Imágenes de páginas

by human hand or foot. No one had ever dreamt of scaling it; and That crushed proud Ammon, when his iron car the golden eagles knew that well in their instinct, as, before they built

Was yoked in wrath, and thundered from afar? their eyrie, they had brushed it with their wings. But all the rest

Where was the storm that slumbered till the host of this part of the mountain-side, though scarred, and seamed, and Of blood-stained Pharaoh left their trembling coast; chasmed, was yet accessible; and more than one person in the parish Then bade the deep in wild commotion flow, had reached the bottom of the Glead's Cliff. Many were now attempting And heaved an ocean on their march below ? it; and ere the cautious mother had followed her dumb guides a hundred yards, though among dangers that, although enough to terrify the Departed spirits of the mighty dead! stoutest heart, were traversed by her without a shudder, the head of

Ye that at Marathon and Leuctra bleä! one man appearod, and then the head of another; and sho knew that

Friends of tho world! restore your swords to man, God had delivered her and her child in safety into the care of their Fight in his sacred cause, and lead the van! fellow-creatures.

Yet for Sarmatia's tears of blood atone, Not a word was spoken-eyes said enough ; she hushed her friends And make her arm as puissant as your own! with her hands, and with uplifted eyes, pointed to the guides sent to

Oh! once again to freedom's cause return her by heaven. Small green plats, where those creatures nibble the The patriot Tell, the Bruco of Bannockburu ! wild flowers, became now more frequent; trodden lines, almost as easy as sheep-paths, showed that the dam had not led her young into Yes, thy proud lords, unpitied land! shall see danger; and now the brushwood dwindled away into straggling shrubs,

That man hath yet a soul, and dare be free! and the party stood on a little eminence above the stream, and form. A little while, along thy saddening plains, ing part of the strath.

The starless night of Desolation reigns; There had been trouble and agitation, much sobbing, and many

Truth shall restore the light by Nature given, tears, among the multitude, while the mother was scaling the cliffs :

And, like Prometheus, bring the fire of Heaven ! sublime was the shout that echoed afar the moment she reached

Prono to the dust Oppressiou shall be hurled, the eyrie; then had succeeded a silence deep as death. In a little

Her name, her nature, withered from the world. while arose the hymning prayer, succeeded by mute supplication ;

Thomas Campbell. the wildness of thankful and congratulatory joy had next its sway;

XVIII. EDMUND BURKE. and now that her salvation was sure, the great crowd rustled like the wind-swept wood. And for whose sake was all this alterna

A SAGACIOUS critic has advanced the opinion, that the merit of Burke tion of agony ? A poor humble creature, unknown to many even by

was almost wholly literary; but I confess I see little ground for this name-one who had but few friends, nor wished for more, contented assertion, if literary excellence is here understood in any other sense, to work all day-here, there, anywhere-that she might be able to

than as an immediate result of the higliest intellectual and moral support her aged mother and her little child ; and who on Sabbath

endowments. Such compositions as the writings of Burke suppose, took her seat in an obscure pew, set apart for paupers, in the kirk.

no doubt, the fine taste, the command of language, and the finished Professor Wilson.

education, which are all supposed by every description of literary XVII. THE DOWNFALL OF POLAND.

success. But in the present state of society, these qualities are far

from being uncommon; and are possessed by thousands, who make O sacred Truth! thy triumph ceased awhile,

no pretensions to the eminence of Burke, in the same degree in which And Hope, thy sister, ceased with thee to smile,

they were by him. Such a writer as Cumberland, for example, who When leagued Oppression poured to Northern wars

stands infinitely below Burke in the scale of intellect, may yet be reHer whiskered pandours and her fierce hussars,

garded as his equal or superior in purely literary accomplishments Wared her dread standard to the breeze of morn,

taken in this exclusive sense. Pealed her loud drum, and twanged her trumpet horn;

The style of Burke is undoubtedly one of the most splendid forms Tumultuous horror brooded o'er her van,

in which the English language has ever been exhibited. It displays Presaging wrath to Poland, -and to man!

the happy and difficult union of all the richness and magnificence that Warsaw's last champion from her height surveyed,

good taste admits, with a perfectly easy construction. In Burke we Wide o'er the fields a waste of ruin laid :

see the manly movement of a well-bred gentleman; in Johnson, an O Heaven! he cried, my bleeding country save!

equally profound and vigorous thinker, the measured march of a Is there no hand on high to shield the brave?

grenadier. We forgive the great moralist his stiff and cumbrous Yet, though destruction sweep these lovely plains,

phrases, in return for the rich stores of thought and poetry which Rise, fellow-men! our country yet remains !

they conceal; but wo admire in Burke, as in a fine antique statue, the By that dread name, we wave the sword on high!

grace with which the large flowing robe adapts itself to the majestic And swear for her to live 1-with her to die!

dignity of the person.

