present, und an seinem Ganschen. 11. Richten Sie es so ein, das Sie bis purpose, however, to ask our readers to realise the idea of Spain as Samstag Morgen in meinem Hause sein fönnen. 12. Machen wir es der. the mightiest and most irresistible power in the world--a power gestalt, taß es für beide Zwede brauchbar ist? 13. @r soll es so machen. ever striving to make itself felt, and lusting after universal daß er icine Bücher mitnehmen fann. 14. Ich richte es jedenfalls so ein, dominion—to realise further the fact that allied with it was a daß ich biš zehn Uhr bei Ihnen bin. 15. Wir machen es so, daß wir power eqnally mighty and almost equally irresistible, which feinesfalls zu spät fomnien. 16. Sagen Sie Ihrem Bruder, er midte iusted after dominion over the minds and consciences of men es tergestalt einrichten, daß es für Jedermann verständlich ist. 17. Ich

as the Spanish power strove for domination over their bodies." hoffe, Sie werden es so cinrichten, das Sie auf dem leßten Dampfschiffe an.

To withstand these powers combined there were but England fommen. 18. Gin Prophet gilt nirgends weniger, als in seinem Vater and the Netherlands; and while the Netherlands were powerles lande und in seinem Hause. 19. Seine Stimme gilt viel im Rathe. 20. for aggressive purposes, and were, moreover, saturated with th Was gilt's, in zwanzig Jahren ist der größte Theil Europa's republikanisch? blood of their own children who had died to free them from the 21. Der Trieb zum Büsen ist viel stärfer in uns, alt der zum Guten. 22.

yoke of Spain, England was to the great Spanish power as the Die Anerkennung unserer Leistungen ist ein mächtiger Antrieb zum Fleiße.

cloud no bigger than a man's hand. Both the mighty powers 23. Der Betrieb seiner Fabrifen wird von Jahr zu Jahr größer. 24. Gr had declared andying hostility to England, her people, and their richtete seine Augen in die Höhe. 25. Er sprang vor Freuden in die Höhe religion; and the only means by which England could hope to und flatschte in die Hände. 26. Die Kinder hüpften in die Höhe.

hold her own against them, much less gain any advantage over EXERCISE 129.

them, was by training up and sending forth men of genius, 1. Dear father, will you buy me the little lambkin ? 2. No, valour, and determination, who should be possessed with somemy dear daughter, but I will buy you the gosling and the little thing akin to a blind hatred for the two enemy powers, and fish. 3. Have you seen that pretty cottage ? 4. No, I admired should make war upon them /everywhere and wherever they that beautiful little garden. 5. Mary plays with the pussy, and found them, striking them with mortal blows in the name of her little brother with the little fish. 6. Look, what a beautiful God and the Queen. These men she found among her soldiers, little chest this is. 7. Men should at all times direct their seamen, and statesmen, men whose fame is indissolubly bound thonghts to God.

8. Arrange it so, that I may find you to- up with the golden age of the first Protestant queen. morrow at home. 9. I hope you will arrange it so, that you may

Second to few, if any, in the throng which included Lord arrive on Monday morning. 10. What is this garden worth? Burleigh, Sir Francis Walsingham, the Earl of Essex, Sir Henry 11. It is worth more than you believe. 12. What were these and Sir Philip Sidney, Lord Salisbury, Lord Bacon, Shake. books worth ten years ago ? 13. What will you bet against speare, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Martin · this horse ? 14. There are five pounds at steke.

Frobisher, Sir Richard Hawkins, the Earl of Leicester, and many more, was Sir Walter Raleigh, a Devonshire man,

the son of good parents, and born in the year 1552. His HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXIV.

mother was the widow of Sir Otho Gilbert; and before her

marriage with him had borne the proud name of Champernoun, THE RIGHT NOBLE AND VALOROUS SIR WALTER RALEIGH,

a family Norman among Normans. She was left a widow with “We had not such another head to cut off,” said the people, as three sons, all of whom became great commanders and mighty they returned from witnessing, in Palace Yard, the execution of the noblest man of the age. The age was that of James I.,

* For an account of these allies, and of the way in which they were and the man was Sir Walter Raleigh. Never were more withstood, see the story of Sir Richard Grenville in Historic Sketches, truthful words spoken. Of all the splendid band which had | III., Vol. I., page 87.

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