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Spain-breakers. She married a second time, and Walter Raleigh And these people have been busy with this disgrace of Raleigh. was the son of her second marriage. To her teaching there is He had been guilty of the high indiscretion of falling in love reason to think Raleigh owed that habit of God-fearing and with Miss Throgmorton, one of the queen's maids of honour. God-loving which he never forgot, whether in the battles of The queen hated lovers and love matches, and it was a serious Flanders, in the moments of his greatest discoveries, in the offence in her eyes for one so near to her as Raleigh to run glorious success of his public career, or in the hour of death. counter to her wishes in this matter. She was furious, and was She instilled into him that love of truth and that hatred of determined to punish Raleigh. He had at the time a grand lying, which afterwards bore fruit abundantly, to the great project in hand for intercepting the Spanish gold fleet on its terror of knaves. She informed him, doubtless, without much return from the river Plate. He took time by the forelock, and argument or showing cause, that to fear God and to honour the hurried off to sea ; but fearful lest his doing so should be misqueen, to love true men and to knock liars overboard, was about understood by the lady whom it most concerned, he wrote a the whole duty of man. She bade him recognise that England noto to Cecil, Secretary of State, explaining his conduct was the home of truth and of the purest form of religion, and noto which has boen variously interpreted, as indicating an that in the Pope and the Spanish king were to be found the intention to forsake Miss Throgmorton, and as avowing an implacable foes of freedom and goodness, the arch assertors of intention not to marry any one else. Which of the interpreta. arbitrary power. She instilled into him that spirit which after- tions was right, we may judge by the event, for after his return wards mado Spaniards tremble when they saw his ship, and fight Raleigh honourably married the lady. à l'outrance as against a foe that would not be beaten.

Raleigh continued at sea till recalled by Elizabeth, captured At the age of seventeen, after a short stay at Oxford, Walter the richest prize hitherto brought into an English port, and Raleigh joined his kinsman, Henry Champernoun, who went found on his return the favour of the queen withdrawn, and an with a hundred volunteers to help the French Huguenots order for himself to be sent to the Tower. In the Tower he against the tyranny of the League ; and after serving with languished for several months, writing piteous, even fulsome distinction in this business, he went as a gentleman volunteer lotters, in the hope of regaining his freedom, which was granted to strike for freedom in Flanders, where the power of Spain was in the autumn of the same year, Elizabeth, so long as he did arrayed against the Lowlanders, who were fighting for existence. not bring his wife to court, renewed the favour which had been For ten years he was more or less engaged in soldiering, and withdrawn. Raleigh resumed his place in Parliament, and then sailed with his half-brother, Humphrey Gilbert, on an strongly advocated the war with Spain. The queen gave him, expedition of discovery to the far west. The prosecution of about this time, tho manor of Sherborne, and this he made it the voyage was stopped by an engagement with some Spanish his task to cultivate. There, in the happy society of his " dear ships, which somewhat crippled the English; and Raleigh re- Bessie,” for so he always called her, he lived a quiet life, turning home, took service with Lord Gray, who was at the time onjoying rest and ease, and forethinking those projects of enter doing his best to govern Ireland in an equitable fashion, Two prise and adventure which were yet to link his name with years' service in Ireland, and then he came to court, whither fame. his fame had preceded him, even before he took off his cloak His restless spirit could not brook retirement for long to allow of the queen passing over the muddy ground.

