Imágenes de páginas

be doubled by return-who never abstained, but with a view to slightest use; that is, by adhering to the rule laid down by excess; nor spared, but for the indulgence of rapacity. Knowles.

Rousseau, and followed by many of the best of our English The following tract on the mission and duty of the man of choral teachers, of identifying them, not with the fixed sounds, learning affords a fitting conclusion to our Lessons in “Reading erpressed by the letters, but with the intervals of the diatonic scale, and Elocution :"

DOH' in every key representing the key-note *RE,' the second XX. THE SCHOLAR'S MISSION.

of the scale, etc. We have already shown that the art of The wants of our time and country, the constitution of our modern reading musio at sight depends upon the ability to recognise at society, our whole position-personal and relative-forbid a life of a glance the intervals of the scale, in whatever key they may mere scholarship or literary pursuits to the great majority of those be written; that is to say, to distinguish at once, not which is who go out from our colleges. However it may have been in other A or B, but which is the key-note, which is the 3rd, 5th, 7th, times, and other lands, here and now, but few of our educated men etc. It will therefore at once be seen that Forde, by adopting are privileged“ From the loopholes of retreat

Rousseau's rule for using the solfeggio syllables, as names for To look upon the world, to hear the sound

the intervals, converts them into a most profitable exercise, an Of the great Babel, and not feel its stir.".

exercise which compels the pupil to study the intervals in every

Great confusion Society has work for us, and we must forth to do it. Full early and perplexity are introduced by the opposite method. We

bar he sings, and to give up guessing. and hastily we must gird on the manly gown, gather up the loose have pointed out the different properties of the fourth and the leaves and scanty fragments of our youthful lore, and go out among men, to act with them and for them. It is a practical ago ; and our seventh, the one tending downwards and the other upwards ; Wisdom, such as it is, "must strive and cry, and utter her voice in the yet although (the pitch note] F may sometimes be the fourth streets, standing in the places of the paths, crying in the chief place and at other times the seventh, according to the key, and of concourse, at the entry of the city, and the coming in at the doors." although F in the key of c differs half a tone from F in the key

This state of things, though not suited to the tastes and qualities of G, it is always, we are told, to be called fa!” of all, is not, on the whole, to be regretted by educated men as such.

Two notes OPPOSED to one another in mental effect, and DIFIt is not in literary production only, or chiefly, that educated mind

FERING in pitch, yet colled by the SAME name, and in connection finds fit expression, and fulfils its mission in honour and beneficence. In the great theatre of the world's affairs, there is a worthy and a with a system that prides itself on its educational “METHOD.” sufficient sphere. Society needs the well-trained, enlarged, and cul. tivated intellect of the scholar in its midst !--needs it, and welcomes it, and gives it a place, or, by its own capacity, it will take a place of honour, influence, and power. The youthful scholar has no occasion

F'a to deplore the fate that is soon to tear him from his studies, and cast

Fourth of the Scale.

Seventh of the Scale. him into the swelling tide of life and action. None of his disciplinary and enriching culture will be lost, or useless, even there. Every hour of study, every truth he has reached, and the toilsome process by

“We think it must be obvious," continues Mr. Hickson, which he reached it; the heightened grace or vigour of thought or

" that the solfeggio syllables, thus employed, tend to mislead speech he has acquired-all shall tell fully, nobly, if he will give heed the pupil rather than assist him in learning the art of sightto the conditions. And one condition, the prime one, is, that he be singing. It is using words, as a lawyer would say, in the sense a true man, and recognise the obligation of a man, and go forth with of a suggestio falsi.” Perhaps the most marked practical ad. heart and will, and every gift and acquirement dedicated, lovingly andvantage of the tonic (or key-note) method of solfa-ing is that resolutely, to the true and the right. These are the terms; and apart it establishes in the ear of the pupil a complete association of from these there is no success, no influence to be had which an in: interval and syllable. So that the syllables become not only genuous mind can desire, or which a sound and far-seeing mind would

an unchanging language of interval, useful in connection with dare to seek.

