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RÉSUMÉ OP EXAMPLES.

now jumping upon his good horse. 18. The man sits at the table,

and the book lies upon the table. 19. I have no hat on my head. 20. Wer das Gute liebt, der liebt auch He that loves goodness, also Where is the soldier going ? 21. The soldiers are going to the field ;

Gott und verach'tet Alles, was loves God, and contemns all they are already on the field. 22. The frog leaps into the river and ihn nicht zur Vollfom'menbeit that does not advance him swims in the river, and the goose swims in the pond. 23. I have read befördert.

towards perfection.

these words somewhere. 24. I can find my cap nowhere, although it Was quälen Sie mich mit Ihrer Why do you torment me with must be somewhere in this room. Gelehr'samfeit? (Gellert.) your erudition ?

EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 245). Der Mensch glaubt leicht, was er Man easily believes what he hofft, und ficht leicht, was er sehen hopes, and sees easily what

1. Wo ist die Biltergallerie dieser Stadt ? 2. Wo war dieser Sett will.

he wishes to see.

geboren? 3. Er war in Böhmen geboren. 4 Wo wohnt Ihr Freund, Das große Haus, welches (not was) The large house, that you see

ter Schauspieler ? 5. Er wohnt in der Stadt. 6. Wo gehen diese Aus. Sic dort sehen, ist (Sect. LVIII. yonder, belongs to us.

wanterer bin? 7. Wober kommen diese Ginwanderer? 8. Sie fommen 1) unser.

von Frankreich. 9. Wo viel gegeben ist, wird viel verlangt. 10. Hit Gi'nige meiner Freunde sind aus Some of my friends are natives bringt nicht die Nache und der geweßte Dold eines Verråthers ;-unter der Dredden gebür'tig.

of Dresden.

Scatten dieses Baumes fommt kein König. 11. Er warf das Buch por Dieser Mann ist ein geborʻner Ame. This man is a native Ameri- mir nieder. 12. Wohin gehst du? 13. 3d gebe zu meinem Schwager.

14. Werden diese Ausranterer nach Amerifa geben ? 15. Nein, fie retten rifa'ner.

hier bleiben. 16. Da (or es) ift Wasser im Teide. 17. Woher fornmt fic? EXERCISE 132.

18. Sie fommt von Deutiqland. 1. Wer fich taš Gottliche will und das Höchste im Leben erfechten,

EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I., page 245). theue nicht Arbeit und Kampf (Körner). 2. Wer genrinnen will, mus wagen.

1. The soldiers are here, and the commander-in-chief is coming

4. 3. Dieses Puch ist mir lieb; wer es ftiehlt, der ist ein Dieb.

hither also. 2. The enemy is already there, and our brave brothers Wer nichts lieben will, alø sein Ebenbild, hat außer sich nichts zu lieben

must proceed thither. 3. When are you going to Spain? 4. I do not 5. Wer zweifelt, verzweifelt. 6. Wer gegen sein Vaterland streitet, ist

mean to go there at all, but my father will travel thither next week. ein Verråther. 7. Wer sich in Gefahr begiebt, fommt tarin um. 8. Wer 5. Have you been there already ? 6. No, but one of my acquaintances tem Untertrūdten nicht beisteht, verdient aus feinen Beistand. 9. Wer was there, and will never go there again. 7. We are going upon the sich gegen das Schidfal stemmen will, ist ein Narr. 10. Sind Sie ein mountain ; will you go with us ? 8. Does the Russian mean to send his geborner Engländer over Amerifaner ? 11. Ich bin feind von beiden servant to the town? 9. He has already sent him thither. 10. WNI (Sect. XXXII. 2), ich bin ein geborner Deutscher. 12. Wer ist Ihre the troops come hither ? 11. They will not come hither. 12. Where Freundin? 13. Sie ist eine Amerikanerin, gebürtig aus New-York. 14.

do these strangers come from? 13. They are immigrants, and cota

from Bohemia. 14. Is this ship from Bremen or Havre ? 15. It is Woher ist Ihr Freund gebürtig? 15. Gr ist aus Gngland gebürtig. 16.

neither from Bremen nor from Havre, it is from Venice, 16. Are In welchem lande wurden Sie geboren ? 17. Ich bin in ten Vereinigten these French immigrants going to Milwankee? 17. A part of them Staaten von Norbainerifa geboren 18. Ich mache mich über diesen Mann

are going there, the others remain in New York. 18. The immigrants lustig. 19. Sie sollten sich nicht über ihn luftig machen. 20. Er macht to America are emigrants from Europe, and from other parts of the fich über Zebermann lustig. 21. Go giebt auch Narren, welche sich über Old World. 19. When do you mean to go into the field ? 20. I have Andere lustig machen 22. Dieser Mensch halt sich über jede Kleinigkeit been already in the field, and cannot go there again; but I must dos auf (Sect. XXX.). 23. Es ist unklug, sich über eine unbedeutende Sache soon go into the garden, because my teacher is there and wishes to see