together. It drove him forth to prosecute that which had coQueen Elizabeth speedily took him into favour, made him stantly occupied his mind-the search after El Dorado, and the captain of her body-gunrd, warden of the tin mines of Cornwall, upsetting of the Spanish power. gave him an estate in Ireland close to that of his friend and A strong sense of duty was in him to make him go forth and admirer, Edmund Spenser, the poet, and procured him to be do this, and he went forth. The cruelties of the Spaniards returned as a member to Parliament. It is at his court time practised upon the poor natives, their great insatiable avarice that we hear of his extravagance in dress, of his appearing and manifold crimes, roused a terrible indignation in Raleigh's on ordinary days in a white satin pinked vest, close sleeved breast. He would put a stop to this sort of thing, and perhaps to the wrist; over the body a brown doublet, finely flowered, discover El Dorado at the same time. He left his wife and his and embroidered with pearl. In the feather of his hat a large noble boy, he gave up the sweets of leisure and of home, and off ruby and pearl drop at the bottom of the sprig, in place of a he went upon the ocean again. The quantities of gold found batton; his trunk hose, with his stockings and riband garters by the Spaniards in Peru and Mexico gave rise to the belief fringed at the end, all white, and buff shoes with white riband. that somewhere there existed a sort of fountain-head of wcalth, After his acquisition of wealth by captures at sea, we hear of his where gold was to be had for the taking. This inexhaustible shoes, on grand days, being worth more than £6,000 by reason well-spring of riches was supposed by Raleigh to be situated in of the jewels on them; of his suit of armour of solid silver, and the country now called Venezuela, but then styled Guiana, and of his sword and sword-belt studded all over with diamonds, subsequent discoveries have proved that he was right to some rubies, and pearls. But Raleigh knew well enough how to extent in his supposition. (See Vol. I., page 141.) Raleigh went dress in different style, and when occasion demanded, he could to Guiana, made friends with the Indians, and won their affection show, in all the simplicity of steel cuirass and shirt sleeves, his and attachment. Ho told them of the queen across the sea, easy fighting trim. Besides, he was not given wholly to vanity whose servant he was, and how she had sent him to deliver then while at court. He studied, he wrote, he experimented in from the cruelty of the Spaniards. In earnest of this he destroyed chemistry, he planned expeditions for discovering new places at Trinidad the town of San José, took the Spanish governet across the Atlantic, and ho busied himself with his Parliamentary prisoner, and released five caciquos, or chiefs, whom that wretch duties. For several years he remained about the queen, but kept fast to one chain, and had their bodies “basted with burning took part, nevertheless, in every attack that was made upon the bacon," in order to make them discover their gold. After Spanish power. An expedition fitted out at his cost discovered many months of absence he returned to England, poorer than and attempted to colonise Virginia. The Spanish authority when he left it, because he would not enrich himself by pillage, was defied and injured even in its strongest hold, and received, as it was the fashion of the time to do. In spite of cold looks through the exertions of Raleigh and his friends, a check which from those in office, he persevered in his plans against the all the cowardice and folly of James I. could not counteract. Spaniards, and sent out Captain Keymis to succour the Indians In 1588 the Spanish Armada appeared off Devon and Cornwall, of the Orinoco. and Raleigh joined with Drake in having a fling at the hated There was work cut out for him nearer home. The English foe. He quitted the soft case of the court, his scholarly pursuits, council had resolved to burn the Spanish fleet in the harbour of his chemical studies, his official duties, in order that he might Cadiz, and Lord Essex and Raleigh were sent to do it. with his own hand make a bloody mark upon the invaders, Terrible work there was, for Cadiz was a fortified place, and and help the wind and the waves which fought against them. seemingly calculated by Nature to resist attacks. The Spanish

Increased in worldly wealth, rich in knowledge, and in the fleet, well armed and manned, was lying under the protection of favour of the queen, Raleigh fell suddenly into a disgrace,

of the forts, and on land there was a large body of the best which the most has been made by his detractors, There are, trained troops in the world, ready to oppose any attempt ss and there always have been,

those whom Tom Hood well calls— storming. Raleigh was second in command; but he appears to “Quacks, not physicians, in the cure of souls,

have planned the attack, and to have undertaken the worst par Who go about to sniff out moral taints, and call the devil over his of the execution of it. An awful fight engned. “If any man, own coals."

says Raleigh, "had a desire to see hell itself, it was there most

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sively figured.” Amid blood, and smoke, and yells, and hurrahs, a collision took place which resulted in the destruction of and the din of combat between deadly enemies, fifty-seven St. Thomas and the loss of a number of lives. Raleigh's own Spanish ships were burned and sunk, hundreds of men went to son was killed, his faithful friend Captain Keymis committed their account, and Cadiz was stormed and sacked. Raleigh got suicide, and the instructions, which were so particular against & wound in the leg which lamed him for life, and returned to interference with the Spaniards, were violated. Raleigh himself England covered with glory.