But with all his literary excellence, the peculiar merits of this great He said, and on the rampart-heights arrayed

man were, perhaps, the faculty of profound and philosophical thought, His trusty warriors, few, but undismayed;

and the moral courage which led him to disregard personal incon. Firm-paced and slow, a horrid front they form,

venience in the expression of his sentiment. Deep thought is the Still as the breeze, but dreadful as the storm :

informing soul, that everywhere sustains and inspires the imposing Low murmuring sounds along their banners fly,

grandeur of his eloquence. Even in the Essay on the Sublime and Revenge, or death,"—the watchword and reply;

Beautiful, the only work of pure literature which he attempted-that Then pealed the notes omnipotent to charm,

is, the only one which was not an immediate expression of his views And the loud tocsin told their last alarm!

on public affairs-there is still the same richness of thought, the same In vain, alas ! in vain, ye gallant few,

basis of “divine philosophy," to support the harmonious superstrucFrom rank to rank your volleyed thunder flew :

ture of the language. And the moral courage which formed so reOh! bloodiest picture in the book of Time,

markablo a feature in his character, contributed not less essentially to Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime ;

his literary success. Found not a generous friend, a pitying foe,

It seems to be a law of nature, that the highest degree of eloquence Strength in her arms, nor mercy ju her woe;

demands the union of the poblest qualities of character, as well as Dropped from her nerveless grasp the shattered spear,

intellect. To think, is the highest exercise of the mind; to say what Closed her bright eye, and curbed her high career :

you think, the boldest effort of moral courage; and both these things Hope, for a season, bade the world farewell,

are required for a really powerful writer. Eloquence without thoughts And Freedom shrieked-as Kosciusko fell.

is a mere parade of words ; and no man can express with spirit and

vigour any thoughts but his own. This was the secret of the eloquence The sun went down, nor ceased the carnage there;

of Rousseau, which is not without a certain analogy in its forms to Tumultuous murder shook the midnight air,

that of Burke. The principal of the Jesuits' college one day inquired On Prague's proud arch the fires of ruin glow,

of him by what art he had been able to write co well. I said what I His blood-dyed waters murmuring far below;

thought," replied the unceremonious Genevan; conveying in these few The storm prevails, the rampart yields away,

words the bitterest satire on the system of the Jesuits, and the best Bursts the wild cry of horror and dismay !

explanation of his own.-A. H. Everett, Hark! as the mouldering piles with thunder fall, A thousand shrieks for hopeless mercy call !

In the “ Downfall of Poland," by Thomas Campbell, and the Earth shook,-red meteors flashed along the sky,

spirited word-painting by Professor Wilson of the recovery of And conscious Nature shuddered at the cry!

a child by its mother from an eagle's eyrie, to which even O righteous Heaven! cre Freedom found a grave,

sailor had not dared to climb, the reader will find admirable Why slept the sword, omnipotent to save ?

exercises, in the first-named for his elocutional powers, and in Where was thine arm, O Vengeance ! where thy rod,

the latter for his ability to render a well-described scene even That smote the foes of Sion and of God;

still more graphic by the manner in which he reads it.