Indeed, it is not an easy thing, pay, it is not a possible thing, to the whole study of music, however far it may be carried, but obtain a substantial success, and an abiding influence, except on these also a guide and prompter in the art of striking interval with terms. A factitious popularity, a transient notoriety, or, in the case accuracy and certainty. Thus, if the syllables ME, FAH are of shining talents, the doom of a damning fame, may fall to bad men. frequently sung to a "semitone” (or tonule), the mind soon But an honoured name, enduring influence, a sun brightening on learns to associate that interval with those syllables, so that through its circuit, more and more, even to its serene setting—this the very attempt to pronounce the syllable shall call up into boon of a true success goes never to intellectual qualities alone. It the mind the interval to which they have so often beon sung. gravitates slowly but surely to weight of character, to intellectual In this way our syllables become invaluable aids and 'inter. ability rooted in principle.-George Putnam.

preters. We continually hear from singers in various parts of

the country such expressions as this: "When I come to any LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XIII.

very knotty passage, or one with difficult transitions in the

choral “part' I have to sing, I invariably, now, translate it into RELATION OF NOTES, ETC. (continued).

the sol-fa language, and then it is impossible not to sing it corThe admired glee-writer, Webb, whose name is second to rectly.” But, on the other, the fixed plan, a pupil is, with great none in the department of popular vocal music, in his solfeggio painstaking, through half his course (for full thirty lessons in exercises and instructions in singing, adopts, as a matter of one book) made to associate ME, FAH with a "semitone,” and course, the “movable doh;'. Dr. Crotch, a great musical then is made to spend most of the other half of his course in authority, used the same method in his " Elements of Compo- learning to alter that association, and sing Me, rau in the sition," published A.D. 1812; and Mr. W. Forde, author of one new keys to a whole tone! First work hard to do a thing, and of the most popular English works on the "Art of Singing at then work hard to undo it! What a clever and admirably Sight” (published by Cocks and Co.), follows their example. If arranged educational method it is! other authorities are required, we would gladly leave our appeal 7. We take this opportunity of giving our reason for accom. with such men as Mr. Graham, of Edinburgh, the author of the panying the established notation with a constant interpreter, article on "Music" in the last edition of the “Encyclopædia in the new notation placed between the staves. The truth is Britannica ;” Mr. Hogarth, distinguished as a writer on musi. that the old notation, being used perhaps chiefly in connection cal history; Colonel P. Thompson, the profound writer on with instruments, bets forth the pitch of a note (the thing the musical acoustics ; Mr. Hickson, the father of English school ordinary instrumentalist wants) in a most clear, distinct, and music; and Mr. Lowell Mason, the eminent American com- pictorial manner, but "leaves key-relationship (that which the poser and teacher. Ask any one, who can really sing at sight, vocalist requires to be the first and most obvious thing to how he came to do so, and he will tell you : "By measuring meet the eye, and which is by far the most important thing in interval from the key-note, and keeping the key-note in the eye the science of music itself), but dimly expressed. Hence the vast throughout the tune." Such a person will at once acknowledge variety of sol-fa systems, figure systems, tetrachordal systems, the importance of having a distinct name (DOH) for that key etc., which have sprung up, every good teacher feeling the nenote, and of naming all the other notes by their relation to it. cessity of marking the key-note and the notes related to it more

6. "In teaching," says Mr. Hickson," the art of sight-singing, visibly. The most successful modern teachers of sight-singing an art rarely taught by Italian professors, whose fashionable have adopted a similar plan. Thus the Rev. J. J. Waite, who pupils only sing to the harp or pianoforte, there is but one mode has taught some thousands of English people how to sing, has of using the solfeggio syllables in which they can be of the done so by means of an interpreting notation of figures placed under the other notes, figure 1 standing for the key-note, 2 for right with those who have been misled with the false notions of the next, etc. We have watched Mr. Waite's pupils, and have music which are so common among persons who possess that found them singing, not from the crotchets and quavers on " little knowledge” of it which " is a dangerous thing." We the staff, but from the figures below, which they find incom. I trust that they are at least satisfied that we feel ourselves enparably easier, because those figures are to them a notation of gaged in a most strenuous and earnest endeavour to diffuse a key-relationship. In Scotland, the well-known educational knowledge of sight-singing by means of the mighty power which writer and publisher, Mr. Gall of Edinburgh, has adopted a the circulation of the POPULAR EDUCATOR gives, and we do not figure notation for many years; and in Ireland we find Dr. doubt that we shall to a large extent succeed. Bryce using both the figures and the sol-fa syllables, in his Our pupils will now study with care the following exercises on exercises, to set forth the relation of notes, while the old nota- the mental effects of DOH, ME, and son. Let them be as scru. tion sets forth the pitch. For the present we shall do the same, pulous as ever in the self-discipline of learning the tune, piecebut soon we shall teach our pupils to do without the syllables, meal, by “heart” (or by “hear it,” as Cobbett used to explain and to use intelligently the established notation alone.

the word), until they can sol-fa it all by memory, pointing on the We have written these paragraphs in order to set ourselves modulator the while.