and many of his men were ill with fever, some of the company The enmity of Spain did not allow of much reposo; a second began to murmur, and what for Raleigh was worse than all, expedition, this time to the Azores, was entrusted to Essex, gold could not be found. After another effort to discover El Raleigh being second. Some

ent arose in consequence Dorado, Raleigh gave the order to return home, weary in spirit of Raleigh having, when Essex was not forthcoming with his at his want of success and at the loss of his son George, sick in squadron, seized the island of Fayal and carried it, of his own body, and his mind presaging something of the storm that was unassisted self. The men had not been friends, and this about to break upon him. widened the breach between them. The general result of the When he arrived at Plymouth he found a justification for his expedition was a failure, and Essex tried to put the blame on fears, for his wife who met him there told him how the Spanish Raleigh. But his honour was untouched, and for some years ambassador had demanded satisfaction from the king, and how he lived a life of magnificence and comparative idleness in that James was exceedingly angry. Orders awaited Raleigh to London.

repair immediately to London, and a few miles from Plymouth With the death of Elizabeth, a great change took place in tho he was met by Sir Lewis Stucley, who was really commissioned public policy of England; but before that policy could be to take him prisoner. Arrived in London, he was sent to the announced, much less carried out, Raleigh cast about how he Tower, from which, in conjunction with some of his old commight avert it altogether. In concert with a few others, there is panions, he tried to escape ; but being betrayed was brought reason to think that ho engaged in a conspiracy to place on the back, and once more lodged in the gloomy fortress. throne Lady Arabella Stuart, who was, according to the law James had written to the King of Spain---so anxious was he regulating succession to private property, the rightful heir, not to forfeit that prince's friendship-offering to put to death instead of James I. The plot was never perhaps seriously the great enemy of Spain, or, if Philip preferred it, he would entertained by the plotters themselves, and they certainly never send him to Spain to be dealt with there. The letter must have took any overt steps towards executing it; but it was neverthe- made Elizabeth turn in her grave; but the Spaniard wrote back less discovered, and those privy to it, including Lady Arabella, to say “that it would be more agreeable to him that the punishwere thrown into prison. Raleigh was tried and condemned ment of Raleigh should take place in England; and as the upon the most inconclusive evidence, the prosecution being oon- offenco was notorious, that its chastisement should be exemplary ducted with a vigour, not to say acrimony, most revolting. and immediate.”

The sentence of death was not ordered to be carried out; Sir Walter was accordingly brought to the bar of the Queen's but was held in terroreni over the prisoner's head for eleven Bench, not to be tried for what he had now done, but to years, during which he was incarcerated in that dungeon which receive notice that execution was granted under the senten all are shown who visit the Tower of London. “No king but passed on him fifteen years before. His life, as being “God's my father,” said Prince Henry, the heir-apparent, “would keep high gift,” he tried his utmost to guard from scathe and wrong; such a bird in a cage.” In that cage Raleigh wrote his “History he used much eloquence to avert the sentence, for his wife and of the World,” pursued his chemical researches, wrote letters of remaining child's sake; but his fate was already determined, counsel for Prince Henry, and pondered over projects of future and he was ordered to suffer on the morrow. discovery. There too he had the mortification to see the The last night of his life was spent by the prisoner in a Elizabethan policy towards Spain turned completely backward. manner according with his antecedents. He wrote a letter to The feeble monarch who sat on the English throne was com- the king, and one to his wife, the latter full of the most tender pletely under the Spanish influence, even to desiring, above all solicitude for the poor lady's welfare, giving her directions what things, a matrimonial alliance between Prince Charles and tho to do after his death. He wrote, also, some verses on his Spanish Infanta; everything was conceded to Spanish demands, coming death, and then lay down to rest. Next morning the the old English spirit was dead, or seemed to be so, and the glory Dean of Westminster attended him, and found him smoking which had surrounded the brows of Elizabeth was departed. his favourite tobacco, and partaking of a cup of sack. His