21. Why will this Italian not speak English ? 22. He world aufzuhalten oder lustig zu machen. 24. Wer zu viel anfängt, vollendet wenig. 25. Ich freue mich über meinen artigen Neffen 26. Der römische like to speak it, but he does not know it yet; he speaks only Italica Raiser Augustus war in Verzweiflung über die Niederlage, welche Varus only two, but I mean to learn others besides.

and Spanish. 23. How many languages can you speak? 24. I speak von den Deutschen erlitten hatte. 27. Er Dat mit mir aber diesen Gegens ftand gesprochen. 28. Wer aus liebe zu Gott der Menschheit Pflichten

EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 245). entsagt-sigt im Finstern, und hält immer den Spiegel vor fich.

1. Wann lebte er ? 2. Gr lebte im vierzehnten Jahrhundert. 3. EXERCISE 133.

Mein Freund sagte mir, er würde nie wieder dahin gehen. 4. Gehen Sie

nach Spanien ? 5. Nein, id werte nicht dahin gehen. 6. Der Bettere 1. He who assists the poor will receive divine assistance. 2.

hat seine Truppen tahin geschidt, wo die größte Gefahr war. 7. Sit birce He who would have entrance everywhere, must have golden Schiff von Spanien oder von Havre ? 8. Nein, et ist weder von Spaniri, koys. 3. He who fights for his country deserves distinction. noch von Havre ; es kommt von Hamburg. 9. Diese Einwanderer getea 4. Ho who wishes to learn German, must give himself some

nach Milwaufee, und sind Auswanderer von Böhmen und Venetig. 10. trouble. 5. He who dies for his king, dies with glory. 6. Ho

Können Sie über jenes Thor springen? 11. Ich fonnte et, als ich jung who commits high treason, dies mostly upon the scaffold. 7.

12. Er bat mich, dahin zu gehen, tamit er mit mir tarüber irrecta They are born under a happy star. 8. In which country were finne. those ladies born ? 9. They were born in Italy, in the year

EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 246). 1795, but their mother was born in England. 10. Are these ladies natives of Germany? 11. No, they are natives of France.

1. Have you seen my friend ? 2. Yes, he has gone down the street

3. Will you go into the cabin ? 12. Our music-master is a native of Italy, and was born in

4. No, I am going down below deck,

5. Are you going over to Mainz to-day by the steamboat? 6. YG Florence. 13. I will do what I have promised. 14. Show me

and this evening I shall come over by the railroad over the new bridge what you have found. 15. What enhances the glory of this of boats. 7. Our course is up and down. 8. The roe leapt dow hero, is his modesty. 16. Let us grant him what we at first while the hare ran up the hill. 9. The soldiers spring out of refused. 17. Thou hast never told us what they have trusted the barracks, as the enemy rushed into the town. 10. As the watchyou with. 18. Why do you make yourself merry at the misery man stepped into the house, the terrified thief hastened down-stein of the oppressed ? 19. The fruits which we saw in the garden 11. I cannot get out of the crossways of this garden. 12. Do you most of our neighbour were not so good as those which grew in

know how this bird got in? 13. Yes, but he does not know where we

can get out again. 14. The young Swiss looked towards the Hoe yours.

mountains of his native country. 15. Are you not coming down to

day? 16. Yes, if my uncle comes up, I shall go down. 17. Have you KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. seen this man already? 18. Yes, he entered the door as I went ont

19. The friend went over the river and back again in one hour. 29 EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 245).

The stream falls down the rock with great roaring. 1. Where is the brother-in-law ? 2. He is at the table. 3. Where is the confectioner going? 4. He is going into the bakehouse. 5.

EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 246). Where is his friend, the actor ? 6. He is at the opera-house. 7. 1. Der Sohn eilte hinunter, seinen Vater zu empfangen. 2. Sest Where is his friend, the ropemaker, going? 8. He is going into his Rede dauerte über zwei Stunden. 3. Da8 Reh sprang aus feinet Set. workshop. 9. Where is the shepherd ? 10. He is on the mountain,

ftede hervor. 4. Werten Sie heute mit dem Damrfboote nad frana 11. Where is the shepherd going? 12. He is going on the mountain. 13. Where is our old neighbour going? 14. He is now in the little hinübergehen? 5. Nein, ich werde mit der Eisenbahn hinübergeben

. garden, but he is going into the large garden soon. 15. His wife is in

mit dem Dampfboote zurüdfommen. 6. Gehen Sie nicht über den Stre this house, but his cousin is going into that picture gallery. 16. I weg hinaus. 7. Ich fah Ihren Freund þercintommen, als hr Chee stand at the window, and you are coming to the window. 17. The hinausging. 8. Diese Leute, welche über jene Brücke gehen. find in the kright already sits upon his good boree, and the serrant also is just ihres Lebens. 9. Werden Sie heute mit Ihrem Freunde Hinantgeben

war.

go, but

no oxen.