Account, Cloth Account, or the account of any other articles

which the Merchant happens to deal. In keeping Books by Double Entry, the various accounts which After the Property Accounts are opened in the Ledger, then are opened in the Ledger correspond, of course, exactly to the follow the Personal Accounts, or the names of those persons nature of the transactions which occur in the business. In with whom a Merchant deals, whether in buying or selling general, however, their object is threefold, as formerly stated Goods, Lending or Borrowing Money, and acting as Agent or in our third Lesson, viz. : The Property Accounts, the Personal otherwise. Lastly, are opened the Profit and Loss Accounta, Accounts, and the Profit and Loss Accounts. In the same or those in which the Loss or Gain by certain transactions ans Lesson rules were given for finding the Debtor and Creditor, at once rendered manifest from their nature ; such as Interest and making the proper entry in every variety of transaction. (including Discount), Charges, Commission, etc. Besides these As a general rule in opening these accounts in the Ledger, it is the general Profit and Loss Account itself is also opened, as a both usual and proper first to open those accounts which are receptacle for a proper statement of all the Losses and Gains in called Property Accounts, such as Stock Account, which repre- business not classified under particular heads, and as a proper sents the capital employed in a Merchant's business; and account for exhibiting at the end of any given period the Private Account, which represents the Merchant himself and actual state of a Merchant's business in respect of his real contains all the moneys abstracted from the business on his Gains and Losses on all the other accounts which have been own personal account, and which, in the old Italian system, opened in the Ledger. used to be entitled Household Expenses.

In posting the entries from the Journal into the Ledger, it is The Property Accounts which follow these are generally Cash plain that whatever the Journal says in any entry, the Ledge Account and Petty Cash Account, the names of which sufficiently must say the same thing, sometimes in the same form, some indicate their nature, and the transactions which must be times in a different form; but in Double Entry, this soms ranged under these heads. Then follow the Accounts of thing must always be said twice, namely, once on the Dr. side of Bills Receivable and Buils Payable; and here it may be useful the Debtor's Account, and once on the Cr. side of the Creditor's to observe that, in order to prevent mistakes, these should be Account. Let as illustrate this principle by some example : put in different folios of the Ledger. Next, may follow Goods First, suppose that the following entry occurred in a Merchant's Accounts of various kinds, such as Cotton Account, Flannel | Journal, and in the following form :

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This Entry, single in the Journal, must be entered twice in the word Dr. clearly points out the Debtor, and the word To the Ledger, viz., once on the Dr. side of Richard Watson's points out the Creditor. These entries in the Ledger would be Account, and once on the Cr. side of Cotton Account; here, as follows :

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These accounts, although brought together here for the sake time, this is so obvious to every one, that we might have spared of illustration, may be in very different parts or folios of the ourselves the trouble of making the remark. In the Journal Ledger. Here also it may be remarked that as To is the word you will see a column placed alongside the Date column; this which points out the Creditor, so By is the word which points is the column for inserting the folio of the Ledger where the out the Debtor. The column alongside the pounds column accounts occur ; and it should be inserted as soon as the entry (which is always denoted by a double stroke) is the column is made in the Ledger ; thus there would be one folio figunt for inserting the number of the page of the Journal from which placed in the Journal, against the name of the Debtor Richard any entry is taken; and this number should always be in. Watson, and another folio figure placed against the name of the serted in its proper column, at the same time that the money Creditor Cotton Account. is inserted in the money columns. As to the importance of Secondly, suppose that an entry similar to the following inserting the date of the entry in its proper column at the same occurred in a Merchant's Journal :

(Page 5.)

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The single entry of these transactions in the Journal will have already seen, the first entry in the Ledger will be to Det occasion the making of four separate entries in the Ledger; and Cash for the whole amount of the sums in this entry, in to get it will only be an example of Double Entry; for, as we following manner :- •

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The second entry in the Ledger will be threefold, that is, it | the whole amount of the sums in this entry, in the following will be to Credit each of the accounts for its respective part of manner :Fol.



(5). 1863

d. March 17 By Cash

5 100 6


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Thus you see from the above examples that the sum of | in whose account they are entered. Thus you will see also £273 17s. 9d., received in Cash from different parties in that these three latter entries on the Cr. side of the Ledger March, is entered once on the Dr. side of Cash Account, and account are but an equivalent to the one entry on the Dr. side that the same sum is entered once on the Cr. side of the different of the same. accounts to which they belong ; but that it is apportioned out Thirdly, we shall only suppose another example of a Journal into the respective sums received from each of the parties entry to be posted into the Ledger, as follows:

(Page 6.)