Vain were the applications for release made by Raleigh and demeanour was so calm and regular, that the dean chided him his friends, till the royal cupidity was excited by a golden for levity, but afterwards confessed that he had not met a man dream, which the prisoner caused to appear before it. Raleigh so well prepared to die. He was quite cheerful in conversation, succeeded in convincing the court that he had reason to know and seemed to think no more of his execution than if he had the whereabouts of El Dorado. His former want of success was been going a journey. His dress was carefully attended to; not considered any bar, for many others had failed to find he wouud not appear slovenly for the last time. He wore a the place; besides, it was shown that on his former voyage “handsomely wrought cap, a ruff band, a black wrought velvet çircumstances had conspired to prevent his reaching the spot night-gown over a hare-coloured satin doublet, and a black he specially sought. The king was induced to grant him liberty wrought waistcoat, black cut taffety breeches, and ash-coloured to take the command of a new searching expedition ; but the silk stockings." sentence of death under which Raleigh lay was not taken From the scaffold he made a speech, in which he quietly away by a pardon. The Spanish ambassador was reassured, explained his conduct, professed his forgiveness of those who when he heard of the intended expedition, by the assurance had injured him, and asserted his loyalty to the king.

He of the king that no harm was meant to the Spanish possessions then called for the axe, and the headsman not bringing it at beyond sea, and instructions were no doubt given to Sir Walter once, said, “I pray thee let me see it. Dost thou think I am Raleigh to avoid collision with the Spaniards.

afraid of it?" He tried the edge with his thumb, and said to Of course such instructions were as the muzzle to the ox that the sheriff, “It is a sharp medicine, but a sound cure for all is treading out the corn; as well forbid the old hunter to prick diseases.” A witness of the scene said, “In all the time he his ears and get excited at the music of the hounds, as forbid was upon the scaffold, and before, there was not the least the old Spaniard chaser to interfere when a Spanish prey was alteration in him, either in his voice or countenance, but he in sight. However, there is no warrant for supposing that seemed as free from all manner of apprehension as if he had Raleigh meant to do anything but obey his orders. His come thither rather to be a spectator than a sufferer." squadron sailed, and after meeting with some disasters in the The headsman, when Raleigh had laid his head upon the channel, proceeded on its way, and arrived after a long voyage block, asked him to lay his face towards the cast.

“ It is no at Guiana and the Orinoco.

great matter which way the head stands so the heart lies right,” By the Indians he was received with acclamations. They was the answer; and after a few moments of silent prayer, the remembered his former kindness to them, and how he had signal was given for the stroke. The executioner failed to obey shielded them during his sojourn from the oppressive tyranny immediately, and the signal being again given, the dying man of their Spanish conquerors. By the Spaniards, however, ho called out, “ Why dost thou not strike? Strike, man!” was received with jealousy and dislike, and when some of his Well might the people say, “ We had not such another head people went to St. Thomas, a Spanish settlement on the river, to cut off.”

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIV.

out from the seed when it germinated in the ground dying away SECTION XLV.-CONVOLVULACEÆ.

as soon as the stem has commenced to throw out rootlets. (nowacteristics : Calyx free, corolla hypogynous, monopetalous,

SECTION XLVI.-POLEMONIACEÆ, OR PHLOXWORTS. gular; sostivation contorted; stamens inserted into the tube Characteristics : Corolla hypogynous, monopetalous, regular; of tho sorollo, their number equal to that of the lobes ; ovary stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, in number equal two to four celled ; ovules solitary or twin, erect; fruit capsular l to its lobes, and alternate with them; ovary three to five celled; or bacciform ; seed dicotyledonous, curved, im.

placentæ parietal; fruit capsular ; seeds erect bedded in mucilaginous albumen ; radicle in.

or ascending dicotyledonons; straight in a ferior.

fleshy albumen. The Convolvulaceæ derive their name from

The student cannot look at a member of the property which most, although not all of

this natural family without being cognisant ol them, have of climbing up other plants. They

a general similarity between this natural order abound in the torrid zone, in low marshy situa

and Convolvulaceæ. Not only is the general tions, especially near the sea. In proportion

aspect of the flower similar, but there is also ne the distance from the equator diminishes,

a certain similarity of anatomical structure, Bo do the Convolvulaceve become more rare.