10. Von diesem Sügel können wir nach unserm Vaterlande hinübersehen. officer's courage is called in question; and it is a matter of 11. Wie ist der Dieb in Ihr Haus gefoin men ? 12 Guard stürzte Fich satisfaction that in this case of Admiral Byng the personal von dem Felsen hinab. 13. Ich werde diesen Morgen an Ihrem Hause courage of the accused was admitted to be unsullied. But the vorbeikommen, und werde hineinkommen, ohne daß Sie mich bitten, solches zu way in which he had conducted himself in the Mediterranean, thun.

when not his own honour only, but that of the kingdom also, EXERCISE 50 (Vol. I., page 259).

was entrusted to his keeping, was said to have been such as

greatly to tarnish the national glory. What that conduct was, 1. Will the aged soldier go to-day in the forest ? 2. He will

and the result of it to the man most concerned, will be shown he cannot to-day, because he has much to do. 3. The man servant is gone into the market to fetch meat. 4. To remain healthy, one must

in this sketch. live orderly and temperately. 5. The woodcutter has gone into the

In 1755 war, which had for a long time threatened, broke out forest to cut wood. 6. The butcher goes from one village to the other between England and France and Spain. Various indecisive to buy oxen, 7. He goes from one village to the other, but can find actious had been fought between the ships of the several

8. What does he want with the oxen ? 9. He means to kill countries, and a few collisions took place between detached them; we must indeed have meat. 10. The peasant has two horses, bodies of troops ; but there were not any operations on a large which the brewer wishes to buy. 11. I go to the city to buy a hat or

scale till in the early part of 1756 the French determined on a cap. 12. He has books to read, and an exercise to write. 13. Where reducing the island of Minorca, which was held by General does your brother's friend wish to go? 14. He wishes to go nowhere, he wishes to remain with his uncle. 15. Will you go upon the high Blakeney for the British. All the previous winter they had mountain ? 16. I shall go there, but not to-day. 17. Can you go to been secretly preparing for the enterprise, though they had morrow into the country ? 18. I can go there, but I will not.

19. skilfully concealed the aim and objects of it. Indeed, until When does your father want his horses back again? 20. He must have February, 1756, the British Ministers were not aware that the them to-morrow morning, because he wishes to drive to-morrow even expedition was meant for any place in the Mediterranean, but ing to Frankfort. 21. Why will he not ride there? 22. Because he fancied that the British possessions in North America were has no good saddle-horse, and the weather is very cold.

the destination. Convinced, however, at this time, of the actual EXERCISE 51 (Vol. I., page 259).

designs of the French, the Government took steps, albeit tardily,

to frustrate them. 1. Es ist heute zu falt für ihn, um nach Frankfurt hinüberzugehen. 2. A squadron of ten ships of the line was fitted out, and the Dort läuft der Hase über den Berg. 3. Da fährt Ihr Bruber. 4. Der command was given, on the 1st of April, to Admiral Byng, with inZuderbåder ist in die Badstube gegangen, um Brod zu baden. 5. Der structions to proceed forthwith to Gibraltar, and to inquire there Meßger geht auf den Markt, um Schafe zu kaufen. 6. Ihr Kutscher þat whether the French fleet from Toulon had passed the strait. mich schnell hierher gefahren. 7. Sehen Sie jenen Mann auf dem Pferde, If they had, he was to detach Admiral West, his second in welches wir gestern jaben? 8. Die Soidaten reiten auf schönen Pferden. command, with a portion of the feet, to North America, where 9. Man sagt, in diesen Kutschen fährt man bequem. 10. Wir sind in it was still supposed a blow would be struck. If they had not, Ihrem Wagen gefahren, um unseré Visiten abzustatten. 11. übertritt he was “ to go on without a moment's loss of time to Minorca.“ nicht das Gefeß. 12. Dað neue Dampfboot fährt heute zum ersten Male Failing to meet the enemy's fleet there, he was to go to Toulon,. den Fluß hinunter.

and blockade it in that port. He was also to use his utmost, EXERCISE 52 (Vol. I., page 260).

diligence to protect Minorca and Gibraltar.