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This single Entry in the Journal will occasion three separate and John Tillotson, will only be an equivalent for the single entries in the Ledger, as follows; but it is plain that in this Credit entry in the Cash Account ; and thus it is still an case the two Debit entries in the accounts of Hugh Williams | example of Double Entry :

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Here the form of the entry in the Journal, when transferred : Journal there were twenty Drs. to Cash, instead of two as in to the Ledger, is considerably different; yet both forms have the preceding instance, you will see what a vast saving of the same meaning. For whether we say Sundries Dr. to Cash writing, and of liability to error, is effected by using the single

1 Account, as in the Journal; or Cash Account Cr. By Sundries as phrase—By Sundries. We might proceed to give other examples; in the Ledger ; both of these forms of expression have pre- | but we must not anticipate the short system which we shall cisely the same meaning; the former is peculiar to the Journal, begin to lay before our readers in the next lesson. Suffice it the latter is peculiar to the Ledger. Of course the student to say that, as a general rule, for posting, or transferring is supposed to know that Sundries is used instead of the words entries from the Journal to the Ledger, you have only to Debit Several Accounts, and has the same meaning. It is a very | the Debtors for the sums that they owe; and Credit the Creditors convenient business word; but he would be a very stupid for the sums owing to them; and remember, that to Debit learner who should expect to see a Sundries Account in the a Debtor, is to enter on the Dr. side of his account in the Ledger, as there it would have no meaning. Instead of saying Ledger, the name of his Creditor, with the word To before it, in the Cash Account as above, By Sundries, the Bookkeeper and the sum that the Debtor owes ; and to Credit a Creditor, is to might say By Hugh Williams and By John Tillotson; but this enter on the Cr. siile of his account in the Ledger, the name of would occupy two lines instead of one, and would not be one his Debtor, with the word By before it, and the sum that is whit clearer in meaning. Besides, if in one entry in the owing to him, the Creditor,



it has been already remarked that by the adoption of Dr. , araatus sum, I have been loved; amatus sim, I may have been and Cr. columns in the Journal (which forms the peculiarity of loved ; amatus eram, I had been loved, etc. The participlo Jones's system of Book-keeping), a constant check is kept amatus, of course, undergoes the variation of declension, 80 as upon the accuracy of the entries, not only in that Book, but to agree with the pronoun or noun connected with it; thus, if also of the corresponding entries in the Ledger ; inasmuch as the noun is plural and feminine, amatus becomes amats; if the total sums in the Dr, and Cr. columns of both books for necuec and singular, amatum; and so on. any given period ought perfoctly to agree; that is, not only The inf. fut. pass. is formed by the aid of the passivo infini. ought the sum of the Dr. columns in the Journal to agree with tive of eo, I go, as amatum iri, to go to be loved, that is, to be the cum of the Cr. columns for any given period ; but the sum about to be loved. of the Dr. columns of the Leger ought to agree with the sum of the Dr. columns of the Journal, and tho sum of the Cr. MOODS, TENSES, ETC., OF A REGULAR: VERB OF THE FIES

CONJUGATION, PASSIVE VOICE. columns of the Ledger ought to agree with the sum of the Cr. columns of the Journal, and that for the same given period. In addition to this (which constitutes part of our improve

Indicative, Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinilive. Participis

Amer. ment of the said system), the plan of check on the accuracy of Sing, Amor,

Amāris, Amiris,

Amare or amátor. Amari. all the books will be rendered complete, if, to the amount of

Amatur. Amitur,

Amātor. the net sums of the Day Book entries for any given period, be

Plu, Amāmur. Amemur.

[aminor. added tho amount of the sums entered in the Bills Receivable

Amamini, Amēmini. Amamini or am.
Book, in the Bills Payable Book, in both sides of the Cash Book, Amantur. Amentur, Amantor.
and in any other book from which entries are taken into the
Journal; for then the sum of the whole amounts or totals of

Sing. Amübar. Amarer. the sums entered in these books ought exactly to agree with Amăbaris. Amareris. the sum of the Dr. Or Cr. columns of the Journal or of the Amabatur. Amaretur. Ledger, for the period in question. Such a mode of check Plu. Amabā mur. Amarimur. will at all events furnish a clear and satisfactory proof that Amabamini. Amarimini. no error with regard to the entering of sums has been com

Amabantur, Amarentur. mitted, either in Journalising the subsidiary Books, or in posting

FIRST FUTURE TENSE, the entries into the Ledger.