In both the flower is quinquepartite; but the In temperate climates only few species exist;

Polemoniaceće differ in several points from

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185. PURPLE IPOMEA (IPOMÆA TYRIANTHINA). 186.

187

188. WHITE PHLOXWORT (POLEMONIUM ALBUM). 189. THREE-COLOURED CONVOLVULUS (CONVOLVULUS

VIRGINIAN HYDROPHYL (HYDROPHYLLUM VIR TRICOLOR, 187. DODDER (CUSCUTA).

GINICUM). a, COROLLA OF VIRGINIAN HYDROPHYL and in the frigid zone they are altogether ab.

the Convolvulacem, as will be seen from a sent. The predominant medical quality of the

inspection of Fig. 188, which is a representaConvolvulaceve is that of purgative. Jalap

tion of the leaf, bud, and blossom of the and scammony are both derived from this na

Polemonium album. tural order. Even the roots and tubers of our own native species are purgative, though, in

SECTION XLVII.-HYDROPHYLLACEE. consequence of the low price of jalap, they are

Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypoat present never employed for this purpose.

gynous, monopetalous, regular; stamens idIt is scarcely necessary to append an engraving for the par- serted upon the tube of the corolla, in number equal to the divipose of giving

the reader a general idea of the external character. sions of the latter, and alternate with them; ovary anilocular istics presented

by this natural order. Nevertheless, we do this or imperfectly bilocular; placentæ parietal ; ovules solitary or that we may introduce three beautiful species, the Ipomæa tyrian- numerous on each side of the placentxe; fruit capsular or almost thina (Fig. 185), or purple ipomæa, a stove evergreen climber, fleshy; seeds few in number; seed dicotyledonous; embryo indigenous to Mexico, the Convolvulus tricolor (Fig. 186); and straight, imbedded in an abundant cartilaginous albumen, the Cuscuta, or dodder (Fig. 187). It should be said that Members of this natural family, to which the genus Hydroalthough the dodders are generally referred to the order Convol- phyllum lends its appellation, are herbs either annual or perena vulaceæ, by some botanists they are grouped into a small distinct nial, possessing an aqueous juice; an angular stem considerably

, order termed Cuscutaceo. Like the Convolvulaceæ they are ramified; leaves alternate, especially towards the upper part of limbing plants, but they differ from them in being leafless and the vegetable, usually deprived of stipules; flowers complete

, parasitic, often causing great injury to crops of leguminous plants regular, disposed in corymbs or unilateral spikes, scorpioidal, or Ind lax, to the stalks of which the stem of the dodder attaches scorpion-like, simple, or dichotomous, rarely solitary; calyi itself by small rootlets, the original root which had been sent | deeply fissured in five divisions, imbricated in æstivation, and

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persistent; corolla inserted externally to a ring surrounding the receptacle or upon a fleshy annulus between the caly, and base of the ovary, campanulate or imperfectly rotate, occa- ovary; stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, four, sionally funnel-shaped, its tube ordinarily furnished with tongue- didynamous, occasionally five, the fifth being sterile, occalike scales alternating with the stamens; limb five-partite, sionally only two; ovary unilocular; placente parietal ; fruit imbricated in æstivation; stamens to the number of five having superior or inferior ; seed dicotyledonous, containing little or their filaments bent inwards during æstivation; anthers in. no albumen. trorse ; ovary composed of two carpels (Fig. 189).