As soon as he found what work was marked out for him, 1. This hunter has a fine dog, mine is finer, and yours is the finest of Admiral Byng complained to the Admiralty of the inadequacy all. 2. The earth is smaller than the sun, and the stars are more distant of the force assigned to him. He had not a single frigate for than the moon. 3. Virgil is a more agreeable writer than Ovid. 4. reconnoitring or signalling purposes ; the ships he had were The city of Canton is larger than Paris. 5. Alexander the Great had foul, the crews weak both in number and health ; and thero less prudence than courage. 6. We find much more copper

than

were not any marines on board of them, that valuable arm of silver, and more iron than tin. 7. This girl prattles more than she service having been withdrawn in order to make room for a works, 8. The air in the towns is more impure than the country air. 9. France is not so fertile as Germany. 10. This youth has not as regiment of soldiers he was to take to Minorca, and for another much understanding as his brother, but neither has he as much vanity. he was to pick up at Gibraltar. The only answer he received 11. The rose is one of the finest flowers in the world. 12. Those are from the Admiralty was an order to proceed, and on the 7th of commonly the least proud, whose minds are the most educated. 13. April he put to sea. The manners of those with whom we have intercourse are commonly Owing to the foulness of his ships, on the sides and bottoms influential upon us.

14. The benefits that we are worthy of are more of which weed had so collected as to impair most materially agreeable to us than those we are unworthy of. 15. He is the richest their sailing qualities, the admiral did not reach Gibraltar till man whose children are virtuous. 16. The Lord has no pleasure in those

the 2nd of May, and there he found there were not enough people who have no love to their brothers. 17. The apple-tree has a thick trunk, the beech has a thicker trunk, and the oak has the

stores to replenish his squadron, and that the governor would thickest trunk. 18. The more he has, the more he wants. 19.

not part with the regiment which Byng had been instructed to Florence is finer than Parma.

take from him to Minorca. While lying in Gibraltar Bay, the news reached him that a fortnight before the French admiral,

with a strong fleet, had appeared off Fort Mahon, Minorca, and HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXV.

had landed the Duc de Richelieu, with an army of 16,000 men,

to besiege the place. The governor of Minorca was away ADMIRAL BYNG ON THE 14TH OF MARCH, 1757.

(General Blakeney, eighty-two years of age, was deputy. “EVERY person in the fileet who, through cowardice, negligence, governor), and there were many of the officers of the garrison on or disaffection, shall in time of action withdraw or keep back, leave of absence; the fortress of St. Philip, though very strong, was or not come into the fight or engagement, or shall not do his very ill supplied; and there was not any assistance from Nature, utmost to take or destroy every ship which it shall be his duty to in the shape of rugged cliffs or difficult beaches, to defend the engage

every such person so offending, and being con. place. General Blakeney did his best to prepare for the siege, victed thereof by the sentence of a court-martial, shall suffer with his 3,000 men against 16,000 of the enemy. Under these death." This was the article of war upon which the life and circumstances Admiral Byng's instructions "to go on without honour of Admiral John Byng were given in charge to a naval a moment's loss of time to Minorca" should unquestionably court-martial on the 28th of December, 1756. The trial took have been acted on to the very letter, yet the admiral waited in: place on board the St. George, in Portsmouth harbour, under Gibraltar Bay till the 8th of May, and did not sight Minorca till circumstances of unusual excitement. All England was smart the 19th. ing under a sense of the disgrace which the conduct of the Though the British flag was still flying from the citadel of prisoner had appeared to bring upon it, and there was a uni- Port Mahon, the place was closely invested. The Duc de versal cry for investigation. The populace were deeply imbued Richelieu was pressing the siege with all his power, and M. de with the spirit which actuated all ranks, from the king down. la Galissonière, the French admiral, was cruising off the island wards, and as Admiral Byng was brought to Portsmouth from with a fleet about equal in strength to the British admiral's. Greenwich, under the escort of a strong guard, he was insulted General Blakeney had sunk some vessels at the mouth of the in every town and village he passed through.