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Eliza Cook is truly one of the people's poets. Her songs are are produced, be very decided and sharp. We should sing fragrant of home and of true heart's love. When once this as to make ourselves understood by a listener. Try the simple tune is learnt, it should be sung very quickly and lightly, periment. If our pupil is wise, he will still continue to neglect and yet with a perfect and distinct enunciation of the words. the staff, and confine his attention to the sol-fa syllables end Let every motion of lips, tongue, and teeth, by which the words to the modulator,

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It is to the melody of these tunes that we call special atten- , the sou were called Doh (though retaining the same sound), tion at present. We are obliged to introduce into the "second" and the phrase ran : d | t, :s, :fm. There also occurs or accompanying part some notes which have not yet been ex- the note DE. This note is as much lower than RAY as Te is plained in our course of lessons. In this exercise we have lower than don. Sing it then as a sort of " leading note" to he phrase : 8 | fe:r:d|t. Let the papil sing it as though RAY.



sion, consonantal stem patr, in the singular number, accusative

case, being the object of the transitive verb amat, by which ON PARSING.

it is governed, according to the rule, “transitive verbs require In the following Latin exercises ascertain, write down, and their object to be in the accusative case." imprint on your memory the parts of the several verbs—that is, Observe, that in thus setting before you a specimen of the mood, tense, person, and number—together with the exact parsing, I have given you two rules in Syntax; thusEnglish meaning; at the same time tell the person, tense, 1. A subject must agree with its verb in number and person. and mood endings, as well as give the stems. This you should 2. Transitive verbs require their object to be in the accusado very completely with each lesson in succession. You tive case. thus make a commencement in what is called parsing, that Of these rules you will forthwith have need to make constant is, telling or assigning the parts in Latin, pars, a part). application. Commit them to memory, and repeat them by Parsing applies to nouns and adjectives, as well as to verbs, heart whenever applied. A verbal and exact repetition of them, indeed, to all parts of speech; it is also concerned with and of all rules, is desirable at first; afterwards, I wish that syntax, or the combination of words into sentences; so that you should give the substance rather than the words of rale, you cannot parse your lessons completely until they are ter- for if you express its substance you show that you understand minated. But you have now advanced far enough to begin its import. parsing, and would be rewarded if every day, before you

VOCABULARY. attempt a new lesson, you were to take "a back lesson," and Compăro, 1, I get to- | Latro, 1, I bark. Placidus, -a, -um, ple parso it carefully; that is, go over again from the first what

gether, acquire. Libero, 1, I set free cid, tranquil. you have done with the strictest regard to the forms and Emigro, 1,7 go out, quit (E. R. liberation). Terror, -öris, m., rules.

(E. R. emigration). Narratio, -ōnis,f., a nar- Timor, oris, m., fear I will give you an example of what I mean by parsing :- Flo, 1, I blow.


(E. R. timid). Let us take the short Latin sentence

Ingens, ingentis, very Numéro, 1, I number. Vehemens, vehemes. great.

Nuper, adv., lately. tis, vehement, wery Tullia patrem amat.

Interitus, -üs, m., ruin. Observo, 1, I keep under strong. The first thing I have to do is to construe it, or put it into Intro, 1, I go into, enter my eye, observe. Ventus, -i, m., wind. On looking at it I see that Jam, adv., already.

(E. R. entrance). corresponding English words.

Occopo, 1, I fall upon, Vigilo, 1, I ratch, kap

take possession of (E. Tullia is in the nominative case. Consequently, Tullia is the Judico, 1, I judge.

awake, guard (E. E.