The Gesneraceæ are herbaceous plants, rarely ligneous, usually The Hydrophyllaceæ are allied to the Polemoniacere, differing ! possessing a tetragonal ramified stem ; leaves generally opposite from the plants of this order in the

or verticillate ; devoid of stipules, placental conformation. They are

simple and almost always irregular farther removed from the Boragina

in the length of their sides. The ceæ, although originally confounded

flowers are complete ; inflorescence with this natural order in conse

a cyme, corymb, or spike; calyx per. quence of a certain general resem.

sistent; corolla tubular, or funnel. blance of inflorescence.

shaped, campanulate, or labiate; This family is exclusively Ameri

imbricated in æstivation; stamens can, where abundant species are

with two anthers usually coherent, found mingled with Polemoniaceae

one or two celled; ovary consists in the temperate regions on this

of two carpels, but is unilocular;

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190. GERARD'S GESNERA (GESNERA GERAR

192. MANY-FLOWERED ACHIMENES (ACHIDIANA). 191, VERMILION ÆSCHINAN.

MENES MULTIFLORA). 193. SCARLET THUS (ÆSCHINANTHUS MINIATUS).

MITRARIA (MITRARIA COCCINEA). side of the Tropic of Cancer, more

placenta parietal, opposed, one being especially towards the western coast.

on the right, the other on the left Between the tropics they are rare,

of the axis of the flower. Ovules and also beyond the Tropic of Capri.

reflexed; style simple. Fruit a corn. The pretty annuals known

berry or a capsule. Seeds pendent as nemophilas, the chief of which

or horizontal (Fig. 190). are the blue nemophila (Nemophila

The Gesneraceæ are, for the most insignis) and the speckled nemo

part, inhabitants of the new contiphila (Nemophila maculata), belong

190

nent, especially towards the equa. to this natural order.

tor. Some are epiphytes attaching One species, the Canadian hydro

themselves to the trunks of trees. phyl (Hydrophyllum Canadense), a

A few of this natural order are hardy herbaceous perennial, is em

found in tropical India, especially ployed in North America as a remedy for the bites of snakes, in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and on the southern also for erysipelas caused by the contact of a poisonous North slopes of the Himalaya Mountains. American plant, the sumach (Rhus pumila). Hydrophyllum These two families, although considerable in the number of Virginicum, & species now frequent in botanical gardens, has their species, offer but little of importance in respect of useful pinnatisect leaves, and white or blue corolla.

properties. Columnea scandens, a little shrub of India, bearing SECTION XLVIII.-GESNERACEÆ, OR GESNERWORTS.

pretty blue flowers, is cultivated in our hot-houses. Many other

species of Gesneracer are in favour amongst cultivators; for Characteristics : Calyx free, more or less adherent to the example, the Æschinanthus miniatus, or vermilion æschinanthus ovary; corolla monopetalous, irregular, inserted upon the (Fig. 191), and the Chirita Moonii, or Moon's chirita, from Ceylon,

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of the former of which a representation is given. The Chirita off by a demon to a hideous death, bear her lizabs aloft wherever Sinensis is acaulescent; its radical peduncle is blue or yellow, there is dust to dust, till she reach that devouring den, and, fiercer and divided into two or three pedicels, each bearing a fowers and more furious far, in the passion of love, than any bird of prey The Chirita Moonii is remarkable for its elevation, its beautiful that ever bathed its beak in blood, throttle the fiends that with their foliage, and its pale violet corolla ornamented internally with a

heavy wings would fain flap her down the cliffs, and hold up the child,

in deliverance, before the eye of the all-seeing God? golden spot.

No stop--no stay; she know not that she drew her breath. Benath Mitraria coccineu, or scarlet mitraria (Fig. 193), is a little her feet Providence fastened every loose stone, and to her hands Chilian shrub, a beautiful spring-blooming plant for the green strengthened every root. How was she evor to descend ? That fear, house. Its stem and boughs are weak and slender, its pedun. then, but once crossed her heart as she went-up-up-up, to the little cles opposed and unifloral. Its corolla is of a bright red. The image made of her own flesh and blood. " Tho God who bolds Achimenes multiflora, or many-flowered achimenes (Fig. 192), is

now from perishing, will not the same God save me when my child a Brazilian species, only introduced into Europe in 1843, re

is on my bosom?" Down came the force rushing of the eagles' wina markable, like all its congeners, for its general elegance of aspect