harbour to prevent the French fleet getting in, and so succeeded It is, happily, an event of most rare occurrence when a British in relieving himself from the fire of the ship's guns; but by this act he also closed the harbour against succours, at least | popular voice had long exclaimed, determined to let him be until the French fleet should be driven away. To drive it away the scapegoat for the popular fury, There was a cry for was the manifest business of the British admiral, and on the blood, the king, whose one virtue was courage, and who cor morning of the 20th of May, the day after his arrival, Byng gave dially hated the bare appearance of cowardice, being among the signal to bear down and engage the enemy. The number of the most violent in urging the demand. It was resolved to ships was equal on both sides, though the French had twenty- bring the admiral to trial before & court-martial; and there four guns more than the British; but in point of numbers of was, it is to be feared, a strong predetermination to show men, the French exceeded their opponents by nearly 3,000. no mercy in the event of the prisoner being found guilty. Still there was no reason why the battle should not take place, The trial began on the 28th of December, 1756, and lasted and accordingly, in obedience to orders from the commander-in- many days, and then the members of the court came to a resolochief, Admiral West began the action by falling on to the tion that Admiral Byng had not done his utmost to relieve the French ships immediately opposed to his division. Soon after citadel of St. Philip, and that he fell under part of the twelfth two o'clock in the afternoon, by which time West had driven article of the existing articles of war.* As that article preone of the French ships out of line, Byng's division was about scribed death as the only punishment for breach of any of to come into action, when a series of accidents conspirert to the rules laid down therein, and left not any discretionary embarrass the commander, who did not prove himself superior power to the court to moderate the punishment according to to them. The Intrepid, of West's division, had so much of her the circumstances of the case, the court had no choice but to rigging shot away, that she became unmanageable, and drifted pass sentence of death. That sentence was accordingly given, foul of some of the other ships. Byng's line was thrown into and the prisoner was condemned to be shot to death at such confusion, and his own ship, the Ramillies, was obliged, in timo, and on board of such ship as the Lords Commissioners consequence, to bring up.

of the Admiralty should please to direct. It appeared, however, M. de la Galissonière took advantage of the circumstances to upon the evidence of those who had the fullest opportunity discontinue the fight, and Byng believing, as he asserted after- of judging—the evidence of officers and men, who had stood wards, that the French fleet would renew the fight next morning, close to the admiral during the action on the 20th of May-that ordered his ships to lie to, in order to repair the Intrepid, there was no imputation whatever upon his personal courage Captain, and Defiance, which had been so mauled as to incapac or coolness, that he gave his orders easily, and that he made citate them for further service until they had been repaired. no effort to screen himself from the enemy's fire. From Next morning at daybreak, the French fleet not appearing, he other circumstances it also appeared that what had happened called a council of war, and took their opinion as to whether he could not be attributed to personal cowardico or disaffection ; should follow the French fleet and bring it again to action, or and it was only on condition of a unanimous recommendawhether he should leave Minorca to its fate, and go to the pro- tion to mercy, that the minority in the court agreed to find tection of Gibraltar, which might be, though it was not, a verdict of guilty on the charges. The court found specially threatened. For reasons which it is difficult to trace even now, that the admiral was not guilty of cowardice or disaffection, the council was unanimous in recommending that Minorca, and as to the negligence charged, they wrote to the Admiralty which the admiral had been sent out specially to protect, should as follows :-“We cannot help laying the distrosses of our be abandoned, and that Gibraltar should be the admiral's care. minds before your lordships on this occasion, in finding our There seems to have been an idea that, do what they could, the selves under necessity of condemning a man to death, from citadel of St. Philip could not be delivered from the numerous the great severity of the twelfth article of war, part of wlich enemy which was besioging it; and it does not seem to have he falls under, which admits of no mitigation if the crime been considered that if the French fleet conld have been defeated, should be committed by an error in judgment; and therefore, succours might have been thrown into the place, and that the for our own consciences' sake, as well as in justice to the French, blockaded on the sea-sido, would have been placed prisoner, we pray your lordships in the most earnest manner between two fires, and the besiegers turned into the besieged to recommend him to His Majesty's clemency." In an evil hour Admiral Byng acted on the advice of his Nothing could have been stronger than this.

The papers council of war, and gave orders for the fleet to proceed to were forwarded to the king, but without any recommendatioz Gibraltar. On his arrival there, on the 19th of June, he from the Admiralty. Viscount Torrington, the prisoner's found five ships of the line awaiting his orders, having kinsman, petitioned the king for meroy, and several of the been sent out by the Admiralty to counterbalance a reinforce- Cabinet Ministers advised to the same end. The people had ment which it was understood was about to join M. de la grown calmer, and on further reflection deemed that the GovernGalissonière from Toulon. With this unoxpected addition to ment which had sent the admiral away with an insufficient his strength, he resolved to go back to Minorca, find out the force was more to blame than the admiral, and the cry for French feet, and try to execute his original instructions. But Byng's blood was considerably lossened-indeed, it began to he delayed his departure, possibly unavoidably, but the delay be thought by many that the admiral was an ill-used man, was fatal to Port Mahon. Notwithstanding the odds against The king, however, was inexorable; he would not be moved him, which included not only the army of the Duc de Richelieu by petitions, recommendations, or anything else; he consented but the returned French fleet with reinforcements under M, de to refer to the twelve judges the question, whether on techla Galissonière, General Blakeney refused to take the same nical grounds the sentence was legal; and having obtained 20 desperate view of his position as had been taken by Admiral answer in the affirmative, nothing would induce him to spare Byng; and he held out for more than five weeks after the Byng's life. departure of the fleet. Even his enemies, though annoyed by It seems that Byng had, until å day or go before the close his resistance, admired it; and when, towards the end of June, of his trial, entertained the conviction that he would be acquitted. he found no succour coming, and that the garrison were much Conscious of his own innocence, he felt persuaded his jndge straitened for stores and weakened through sickness, he proposed would end by also thinking him innocent, and he expressed to capitulate, the French granted him terms that were honourable considerable surprise when a friend informed him of the sentence to both sides alike. On the 29th of June Minorca was sur. he might expect. Even after his condemnation he seems to rendered to the Duc de Richelieu, and on the 3rd of July, when have believed his life would be spared, and this belief 135 Admiral Byng was thinking of starting from Gibraltar to relieve shared by almost every one else except the king and those who it, he was surprised by the arrival of Admirals Hawke and were bent on screening the Government at the expense of the Saunders to supersede him and Admiral West in the command individual. But a warrant was sent down to Portsmouth of the Mediterranean fleet.