Sing. Amābor.

Amatun Amandus Amábèris,


Plu. Amabimur.



EXAMPLE.-Amor, 1, I am loved.

Sing. Amatus sum, Amatus sim.

Amatus es. Amatus sis.

Chief Parts : Amor, amātus sum, amari.

Amatus cst. Amatus sit,
Characteristic letter, A long.

Plu. Amati sumus. Amati simus.

Amati estis. Amati sitis.

Amati sunt. Amati sint.
Ind. Pres. Sub. Pres.

Ind. Imp.
Sub. Imp.

Latin, Amor, Amer,

Amábar, Amārer,
English. I am loved. I

be loved. I was loved. I might be loved. Sing. Amatus eram. Amatus essem.

Amatus eras. Amatus esses.
1 Fu.

Amatus erat. Amatus esset.

Plu, Amati erūmus.Amati essemus.
English. I shall be loved.

Amati erātis. Amati essetis.
2 Fut.

Ind. Perf.
Sub. Perf.

Amati erant. Amuti essent.
Amatus ero,

Amatus sum,
Amatus sim,

English. I shall have been loved. I have beon loved. I may have been loved,

Sing. Amatus ero.
Ind. Plur.

Sub. Plup.

Inf. Pres.

Amatus eris. Latin. Amatus eram,

Amatus essem,


Amatus erit.
English. I had been loved, I might luave been loved. to be loved. Plu. Amati erymus.
Inf. Perf.

Amati eritis.
Amatum esse,

Amati erunt.
English. to have been loved.

INSTANCES.–Form according to these examples the following
Inf. Fut.

Imp. Past Part. Fut. Part. in-dus. verbs; namely, honoro, 1, I honour; corono, 1, I croun; Latin. Amatum iri, Amare, Amatus, Amandus, judico, 1, I judje. English. to be about to be loved. be thou loved, loved. ought to be loved.

VOCABULARY. After what has been said, the corresponding English and Æquus, -a, -um, equal, | Emendo, 1, I amond, Pax, pacis, f., pazce, Latin signs will easily be deduced by the student; thus-of the just.


Piger, -gra, -grum, ide, present, the Latin sign is or, the English be loved; in tho sub. Castigo, 1, I chastise, Exoro, 1, I entrcat, ob- lazy. imp. the Latin sign is rer, the English might be.


tain by entreaty.

Recupero, 1, I regois, Compare together the forms in the active voice and the Caveo, 2, I avoid (E. R. Flagitium, i, n., forms in the passive voice, and carefully notice how they differ, Congrego, 1, 1 collect Judex, judicis, m., a Spero, 1, I hope.


shameful decd.

Sancte, ads., holly, and how the one may be changed into the other—that is, the

gather together judge.

Splendor, üris, active into the passivo, and the passive into tho active.

(E. R. congregation, Morbus, -i, sickness, spilendour,

brielle Romark that the English I am loved, he is loved, etc., denotes from grex, gregis, a disease.

shining. a present act, equivalent to this, they or you love me, they are jlock).

Munus, -eris, retard, Studium, ., 11., doo loving me, loving mo now; such is the force of amor with its Contamino, 1, I dejile, present,

sire, effort (ER several persons. It is thus contrasted with amatus sum, which,


Duto,1, I change (E. R. study).

if translated literally, would seem to moan, I am loved, but Crucio, 1, I crucify, I
which is a past tenso and signifies I have been loved. Mark

torturo (Latin, crux, Obscuro, 1, I darken jure,
crucis, a cross).

(E. R, obscure).
carefully that amatus sum (es, est, etc.) is a past tense; learners
aro apt to construo it as a present tenso. The Latin verb has,

EXERCISE 79,-LATIN-ENGLISH. in strict speech, no perfect tense of the passive voice, though it 1. Ego laudabar, tu vituperabāre. 2. Urbs oppugnabatur. 3. EX can express a perfect passivo act. That expression it effects by laudabor, tu vituperaběre. 4. Urbs oppugnabitur. 5. Quum urbs a periphrasis (a Greck word equivalent to the Latin circum- ab hostibus oppugnabatur, omnium civiuin animi ingenti timore det location, or roundabout way of speaking); thus it uses the passivo participle, and parts of the verb esse, to bc: for instance, * Another form of vituperabūris. + Another form for vituperabëris


