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this act he also closed the harbour against succours, at least popular voice had long exclaimed, determined to let him be until the French fleet should be driven away. To drive it away the scapegoat for the popular fury, There was a cry for was the manifest business of the British admiral, and on the blood, the king, whose one virtue was courage, and who cormorning of the 20th of May, the day after his arrival, Byng gave dially hated the bare appearance of cowardice, being among the signal to bear down and engage the enemy. The number of the most violent in urging the demand. It was resolved to ships was equal on both sides, though the French had twenty- bring the admiral to trial before a court-martial; and there four guns inore than the British; but in point of numbers of was, it is to be feared, a strong predetermination to show men, the French exceeded their opponents by nearly 3,000. no mercy in the event of the prisoner being found guilty. Still there was no reason why the battle should not take place, The trial began on the 28th of December, 1756, and lasted and accordingly, in obedience to orders from the commander-in- many days, and then the members of the court came to a resolachief, Admiral West began the action by falling on to the tion that Admiral Byng had not done his utmost to relieve the French ships immediately opposed to his division. Soon after citadel of St. Philip, and that he fell under part of the twelfth two o'clock in the afternoon, by which time West had driven article of the existing articles of war. As that article preone of the French ships out of line, Byng's division was about soribed death as the only punishment for breach of any of to come into action, when a series of accidents conspired to the rules laid down therein, and left not any discretionary embarrass the commander, who did not prove himself superior power to the court to moderate the punishment according to to them. The Intrepid, of West's division, had so much of her the circumstances of the case, the court had no choice but to rigging shot away, that she became unmanageable, and drifted pass sentence of death. That sentence was accordingly given, foul of some of the other ships. Byng's line was thrown into and the prisoner was condemned to be shot to death at such confusion, and his own ship, the Ramillies, was obliged, in time, and on board of such ship as the Lords Commissioners consequence, to bring up.

of the Admiralty should please to direct. It appeared, however, M. de la Galissonière took advantage of the circumstances to upon the evidence of those who had the fullest opportunity discontinue the fight, and Byng believing, as he asserted after- of judging—the evidence of officers and men, who had stooi wards, that the French floet would renew the fight next morning, close to the admiral during the action on the 20th of Mar—that ordered his ships to lie to, in order to repair the Intrepid, there was no imputation whatever upon his personal courage Captain, and Defiance, which had been so mauled as to incapa- or coolness, that he gave his orders easily, and that he made citate them for further service until they had been repaired. no effort to screen himself from the enemy's fire. From Next morning at daybreak, the French floet not appearing, he other circumstances it also appeared that what had happened called a council of war, and took their opinion as to whether he could not be attributed to personal cowardice or disaffection; should follow the French fleet and bring it again to action, or and it was only, on condition of a unanimous recommendewhether he should leave Minorca to its fate, and go to the pro- tion to mercy, that the minority in the conrt agreed to find tection of Gibraltar, which might be, though it was not, a verdict of guilty on the charges. The court fonnd specially threatened. For reasons which it is difficult to trace even now, that the admiral was not guilty of cowardice or disaffection, the council was unanimous in recommending that Minorca, and as to the negligence charged, they wrote to the Admiralty which the admiral had been sent out specially to protect, should as follows:-“We cannot help laying the distresses of out be abandoned, and that Gibraltar should be the admiral's care. minds before your lordships on this occasion, in finding our There seems to have been an idea that, do what they could, the selves under necessity of condemning a man to death, from citadel of St. Philip could not be delivered from the numerous the great severity of the twelfth article of war, part of wbica enemy which was besieging it; and it does not seem to have he falls under, which admits of no mitigation if the crime been considered that if the French fleet could have been defeated, should be committed by an error in judgment; and therefore, succours might have been thrown into the place, and that the for our own consciences' sake, as well as in justice to the French, blockaded on the sea-sido, would have been placed prisoner, we pray your lordships 'in the most cartiest manner between two fires, and the besiegers turned into the besieged, to recommend him to His Majesty's clemency." In an evil hour Admiral Byng acted on the advice of his Nothing could have been stronger than this. The papers council of war, and gave orders for the fleet to proceed to were forwarded to the king, but without any recommendation Gibraltar, On his arrival there, on the 19th of June, he from the Admiralty, Viscount Torrington, the prisoner's found five ships of the line awaiting his orders, having kinsman, petitioned the king for meroy, and several of the been sent out by the Admiralty to counterbalance a reinforce- Cabinet Ministers advised to the same end. The people bad ment which it was understood was about to join M. de la grown calmer, and on further reflection deemed that the Govan Galissonière from Toulon. With this unexpected addition to ment which had sent the admiral away with an insufficient his strength, he resolved to go back to Minorca, find out the force was more to blame than tho admiral, and the cry for French fleet, and try to execute his original instructions. But Byng's blood was considerably lessened--indeed, it began to he delayed his departure, possibly unavoidably, but the delay be thought by many that the admiral was an ill-used maz was fatal to Port Mahon.