-each savage bird dashing close to her head, so that she saw the

yellow of their wrathful eyes. All at once they quailed and were and the long duration of its flowers.

cowed. Yelling, they flew off to the stump of an ash jutting out of the cliff, a thousand feet above the cataract; and the Christian mother

falling across the eyrie, in the midst of bones and blood, clasping her READING AND ELOCUTION.-XXIV. child-dead, dead, dead, no doubt-but unmangled and untorn, and EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (continued.)

swaddled up, just as it was when she laid it down asleep among the

fresh hay, in a nook of the harvest field. [To be marked for Inflections by the student.]

Oh! what a pang of perfect blessedness transfixed her heart from XV. CAUSES OF WAR.

that faint, feeble cry, "It lives-it lives—it lives !" and baring har What are sufficient causes of war let no man say, let no legislator bosom, with loud laughter, and eyes dry as stones, she felt the lips say, until the question of war is directly and inevitably before him.

of tho unconscious innocent once more murmuring at the fount of lúa Jurists may be permitted, with comparative safety, to pile tomo upon

and love! "O Thou great and thou dreadful God! whither hast thou tome of interminable disquisition upon the motives, reasons, and brought me, one of the most sinful of thy creatures ? Oh ! sure my causes of just and unjust war. Metaphysicians may be suffered with soul, lost it perish, even for thy own name's sake! 0 Thou, who impunity to spin the thread of their speculations until it is attenuated diedst to save sinners, have mercy upon me.” to a cobweb; but for a body created for the government of a great

Cliffs, chasms, blocks of stone, and the skeletons of old trees-far, nation, and for the adjustment and protection of its infinitely diversi- far down, and dwindled into specks-a thousand creatures of her own fied interests, it is worse than folly to speculate upon the causes of kind, stationary, or running to and fro! Was that the sound of the war, until the great question shall be presented for immediate action-waterfall, or the faint roar of voices ? Is that her native strathuntil they shall hold the united question of cause, motive, and present and that tuft of trees, does it contain the hut in which stands the expedienoy, in the very palm of their hands. War is & tremendous

cradle of her child ? Never more shall it be rocked by her foot! Here evil. Come when it will, unless it shall come in the necessary defence

must she die-and, when her breast is exhausted, her baby too! And of our national security, or of that honour under whose protection those horrid beaks, and eyes, and talons, and wings will return; ead national security reposes, it will come too soon--too soon for our

her child will be devoured at last, even within the dead bosca ibat national prosperity-too soon for onr individual happiness—too soon

can protect it no longer. for the frugal, industrious, and virtuous habits of our citizens-too

Where, all this while, was Mark Steuart, the sailor? Hall was up soon, perhaps, for our most precious institutions. The man who, for

the cliffs, But his eye bad got dim, and his head dizzy, and his heart any cause, save the sacred cause of public security, which makes all sick; and he who had so often reefed the top-gallant sail

, when at wars defensive--the man who, for any cause but this, shall promote midnight the coming of the gale was heard afar, covered his face with or compel this final and terrible resort, assumes a responsibility second

his hands, and dared look no longer on the swimming heights. to none, nay, transcendently deeper and higher than any which man

“And who will take care of my poor bedridden mother?" though: can assume before his fellow-man, or in the presence of God, his Hannah, whose soul, through the exhaustion of so many passions, could Creator.---Binney.

no more retain in its grasp that hope which it had clutched in despur.