from the Admiralty (Admiral Forbes, one of the commissioners, A distinction was made between the cases of the two admirals refused to sign it), ordering Byng's execution for the 28th of even before they reached England, and when they did arrive, February, and then the terrible earnestness of the prosectAdmiral West was looked upon as the man who, by his con- tion was made manifest. Even then, however, efforts were duct on the 20th of May, had saved the national honour from irredeemable disgrace. He was graciously received, and at

* This article was modified in the time of George III., so as to admur tho request of the king ancther command was given to him.

of a less punishment for negligence, or error in judgment: and Admiral Byng, however, was at once arrested, and the Minis- the present articles of war, an officer, convieted as Admiral Byag ** tors, against whose incapacity and sheer mismanagement the I would be dismissed the service with disgrace,

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made to save him by the exertions of friendly members in ligneous vegetables, frequently climbers or creepers, having their place in Parliament; but the only result of their inter- opposite and stipulate leaves ; flowers complete, usually irro. position was to prolong the admiral's lifo till the 14th of March. gular; calyx monosepalous, quinquepartite, bilabiato, or bipartite;

On that day the boats of the fleet at Spithead were ordered corolla a short tube terminating in a large throat; limb ordie to surround the Monarch, the third-rate in which, since his narily bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation; stamens alternate condemnation, Admiral Byng had remained in custody of the with the divisions of the corolla, rarely five in number, ordi. Admiralty marshal. All captains and certain other officers narily four. were required to witness the deed which was to be done, and The annexed engraving of the Jacaranda mimosifolia, or at noon all things were ready. Shortly before that time, the mimosa-leaved jacaranda, a Brazilian plant (Fig. 19.4), illusprisoner, whose domeanour had been invariably dignified and trates the general aspect and bearing of membors belonging composed, asked the marshal to take charge of a paper he had to this natural order. written, containing comments upon his trial, and on the circum. Individuals of this family belong exclusively to the tropics. stances under which he had acted at Minorca. “ Happy for Many species of Bignoniaceæ furnish useful principles. The me," he wrote, "at this, my last moment, that I know my own wood of some and the flexible branches aro applied by the innocence, and am conscious that no part of my country's mis- American Indians to many useful purposes. The catalpa of fortunes can be owing to me. I heartily wish the shedding of North America (Catalpa syringifolia) and tho catalpa of tho my blood may contribute to the happiness and service of my West Indies (Catalpa longissima) are members of the natural country, but cannot resign my just claim to a faithful discharge order Bignoniaceo. The wood of the former is as hard as oak, of my duty according to the best of my judgment, and the utmost and possesses the good qnality of not becoming subject to the exertion of my ability for His Majesty's honour and my country's attacks of worms. The Bimonia Chica is a climbing plant, service. I am sorry that my endeavours were not attended with which affords a red dye, called chica or carajura, used by the more success, and that the armament under my command proved Indian tribes that live along the banks of the Orinoco for too weak to succeed in an expedition of such moment. Truth staining the handles of their weapons and for painting theit has prevailed over calumny and falsehood, and justice has wiped bodies. off the ignominious stain of my supposed want of personal SECTION L-PEDALIACEÆ, OR PEDALIADS. courage, and the charge of disaffection. My heart acquits me Characteristics. These plants are generally herbaceous, hairy, &f these crimes; but who can be presumptuously sure of his own sometimes viscous; the leaves are simple and without stipules; judgment ? If my crime is an error in judgment, or differing in flowers complete, irregular, axillary ; calyx five-partito; corolla opinion from my judges, and if yet the error in judgment should bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation; stamens didynamous, ina be on their side, God forgive them, as I do; and may the dis- cluded in the tube of the corolla ; ovary furnished at its base tress of their minds, and uneasiness of their consciences, which with a glandular disc, and composed of two or four carpels, formin justice to me they have represented, be relieved and subsided ing by their different degrees of introflexion either two, four, or as my resentment has dono. The Supreme Judge sees all hearts eight colls; placentæ parietal; the ovules are reflexed; style and motives, and to him I must submit the justice of my cause.” simple, terminal ; stigma bilaminated ; fruit dry or fleshy, some