Notwithstanding the odds against The king, however, was inexorable; he would not be moved him, which included not only the army of the Duc de Richelieu by petitions, recommendations, or anything else; he consented but the returned French fleet with reinforcements under M, de to refer to the twelve judges the question, whether on techla Galissonière, General Blakeney refused to take the same nical grounds the sentence was legal; and having obtained an desperate viow of his position as had been take by Admiral answer in the affirmative, nothing would induce him to spare Byng; and he held out for more than five weeks after the Byng's life. departure of the fleet. Even his enemies, though annoyed by It seems that Byng had, until å day or so before the close his resistance, admired it; and when, towards the end of June, of his trial, entertained the conviction that he would be acquittet he found no succour coming, and that the garrison were much Conscious of his own innocence, he felt persuaded his jadges straitened for stores and weakened through sickness, he proposed would end by also thinking him innocent, and he expressed to capitulate, the French granted him terms that were honourable considerable surprise when a friend informed him of the sentence to both sides alike. On the 29th of June Minorca was sur- he might expect. Even after his condemnation he seems to rendered to the Duc de Richelieu, and on the 3rd of July, when have believed his life would be spared, and this belief was Admiral Byng was thinking of starting from Gibraltar to relieve shared by almost every one else except the king and those wito it, he was surprised by the arrival of Admirals Hawke and were bent on screening the Government at the expense of the Saunders to supersede him and Admiral West in the command individual. But a warrant was sent down to Portsmond of the Mediterranean fleet.

from the Admiralty (Admiral Forbes, one of the commissioners, A distinction was made between the cases of the two admirals refused to sign it), ordering Byug's execution for the sth of even before they reached England, and when they did arrive, February, and then the terrible earnestness of the prosecu. Admiral West was looked upon as the man who, by his con- tion was mado manifest. Even then, however, efforts were duct on the 20th of May, had saved the national honour from irredeemable disgrace. He was graciously received, and at • This article was modified in the time of George IIL, SO AS to admit the request of the king another command was given to him.

of a less punishment for negligence, or error in judgment: and to Admiral Byng, however, was at once arrested, and the Minis- the present articles of war, an officer, convieted as Admiral Byng ra ters, against whose incapacity and sheer mismanagement the I would be dismissed the service with disgrace,

made to save him by the exertions of friendly members in ligneous vegetables, frequently climbers or creepers, having their place in Parliament; but the only result of their inter- opposite and stipulate leaves; flowers complete, usually irroposition was to prolong the admiral's life till the 14th of March. gular; calyx monosepalous, quinquepartite, bilabiate, or bipartite;