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Violo, I, I Sin in

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pabantur, 6. Cives vehementer ab hostibns vexati sunt. 7. Quum the movement you impart to the other. As to which of the two pugna erat atrocissima, sol nubibus obscurabatur. 8. Malefici post ways shall be adopted, the player must be guided by his own mortem justis pænis castigabantur. , 9. Urbs ab hostibus oppugnata position in the game at that particular stage of it at which he est. 10. Omnium civium animi ingenti terrore occupati sunt. 11.

has arrived ; for, unless he keep this in view, roquet and the Si literas diligenter tractaverimus, a parentibus pulchris muneribus donabimur. 12. Quum urbs ab hostibus expugnata erat, omnes cives consequent croquet may be a hindrance to him in his play inacerbissimo dolore cruciabantur. 13. Si lrběri vestri bene a vobis stead of an advantage. educati sunt laudabimini. 14. Industrius discipulus laudător, piger

When a player has completed the circuit of the hoops, and vituperator. 15. Leges divinæ ab hominibus sancte observantor. I before he finishes his game by striking the starting or winning 16. Exoramini, O mi parentes ! 17. O mi puer, delectare literarum post with his ball, he is allowed to become a rover, and may studio! 18. Exorare, O judex! 19. Milites certa die in urbem con- go to any part of the ground, roqueting the balis either of gregantor. 20. Cives ne flagitiis contaminantor. 21. Melior est certa friends or of foes, and taking the croquet after each roquet is pax quam sperata victoria. 22. Terra mutata non mutat mores.

23. made. In this way he may greatly promote the winning of Dolor patienter toleratus minus acerbus est. 24. Bonus vir laudandus the game for his own side ; but he is liable to be roqueted by est. 25. Boni parentes curant ut liberorum mores emendentur. 26. Curn ut in omni re conscientia recta servetur. 27. Tu a me amaris ut any of the other balls, and if either of these should drive his ego a to redâmer. 28. Heri ambulabam ut tristis animus exhilararetur.

own against the starting peg, he is no longer in play, and his 29. Milites nostri acerrimo pugnabant ut urbs ab interitu servaretur.

ball must be removed from the ground. So long as he remains 30. Vide ne a præceptoribus vituperére. S1. Bonus civis cavet ne in, he may croquet all the balls in succession, provided he leges a so violcntur. 32. Non dubito quin amicus meus morbo liberatus makes a roquet from each; but he must not roquet the same sit. 33. Nemo dubitabat quin pax recuperata esset. 34. Nescio qua ball twice running. re pax turbata sit.

Having now sufficiently explained the game, we will give a EXERCISE 80.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

few hints towards the acquirement of dexterity in playing it. 1. Peace has been regained. 2. Peace will be regained. 3. Peace First, as to the attitude and manner of striking tho ball. The was regained. 4. I do not doubt that they are about to regain peace. mallet may be held either in one hand or by both. If by one 5. Peace has been disturbed. 6. Has peace been disturbed ? 7. Has hand, the precision of the stroke requires that the mallet should not (nonne) peace been disturbed ? 8. Peace will be disturbed. 9. be grasped lower down the handle than in the other case, and Peace ought not to (must not) be disturbed. 10. I shall be praised,

a more stooping attitude is, in consequence, unavoidable. Many he will be blamed. 11. He must be blamed. 12. He has been blamed. good players use one hand only; but it is entirely a matter 13. The city has not been captured. 14. O father, be entreated (over of habit, and, in order to secure a firm grasp of the mallet, come by entreaty) by your suppliant daughter! 15. The mother was overcome by entreaty. 16. The sun is obscured by a cloud. 17. Yes.