A voice whispered, “God!" She looked around, expecting to see an XVI. A CHILD CARRIED AWAY BY AN EAGLE.

angel; but nothing moved except a rotten branch, that, under its own The great golden eagle, the pride and the pest of the parish, stooped weight, broko off from the crumbling rock. Her eye, by some secret down, and flew away with something in his talons. One single sudden sympathy of her soul with the inanimate object, watched its tal, female shriek, and then shouts and outcries, as if a church spire had and it seemed to stop not far off, on a small platform. tumbled down on a congregation at a sacrament! "Hannah Lamond's Her child was bound within her bosom-she remembered not how bairu ! Hannah Lamond's bairn!” was the loud, fast-spreading cry. or when-but it was safe ; and scarcely daring to open her eyes, she "The eagle's ta'en off Hannah Lamond's bairn!" and many hundred slid down the shelving rocks, and found herself on a small piece of feet were in another instant hurrying towards the mountain. Two firm root-bound soil, with the tops of bushes appearing below. With miles of hill, and dale, and copse, and shingle, and many intersecting fingers suddenly strengthened into the power of iron, she sub brooks, lay between; but in an incredibly short time the foot of the herself down by brier, and broom, and heather, and dwarf-barcà. mountain was alive with people.

There a loosened stone leapt over a ledge; and no sound was bean, The eyrie was well kuown, and both old birds were visible on the so profound was its fall. There the shingle rattled down the screes, rock-ledge. But who shall scale that dizzy cliff, which Mark Steuart, and she hesitated not to follow. Her feet bounded against the hurt the sailor, who had been at the storming of many a fort, attempted in stone that stopped them, but she felt no pain. Her body was callos vain ? All kept gazing, weeping, wringing of hands in vain, rooted to as the cliff. the ground, or running backwards and forwards, like so many ants Steep as the wall of a house was now the side of the precipice. essaying their new wings in discomfiture. “ What's the use—what's But it was matted with ivy centuries old, long ago dend, and with the use o' ony puir human means ? We have no power but in out a single green leaf, but with thousands of arm-thick stems, petri prayer!” and many knelt down--fathers and mothers thinking of fied into the rock, and covering it as with a trellis. She bound ber their own babies--as if they would force the deaf heavens to hear ! baby to her neck, and with hands and feet clung to that feuzfal

Hannah Lamond had all this while been sitting on a rock, with a ladder. Turning round her head and looking down, lo, the whole iace perfectly white, and eyes like those of a mad person fixed on the population of the parish, so great was the multitude, on their knees eyrie. Nobody had noticed her; for strong as all sympathies with her and hush! the voice of psalms! a hymn breathing the spirit of the

! bad been at the swoop of the eagle, they were now swallowed up in united prayer! Sad and solemn was the strain, but nothing dirge the agony cf eyesight. “Only last sabbath was my sweet wee wean like--breathing not of death, but deliverance. Often hand sho suns baptized, in the name o' tho Father, and the Son, and the Holy that tune--perhaps the very words, but them she heard not--in her Ghost!” and, on uttering these words, she flew off through the own hut, she and her mother, or in the kirk, along with all the cou. brakes, and over the huge stones, up-up-up, faster than ever hunts. gregation. An unseen hand seemed fastening her fingers to the rils man ran in to the death, fearless as a goat playing amovg the of ivy; and in sudden inspiration, believing that her life was to be precipices.

saved, she became almost as fearless as if she had been changed into a No one doubted, no one could doubt, that she would soon be dashed winged creature. to pieces. But have not people who walk in their sleep, obedient to Again her feet touched stones and earth. the mysterious guidance of dreams, climbed the walls" of old ruins, but a tremulous sobbing voice was close beside her, and lo! a shé and found footing, even in decrepitude, along the edge of unguarded goat, with two little kids at her feet.

“ Wild heights," thought sbe, bat‘lements, and down dilapidated staircases, deep as draw-wells, or “do these crentures climb; but the dam will lead down her kid by the coal-pits, and returned with open, fixed and unseeing eyes, unharmed easiest paths, for oh! even in the brute creatures, what is the body to their beds, at midnight? It is all the work of the soul, to whom power of a mother's love!” and turning round her head, she kissed the body is a slave; and shall not the agony of a mother's passion, her sleeping baby, and for the first time she wept. who sees her baby, whoso warm mouth had just left her breast, hurried Orerhead frowned the frout of the precipice, never touched before

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The psalm was hushed,

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