On that day the boats of the fleet at Spithead were ordered corolla a short tube terminating in a large throat; limb ordie to surround the Monarch, the third-rate in which, since his narily bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation ; stamens alternate condemnation, Admiral Byng had remained in custody of the with the divisions of the corolla, rarely five in number, ordiAdmiralty marshal. All captains and certain other officers narily four. were required to witness the deed which was to be done, and The annexed engraving of the Jacaranda mimosifolia, or at noon all things were ready. Shortly before that time, the mimosa-leaved jacaranda, a Brazilian plant (Fig. 194), illusprisoner, whose demeanour had been invariably dignified and trates the general aspect and bearing of members belonging composed, asked the marshal to take charge of a paper he had to this natural order. written, containing comments upon his trial, and on the circum- Individuals of this family belong exclusively to the tropics. stances under which he had acted at Minorca. “Happy for Many species of Bignoniaceæ furnish useful principles. The me,” he wrote, “at this, my last moment, that I know my own wood of some and the flexible branches are applied by the innocence, and am conscious that no part of my country's mis- American Indians to many useful purposes. The catalpa of fortunes can be owing to me. I heartily wish the shedding of North America (Catalpa syringifolia) and the catalpa of the my blood may contribate to the happiness and service of my West Indies (Catalpa longissima) are members of the natural country, but cannot resign my just claim to a faithful discharge order Bignoniaceo. The wood of the former is as hard as oak, of my duty according to the best of my judgment, and the utmost and possesses the good quality of not becoming subject to the exertion of my ability for His Majesty's honour and my country's attacks of worms. The Bignonia Chica is a climbing plant, service. I am sorry that my endeavours were not attended with which affords a red dye, called chica or carajura, used by the more success, and that the armament under my command proved Indian tribes that live along the banks of the Orinoco for too weak to succeed in an expedition of such moment. Truth staining the handles of their weapons and for painting theit bas prevailed over calumny and falsehood, and justice has wiped bodies. off the ignominious stain of my supposed want of personal SECTION L.-PEDALIACEÆ, OR PEDALIADS. courage, and the charge of disaffection. My heart acquits me Characteristics. These plants are generally herbaceous, hairy, of these crimes; but who can be presumptuously sure of his own sometimes viscous; the leaves are simple and without stipules; judgment? If my crime is an error in judgment, or differing in flowers complete, irregular, axillary; calyx five-partite; corolla opinion from my judges, and if yet the error in judgment should bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation ; stamens didynamous, in. be on their side, God forgive them, as I do; and may the dis- cluded in the tabe of the corolla ; ovary furnished at its base tress of their minds, and uneasiness of their consciences, which with a glandular disc, and composed of two or four carpels, formin justice to me they have represented, be relieved and subsided ing by their different degrees of introflexion either two, four, or as my resentment has done. The Supreme Judge sees all hearts eight cells; placente parietal; the ovules are reflexed; style and motives, and to him I must submit the justice of my cause." simple, terminal ; stigma bilaminated ; fruit dry or fleshy, some

Having delivered this paper, Admiral Byng walked out from times horny at the summit by the desiccation of the carpels. his cabin on to the quarter-deck, where the marines who were to The species of this natural order are not very numerous, and kill him were already drawn up. He had resolved not to have are dispersed over tropical regions. "The Pedalium Murer, an his eyes bandaged; but the entreaties of his friends, who feared Indian plant, diffuses an odour of musk, and when agitated lest his looks should intimidate the soldiers, prevailed, and he with water, causes the latter to becomo viscous like the white suffered a handkerchief to be bound round his brows. In three of egg. The genus Martynia, an example of which, tho Martynia minutes from the time of quitting his cabin, John Byng was proboscidea or proboscis-like Martynia, is given in Fig. 195, placed in his coffin, having fallen instantaneously dead, with furnishes many species, all of which are annuals, bearing flowers five bullets in his body.

like those of the foxglove in general aspect. Thus perished Admiral Byng, whose reputation has been cleared by posterity of the blemish which malice and interested

SECTION LI.-ACANTHACEÆ, OR ACANTHADS. hatred were so busy in casting upon it. His body was not cold

Characteristics : Calyx free ; corolla hypogynous, monopetabefore people began to cry out that he had been murdered, and lous; stamens inserted upon the tube of the corolla, four the cruel persistency of the king in carrying out the sentence of didynamous or sometimes two; ovary bilocular; capsule death caused Byng to be raised in the popular estimation to a loculicidal and bivalvular; soed dicotyledonous, albuminous ; height of favour he scarcely deserved. The means by which the radicle inferior and centripetal. Government sought to hide their own defects, by the sacrifice of

The Acanthacea aro herbaceous or ligneous plants, with one man, recoiled on their own heads, and the ghost of Byng, branching, knotty articulated stems ; leaves opposite or vertilike that of Banquo, haunted them terrifically at their feasts. cillate, simple, and devoid of stipules ; flowers complete, rarely The sacrifice they offered up did not propitiate the national solitary, each accompanied with a large bract and two bracteresentment, but whetted it the rather; and those whose incom- oles; calyx four to five partite, sometimes truncated; corolla petency and mismanagement had brought so many disgraces, ordinarily bilabiate, contorted in æstivation ; ovules curved; including the loss of Minorca, upon the nation, were driven from style simple, terminal ; stigma ordinarily bifid; embryo usually power. But amid the blaze of glory, which the genius of Pitt ourved; cotyledons large and orbicular. and his friends shed around the latter years of George II.,