with a steady aim at the ball, as well as to observe that erectterday the sun was obscured by clouds. 18. Dear son, thy mind is

ness of posture which it is desirable to cultivate in all field occupied by terror, 19. My mind was occupied with grief. 20. The sports, we recommend the learner to employ both hands in his minds of all the citizens will be occupied with fear and sorrow. 21. play. The attitude shown in Fig. 3 will be his best model. Young men, be not contaminated with vice. 22. I love thee that I may In taking the stroke, you should stand sideways to the ball, be loved again by thee. 23. The father must be loved. 24. The bad

as shown in this figure. Some players face the ball, and strike boy must be chastised. 25. Let the laws of the stato be conscientiously from between the legs with a scooping kind of stroke; but observed by all citizens. 26. The laws of God are observed by holy this cannot be recommended either on the ground of elegance men, 27. Have the precepts of virtue been observed by the young men (adolescens, -tis) of the city ?

or of accuracy of aim. Standing sideways, it will greatly conduce to the travelling of the ball in the proper direction, if the

shoulders are in a straight line with tho hoop through which OUR HOLIDAY.

the ball is to be driven. The body should be kept quite steady,

while the stroke is made by a free movement of the arms alone. CROQUET.-II.

Easy as it may seem to the uninitiated to strike a croquet ball We have explained in the previous paper that the whole object through a hoop placed only a few feet off, all who have attempted of the game of Croquet consists in impelling the ball with the to play the game know that it is harder than it appears. It is mallet through the successive hoops, in their proper order ; and a laughable, although not an unfrequent, spectacle to see a toothe player or players who first accomplish this feat win tho sanguine norice failing in repeated attempts to pass the very game. Every hoop passed is a point made towards game; and first hoop on the ground, while his dexterous rivals are travelling the striking of the pegs or posts at the top and bottom of the freely over it; and the advice just given should be remembered ground also count as points.

by those who would wish to avoid figuring in this predicament. But, besides this simple circuit of the ground, other passages Next, it must be remarked that more than one kind of stroke arise in the play, which require more detailed comment. The should be practised by any one who would become a tolerably chief of these, and one which adds very greatly to the interest skilful player. There is first the plain stroke, in which your own of the game, is the power at any period after passing the first ball is simply hit in its centre by the full stroke of the mallet. hoop to strike another ball with your own. This is termed & But besides this, there are many others known to players of roquet (pronounced ro'-kay). You may roquet either a friend's the game, the best of whom can make the ball travel in a way ball—that is, your partner's, if you are playing in sides—or an which sometimes appears marvellous to the inexperienced. When opponent's; and having done so, you have the privilege of three balls, for instance, are in a straight line, and the first has taking a croquet from it. In taking the croquet, yon place your to strike the third without hitting the intermediate one, the own ball close to that which you have just struck, lifting it from feat would seem to most coplo impossible; and yet this is the ground for that purpose; and then, the two balls being in occasionally dono by what is called a "leap-frog” stroke, the contact, you strike your own, so that the other is driven by the player's ball being hit sharply on the top and downward, when concussion in any direction you may desire. Thus, if you have it rises and jumps over tho second ball, rolling to that beyond roqueted a friend's ball, your proper play is to croquet it in it. We have not space, nor is it necessary here, to enter upon such a way that he is assisted towards his next hoop, or in what these refinements of the game, but we will describe one or two ever direction he may be wishing to go; while, if it is an an- of the simpler strokes which it is well to practiso. The stopping tagonist's ball that you have roqueted, you strive in taking the stroke is made, when you aro about to drive your own ball croquet to drive him away from his proper line of play, and by against another, by hitting it full and sharply, and drawing back 80 doing you may perhaps destroy his chanco for the remainder the head of your mallet the moment you have struck. By this of the game.

means your own ball expends ncarly all its force in striking the There are two ways of taking the croquet, either of which other, and remains almost stationary afterwards. The followmay be adopted at the option of the player. The ono is called ing stroke has just the contrary result. It is mado when you “ tight," and the other “ loose croquet.” In making a tight desire your ball to follow in the same line with that which you croquet, you place your foot upon your own ball, so that when it croquct, and is effected by bringing the mallet steadily down on is struck it remains in the same place, although the other is the ball, and raising the mallet upward towards the left shoulder driven away from it by the effect of the blow. The attitude of as you strike. But a mere pushing or “spooning” stas!:e is the player in making a tight croquet is shown in our illustration not allowed in the game. The ball must in all cases be frirly (Fig. 4). In “loose” croquet, you strike your own ball without hit, so that a tap may be heard. the foot on it, and then it of course partakes more or less of A little practice with two balls placed rather near each

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