Having delivered this paper, Admiral Byng walked out from times horny at the summit by the desiccation of the carpels. his cabin on to the qnarter-deck, where the marines who were to The species of this natural order are not very numerous, and kill him were already drawn up. He had resolved not to have are dispersed over tropical regions. The Pedalium Murer, an his eyes bandaged; but the entreaties of his friends, who feared Indian plant, diffuses an odour of musk, and when agitated lest his looks should intimidate the soldiers, prevailed, and he with water, causes the latter to becomo viscous like the white suffered a handkerchief to be bound round his brows. In three of egg. The genus Martynia, an example of which, tho Martynia minutes from the time of quitting his cabin, John Byng was proboscidea or proboscis-like Martynia, is given in Fig. 195, placed in his coffin, having fallen instantaneously dead, with furnishes many species, all of which are annuals, bearing flowers five bullets in his body.

like those of the foxglove in general aspect. Thus perished Admiral Byng, whose reputation has been cleared by posterity of the blemish which malice and interested

SECTION LI.-ACANTHACEÆ, OR ACANTHADS. hatred were so busy in casting upon it. His body was not cold

Characteristics : Calyx free ; corolle hypogynous, monopeta. before people began to cry out that he had been murdered, and lous; stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, four the cruel persistency of the king in carrying out the sentence of didynamous or sometimes two; ovary bilocular; capsule death caused Byng to be raised in the popular estimation to a loculicidal and bivalvular; soed dicotyledonous, albuminous ; height of favour he scarcely deserved. The means by which the radicle inferior and centripetal. Government sought to hide their own defects, by the sacrifice of

The Acanthacea aro herbaceous or ligneous plants, with one man, recoiled on their own heads, and the ghost of Byng, branching, knotty articulated stems ; leaves opposite or vertilike that of Banquo, haunted them terrifically at their feasts. cillato, simple, and devoid of stipules ; flowers complete, rarely The sacrifice they offered up did not propitiate the national solitary, each accompanied with a large bract and two bracte. resentment, but whetted it the rather; and those whose incom- oles ; calyx four to five partite, sometimes truncated; corolla petency and mismanagement had brought so many disgraces, ordinarily bilabiate, contorted in æstivation ; ovules curved ; including the loss of Minorca, upon the nation, were driven from style simple, terminal ; stigma ordinarily bifid; embryo usually power. But amid the blaze of glory, which the genius of Pitt ourved; cotyledons large and orbicular. and his friends shed around the latter years of George II.,

The greater number of the Acanthus order are natives of the people did not forget-and it was well they should not forget tropics; but a few, and that one which is the most celebrated,

the disgraceful seal which was put to the former years of are indigenous to Italy, Greece, and other Mediterranean national disgrace, by the execution, on the 14th of March, regions. It is the Acanthus mollis, or soft acanthus, a repre. 1757, of Admiral Byng, on board the Monarch, in Ports- sentation of which is given in Fig. 196. mouth harbour.

The picturesque beauty of the leaves of this species arrested the attention of the painters, sculptors, and architects of anti

quity. The capitals surmounting the columns of the Corinthian LESSONS IN BOTANY.--XXV.

order are formed on the general basis of an acanthus leaf.

Virgil alludes to the beauty of the acanthus leaf in his third SECTION XLIX.—BIGNONIACEÆ, OR BIGNONIADS.

eclogue, in which he makes his shepherd praise two goblets Characteristics.-Calyx free; corolla · hypogynous, monopeta- carved in wood for him by Alcimedon, and the handles of Joas, usually irregular; stamens inserted upon the tabe of the which were ornamented with acanthus leaves :corolla; ovary one, or two, or four celled; fruit capsular,

“ Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, valves two, dissepiment formed from the axile placenta,

Et molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho." seeds usually horizontal and winged; embryo dicotyledonous, straight.

SECTION LII.-SELAGINACEÆ, ON SELAGIDS. The Bignoniaceve derive their name from the genus Bignonia Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopeta. or trumpet-flower, dedicated to the Abbé Bignon, librarian to lous, sub-regular, or one or two lipped ; stamens two or four, Louis XIV., and a great promoter of botany. They are generally inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; achania two; seed

a

inverted, dicotyledonous ; embryo straight, corresponding with

SECTION LIII.-UTRICULARIÆ. the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle superior.

Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetaTho Selaginace, so named after the genus Selago, are lous, irregular; stamens two, inserted upon the tube of the low shrubs, rarely herbs, having alternate or fasciculated corolla; fruit capsular; placenta parietal, free; seeds numerous, leaves, simple and without stipules; their flowers are com- exalbuminous; radiole straight; all aquatic herbs. plete and generally irregular, either disposed in a corymb or The Utriculariæ derive their name from their principal genus a spike; calyx persistent, tubular, or

Utricularia, which is so called from the spathose; corolla with four or five divi

presence of abundant aërial vesicles dig. sions, imbricated in æstivation; the

tributed over the surface of their subanthers are unilocular; the ovary is

aqueous leaves. These atrienli are composed of two uniovulate cells;

rounded in shape and furnished with a ovules pendent, reflexed. Most of the

kind of movable aperture. Whilst the Selaginaceæ inhabit the Cape of Good

plant is young these little bladders are Hope. This family does not possess

filled with mucus a little heavier than marked properties, nevertheless many

water, which, acting as a weight, canse species are odorous. The Hebenstreitia

the plant to descend to the bottom of dentata, cultivated in our gardens, is

the water. As the period of flowering a shrub about two feet high, with

arrives, the utriculi secrete a gas which pinnatifid leaves in the lower, dentated

fills them, makes them specifically leaves in the upper part of the plant.

lighter, and thus, by lessening the spe The flowers have a tubular corolla, one

cific gravity of the leaves, causes them single lip, marked with a roseate purple

to rise to the water's surface. No sooner spot; the flowers are inodorous in the

has the period of flowering terminated, morning, but strong and disagreeable at

than the vesicles begin once more to se mid-day, whilst in the evening they ex

crete the heavy mucous fluid, and the hale a delicious perfume. The Selago

194

leaves again sinking, the plant arrives at spuria has small oblong leaves and

its original situation, and deposits its light-blue flowers. The stem of the

seeds in the subaqueous mud, there to Selago Gillii is flower - bearing and

remain until they germinate and produce branched, having its flowers, which are

young plants. (Fig. 199, 200, 201.) of a pale rose-colour, disposed in the

This family is distributed over the form of a loose spikelet. A repre

entire world, although chiefly found Eentation of

in tropical is this plant is

gions of the old appended in

continents. Fig. 197.

SECT. LIV.The Globu

196

PLANTAGITarie form

NACEÆ, OR genus of

RIBWORTS. the natural order Selagi

Characteris195 They

tics: Calys are shrubs,

free; corolla under

hypogynous, shrubs, or pe

monopetalons; rennial herbs ;

stamens their flowers

serted are alternate,

the corolla o simple, entire,

upon the is devoid of sti.

ceptacle alter. pules; flowers

nate with the complete, irre

petals; OVSIY gular, united

one or two into a capitu

celled, unior

multi-ovulate; convex recep

fruit one of tacle, covered

many seeded; with hair, and

seed dicotyle Burrounded

donous; with an invo

bryo straight lucrum; the

or but alightly anthers

curved in the first bilocular,

asis of a fleshy and in the

albumen; me young flower

dicle inferior. become anilo

The plancular by the 194. MIMOSA-LEAVED JACARANDA (JACARANDA MIMOSIFOLIA). 195. PROBOSCIS-LIKE MARTYNIA (MARTYNIA

tainsare peren confluence of PROBOSCIDEA). 196. SOFT - ACANTHUS (ACANTHUS MOLLIS).

nials, general their cells;

ly herbaceous; ovary anilocular, aniovulate, pendent, reflexed; the caryopsis | leaves sometimes radical, sometimes canline, simple, without is enveloped by the calyx, sharply pointed with the persistent stipules; flowers complete, sometimes monacious, arranged base of the style.

sometimes in the form of a spike, sometimes solitary, or almost The Globulariæ are inhabitants of Southern Europe. The solitary ; calyx monosepalous, persistent, with four divisions, bitter leaves of certain species are employed in medicine. The the divisions almost equal with each other ; corolla tubular Globularia Alypum (Fig. 198) was formerly denominated Frutex or urceolate, its limb four partite, regular or almost regular, terribilis, in consequence of the belief that it was violently persistent; imbricated in æstivation ; stamens four in number. drastic. Its leaves are the “ wild senna” of Germany, and are The ovary is composed of a single carpel, but apparently two frequently used to adulterate the genuine senna.

or four-celled; ovule simple, erect, reflexed.

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