The greater number of the Acanthus order are natives of the people did not forget--and it was well they should not forget tropics; but a few, and that one which is the most celebrated, -the disgraceful seal which was put to the former years of are indigenous to Italy, Greece, and other Mediterranean national disgrace, by the execution, on the 14th of March, regions. It is the Acanthus mollis, or soft acanthus, a repre. 1757, of Admiral Byng, on board the Monarch, in Ports. sentation of which is given in Fig. 196. mouth harbour.

The picturesque beauty of the leaves of this species arrested the attention of the painters, sculptors, and architects of anti.

quity. The capitals surmounting the columns of the Corinthian LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXV.

order are formed on the general basis of an acanthus leaf.

Virgil alludes to the beauty of the acanthus leaf in his third SECTION XLIX.-BIGNONIACEÆ, OR BIGNONIADS.

eclogue, in which he makes his shepherd praise two goblets Characteristics.-Calyx free; corolla - hypogynous, monopota- carved in wood for him by Alcimedon, and the handles of loas, usually irregular; stamens inserted upon the tabe of the which were ornamented with acanthus leaves :corolla; ovary one, or two, or four celled; fruit capsular,

“ Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, valves two, dissepiment formed from the axile placenta,

Et molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho." seeds usually horizontal and winged; embryo dicotyledonous, straight.

SECTION LII.-SELAGINACEÆ, OR SELAGIDS. The Bignoniaceo derive their name from the genus Bignonia Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopeta or trumpet-flower, dedicated to the Abbé Bignon, librarian to lous, sub-regular, or one or two lipped; stamens two or four, Louis XIV., and a great promoter of botany. They are generally inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; achania two; seed

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inverted, dicotyledonous ; embryo straight, corresponding with

SECTION LIII.-UTRICULARIÆ. the axis of fleshy albumen ; radicle superior.

Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopets. Tho Selaginacece, so named after the genus Selago, are lous, irregular; stamens two, inserted apon the tube of the low shrubs, rarely herbs, having alternate or fasciculated corolla; fruit capsular; placenta parietal, free; seeds numerous, leaves, simple and without stipules; their flowers are com.exalbuminous; radicle straight; all aquatic herbs. plete and generally irregular, either disposed in a corymb or The Utriculariæ derive their name from their principal genus a spike; calyx persistent, tubular, or

Utricularia, which is so called from the spathose ; corolla with four or five divi.

presence of abundant aërial vesicles dissions, imbricated in æstivation; the

tributed over the surface of their subanthers are unilocular; the ovary is

aqueous leaves. These utriculi are composed of two uniovulate cells;

rounded in shape and furnished with a ovuies pendent, reflexed. Most of the

kind of movable aperture. Whilst the Selaginaceæ inhabit the Cape of Good

plant is young these little bladders are Hope. This family does not possess

filled with mucus a little heavier than marked properties, nevertheless many

water, which, acting as a weight, canse species are odorous. The Hebenstreitia

the plant to descend to the bottom of dentata, cultivated in our gardens, is

the water. As the period of flowering a shrub about two feet high, with

arrives, the utriculi secrete a gas which pinnatifid leaves in the lower, dentated

fills them, makes them specifically leaves in the upper part of the plant.

lighter, and thus, by lessening the spaThe flowers have a tubular corolla, one

cific gravity of the leaves, causes them single lip, marked with a roseate purple

to rise to the water's surface. No sooner spot; the flowers are inodorous in the

has the period of flowering terminsted, morning, but strong and disagreeable at

than the vesicles begin once more to semid-day, whilst in the evening they ex

crete the heavy mucous fluid, and the hale a delicious perfume. The Selago


leaves again sinking, the plant arrives at spuria has small oblong leaves and

its original situation, and deposits its light-blue flowers. The stem of the

seeds in the subaqueous mud, there to Selago Gillii is flower - bearing and

remain until they germinate and produce branched, having its flowers, which are

young plants. (Fig. 199, 200, 201.) of a pale rose-colour, disposed in the

This family is distributed over the form of a loose spikelet. A repre

entire world, although chiefly found sentation of

in tropical re this plant is

gions of theold appended in

continents. Fig. 197.

SECT. LIV.The Globus


PLANTAGIlarice form

NACEÆ, OB genus of

RIBWORTS. the natural order Selagi

Characteris195 They

tics: Calys shrubs,

free; corolla under

hypogynous, shrubs, or pe

monopetalous; rennial herbs;

stamens their flowers

serted upon are alternate,

the corolla e simple, entire,

upon the is devoid of sti.

ceptacle alter. pules; flowers

nate with the complete, irre

petals; ovary gular, united

one or two into a capitu

celled, unio

multi-ovulate; convex recep

fruit one or tacle, covered

many seeded; with hair, and

seed dicotyle burrounde

donons; with an invo

bryo straight lucrum; the

or but alightly anthers

curved in the first bilocular,

axis of a fleshy and in the

albumen; the young flower

dicle inferior become anilo


tainsare peren confluence of PROBOSCIDEA). 196. SOFT ACANTHUS (ACANTHUS MOLLIS).

nials, general. their cells;

ly herbaceous; ovary anilocular, uniovulate, pendent, reflexed ; the caryopsis | leaves sometimes radical, sometimes cauline, simple, without is enveloped by the calyx, sharply pointed with the persistent stipules ; flowers complete, sometimes monecious, arranged base of the style.

sometimes in the form of a spike, sometimes solitary, or almost The Globulariæ are inhabitants of Southern Europe. The solitary; calyx monosepalous, persistent, with four divisions, bitter leaves of certain species are employed in medicine. The the divisions almost equal with each other; corolla tubular Globularia Alypum (Fig. 198) was formerly denominated Frutex or urceolate, its limb four partite, regular or almost regular, terribilis, in consequence of the belief that it was violently persistent; imbricated in æstivation; stamens four in number drastic. Its leaves are the “wild senna” of Germany, and are The ovary is composed of a single carpel, but apparently two frequently uged to adulterate the genuine senna.

or four-celled; ovule simple, erect, reflexed.


nacece. are or

lum upon

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The Plantaginace are not banished from any climate, though seed dicotyledonous; embryo straight, in a farinaceous albumen; they especially inhabit the temperate regions of the northern radicle superior. hemisphere, principally the Mediterranean region and North The Plumbaginacece are herbs or shrubs, having leaves which America. Only few species grow in the low countries of the are radical, fasciculated, or alternate, cauline, and ex-stipulate. torrid zone, although not unfrequent upon the mountains. The flowers are complete, disposed in spike, or panicle, or dense

The root and leaves of the plantains are slightly bitter and involucrum. Calyx monosepalous, tubular, arranged in five astringent, occasionally a little saline. The long-spiked plantain folds, or else five-partite, persistent. The corolla is composed of (Plantago major), of which a representation is given in Fig. 202, five petals, sometimes free, or nearly free, occasionally aggre




and other species, were formerly remedies of great repute in gated, contorted, or imbricated in æstivation. The five stamens the treatment of intermittent fover, but they have now fallen are opposite to the petals ; ovary with five carpels, joined by into disuse. The stag-horned plantain (Plantago Coronopus) was their edges into one single cell ; ovule reflexed, pendent from formerly employed by the ancients as a remedy for hydrophobia, a funiculus, or slender thread, springing from the lower part but it is only now used in certain parts of Europe as a salad. of the cell; style divided into five stigmas; fruit sometimes

dividing into five valves at its summit, sometimes opening at SECTION LV.-PLUMBAGINACEÆ, OR LEADWORTS.

its base. Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetalous, A representation of the Statice imbricata, a native of Tene. or polypetalous ; stamens inserted upon the receptacle of the riffe, is given in Fig. 203. The little plant called thrift, fromonopetalous species, and upon the petals of those which are poly. quently used as an edging instead of box, is a member of this petalons ; ovary unilocular, styles five; ovale solitary, pendent; natural order.


the head of his unfortunate rival? Why does he delight in pardoning

his enemies---even those very men that had deserted him? EXERCISES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE (concluded).

It seems as if he lived the lover of mankind, and fell as the bard The following is an extract from a debate for young speakers, expresses it-vanquished, not so much by the weapons as by the inand forms a useful exercise in elocution :

gratitude of his murderers.

If a combination of the most splendid talents for war with the most XIX. CHARACTER OF JULIUS CÆSAR.

sacred love of peace-of the most illustrious public virtue with the FIRST SPEAKER.-"Was Cæsar a great man ?"- What revolution has most endearing private worth-of the most unyielding courage with taken place in the first appointed government of the universe--what the most accessible moderation, may constituts a great man, that title new and opposite principle has begun to direct the operations of must be Cæsar's ! nature-what refutation of their long-established precepts has deprived reason of her sceptre, and virtue of her throne, that a character which SECOND SPEAKER.—No change has taken place in the first appointed forms the noblest theme that ever merit gave to fame, should now government of the universe; the operations of nature acknowledge become a question for debate ?

now the same principle that they did iu the beginning; Reason still No painter of human excellence, if he would draw the features of holds her sceptre, Virtue still fills her throne; and the epithet of that hero's character, need study a favourable light or striking attitude. great does not belong to Cæsar! In every posture it has majesty; and the lineaments of its beauty are I would lay it down, as an unquestionnble position, that the worth prominent in every point of view.

of talents is to be estimated only by the use we make of them. I It is a generally-received opinion, that uncommon circumstances we employ them in the cause of virtuo, their value is great; it wa make uncommon men: Cæsar was an uncommon man in common cir-employ them in the cause of vice, they are less than worthless-they cumstances. The colossal mind commands your admiration, no less are pernicious and vile. Now let us examine Cæsar's talents by this in the pirate's captive, than in the victor at Pharsalia. Who but the principle, and we shall find, that neither as an orator not as a poi. first of his race could have made vassals of his savage masters, mocked tician-neither as a warrior nor as a friend-was Cæsar a great them into reverence of a superior nature and threatened, with security, man! the power that held him at its mercy of all the striking incidents If I were asked, "What was the first, the second, and the last prin. of Cæsar's life, had history preserved for us but this single one, it ciple of the virtuous mind p" I should reply, “It was the love of would have bcen sufficient to make us fancy. all the rest at least, country." It was the love of parent, brother, friend !-the love of we should have said, "Such a man was born to conquest, and to MAN !--the love of honour, virtue, and religion !—the love of every empire !"

good and virtuous deed ! I say, then, if I were asked, "What was To expatinte on Cæsar's powers of oratory, would only be to add the first, the second, and the last principle of the virtuous mind?" one poor eulogium to the testimony of the first historians. Cicero I should reply, “It was the love of country!" Without it man is himself grants him the palm of almost pre-eminent merit; and seems the basest of his kind !-a selfish, cunning, narrow speculator! at a loss for words to express his admiration of him. His voice was trader in the dearest interests of his species ! -rockless of every tie musical, his delivery energetic, his language chaste and rich, appro- of nature, sentiment, affection! What was Cæsar's oratory 2-How priate and peculiar. And it is well presumed that, had he studied far did it prove him to be actuated by the love of country? It jus the art of public speaking with as much industry as he studied the tified for political interest the invader of his honour !-- sheltered the art of war, he would have been the first of orators. Quintilian says, incendiary |--abetted treason !-fattered the people into their sta he would have been the only inan capable of combating Cicero; but undoing !- assailed the liberties of his country, and bawled into silence granting them to have been equal in ability, what equal contest could every virtuous patriot that struggled to uphold them! He would the timid Cicero--whose nerves fail him, and whose tongue falters have been a greater orator than Cicero! I question the assertion-1 when the forum glitters with arms-what equal contest could he have deny that it is correct !-He would have been a greater orator thza held with the man whose vigour chastised the Belgæ, and annihilated Cicero ! Well!-let it pass—he might have been a greater ontor, the Nervii, that maintained their ground till they were hewn to pieces but he never could have been so great a man. Which way beter on the spot ?

he directed his talents, the same inordinate ambition wonld have His abilities as a master of composition were undoubtedly of the led to the same results; and had he devoted himself to the study first order. How admirable is the structure of his Commentaries of oratory, his tonguo had produced the same effects as his sword, and What perspicuity and animation are there in the details! You fancy equally desolated the human kingdom. yourself upon the field of action! You follow the development of his But Cæsar is to be admired as a politician! I do not pretend to plans with the liveliest curiosity! You look on with unwearied at- define the speaker's idea of a politician; but I shall attempt to pat tention, as he fortifies his camp or invests his enemy, or crosses the you in possession of mine. By a politician, I understand a man who impetuous torrent! You behold his legions, as they move forward studies the laws of prudence and of justice as they are applicable to from different points tố the line of battle! You bear the shout of the the wise and happy government of a people, and the reciprocal obliga onset, and the crash of the encounter; and, breathless with suspense, tions of states. Now, how far was Cæsar to be admired as a politician? mark every fluctuation of the awful tide of war!

He makes war upon the innocent Spaniards, that his military talents As a politician, how consummate was his address !-how grand his may not suffer from inaction. This was a ready way to preserve the projections !-how happy the execution of his measures! He governs peace of his province, and to secure its loyalty and affection! That his province with such equity and wisdom, as add a milder but a fairer he may be recorded as the first Roman that had ever crossed the Rhine lustre to his glory, and by their fame prepare the Roman people for in a hostile manner, he invades the unoffending Germans, lays waste his happy yoke. Upon the very eve of his rapture with Pompey, he their territories with fire, and plunders and sacks their country. Here sends back, on demand, tho borrowed legions ; covering with rewards was a noble policy !--that planted in the minds of a brave and formidable the soldiers that may no longer serve him, and whose

weapons on the people the fatal seeds of that revenge and hatred which finally assisted morrow may be turned against his breast-presenting here a noble in accomplishing the destruction of the Roman empira! In short, example of his respect of right, and of that magnanimity which main. Cæsar's views were not of that enlarged nature which could entitle tains that gratitude should not cease, though benefits are discontinued him to the name of a great politician; for he studied

not the happiness When he reigns sole master of the Roman world, how temperate is and interest of a community, but merely his own advancetuent, which his triumph !- how scrupulous his respect for the very forms of the be accomplished-by violating the laws and destroying the liberties laws! He discountenances the profligacy of the patricians, and en- of his country. deavours to preserve the virtue of the state by laying wholesome That Cæsar was a great conqueror, I do not care to dispute. His restraints upon luxury. He encourages the arts and sciences, pa- admirers are welcome to all the advantages that result from such a tronises genius and talent, respects religion and justice, and puts in position. I will not subtract one victim from

the hosts that perished practice every means that can contribute to the welfare, the happiness, for his fame; or abate, by a single groan, the sufferings of bis vas: and the stability of the empire.

quished eneinies. But I will avow it to be my opinion, that the It is unnecessary to recount the military exploits of Ceesar. Why character of a great conqueror does not necessarily constitute that of should I compel your attention to follow him, for the hundredth time, a great man; nor can the recital of Cæsar's victories produce as through hostile myriads, yielding at every encounter to the force of other impression upon my mind than what proceeds from the esta his invincible arms ? As a captain, he was the first of warriors; nor templation of those convulsions of the earth, which is a moment were his valour and skill more admirable than his abstinence and inundate with ruin the plains of fertility and the abodes of peace; watchfulness, his disregard of ease and his endurance of labour, his or, at one shock, convert whole cities into the graves of their living moderation and his mercy. Perhaps, indeed, this last quality forms | population! the most dominant feature in his character ; and prores, by the con- But Cæsar's munificence, his clemency, his moderation, and his sequenoes of its excess, that virtue itself requires restraint, and has affectionate nature, constitute him a great man !

What was his mu. its proper bounds, which it ought not to exceed--for Cæsar's modera- nificence, his clemency, or his moderation ?-the automaton of his tion wag his ruin!

ambition ! It knew no aspiration from the Deity. It was a thing That Cæsar had a heart susceptible of friendship, and alive to the from the hands of the mechanician!-an ingenious mockery of nature! finest touches of humanity, is unquestionable. Why does he attempt Its action seemed spontaneous—its look argued soul-butan be BO often to avert the storm of civil war? Why does he pause so long virtue lay in the finger of the operator. He could possess no real upon the brink of the Rubicon? Why does he weep when he beholds munificence, moderation, or clemency, who ever expected his siste to

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