R. occupation). vigilant). subject, and with it I must begin. But patrem comes next : am I to take patrem in the second place ? This I cannot do;

EXERCISE 81.–LATIN-ENGLISH. for patrem is in the accusative case, and consequently must

1. Ego te laudabam. 2. Tu me vituperabas. 3. Frater judicabat. be dependent on some verb. The verb is there. Amat then, 4. Ego te laudabo. 5. Tu me vituperabis. 6. Frater judicabit. 7. Ego comes after Tullia. Putting the two together, I have Tullia ambulavi. 8. Tu vigilavisti. 9. Ventus flavit. 10. Ego ambula amat, Tullia loves. What does Tullia love? Patrem, her veram. 11. Tu vigilaveras. 12. Ventus flaverat. 13. Ego te landarera. father. The whole then is, Tullia loves her father. Here you 14. Tu me vituperaveris. 15. Frater judicaverit. 16. Quum milites see a departure in the English from the Latin idiom. With urbem intrabant, omnes cives timoris pleni erant. 17. Quum in siles such deviations you should familiarise your mind by constant ambulabamus, vehemens ventus per altas quercus Rabat, dum vos pha. and careful observation. The departure here is this, that to multos numerabis amicos. 20. Bonos semper laudabo, improbos seus

18. Vos vigilabatis. 19. Quamdiu eris felis, make good or idiomatic English, I am obliged to add the pro- per vituperabo. 21. Si acriter pugnabitis, o milites, patriam interita noun her, "her father,” there being in the Latin no word cor

liberabitis. 22. Si virtutem amabis, omnes boni te amabunt. responding to her. Do not hence suppose that it would be bad Latin to say "Tullia amat patrem suum,” her father; bat perfect tense, and the tenses formed from the perfect tense.

Remark that sometimes an abbrevation takes place in the it is not customary to employ the pronoun in such cases, except Thus, instead of saying in full, vigilavisti, as above, the it is wanted for the sake of emphasis. Having translated the sentence, I must now parse it.

Latins shortened the word into vigilasti, leaving out the si

I shall take each word in its grammatical order.

This process is called syncopation, and verbs thus contracted Tullia, Tullio, a noun feminine of the first declension, nomi- (drawn together) are said to be syncopated. Other syncenative case, the subject to the verb amat.

pated forms ensue; as landasti for landavisti ; amasti for The stem is Tulli (thus Tullia, genitive Tullize, the re of amavisti ; amasse for amarisse : also in other conjugations, as the genitive being removed, Tulli remains as the stem).

complesti for complevisti; audieram for andiveram; audierunt

for audiverunt. After giving the parts and relations of a noun as above, you should "go through or decline the noun. So with all

I here resume the exercises, in which instances of syncopation

will be found. nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives. Amat, from amo, is a verb transitive of the first conjugation,

EXERCISE 82.-LATIN-ENGLISH. indicative mood, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its subject Tullia, according to the rule, "a subject must magnam vobis laudem comparastis. 2. Our per totam noctem vigi:

1. Quia semper virtutis præcepta observastis (for observaristis) agree with its verb in number and person.' The four chief

lasti ? 3. Præceptores meos semper amavi, nonne amasti tnoe? parts of amo are—amo, amavi, amatum, amare. The stem of 4. Acriter contra hostes pugnastis. 5. Quum milites urbem intramo is am, the stem of the present tense is ama, the person. verant, ingens terror omnium civium animos occupabat. 6. Narratio endings are -O, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant. Amao is contracted quam mihi nuper narraveras, vehementer me delectaverat. 7. Quum into amo. Then go through the tense uniting the stem with exercitus hostilis urbem oppugnaverat, nog jam emigraverännus. 8. Si the person-endings. You would act wisely if, in addition, you

animum virtutibus ornaveris (ornaris) semper beatus eris. 9. Quam made amat the subject of inquiry; thus, what would amat be hostes urbis nostræ agros devastaverint, urbem ipsam oppugnabunt. in the subjunctive mood ? In the passive voice ? In the sub

EXERCISE 83.–ENGLISH-LATIN. junctive passive ? By what change is amat made plural ? What is the corresponding second person singular ? Plural ? judging. 4. Thou wilt praise me.

1. We praised thee. 2. Thou didst blame me. 3. The father was

5. He will praise thee. 6. The What does amat become in the future tense ? In the plu- father will judge us.

7. Thou hast walked (syncopated form). & I perfect indicative ? Go through the imperfect of amo. Give have watched. 9. The winds blew. 10. I will walk abroad. 11. Thoa the perfect subjunctive first person singular; third person art watching. 12. The wind was blowing. 13. The soldiers will plural.

enter the city. 14. The soldiers were entering the city. 15. The These things may seem minute and troublesome to you: soldiers are entering the city. 16. The soldiers have entered the they would, however, be required by any good teacher; and city. 17. The soldiers had entered the city. 18. A very strong

19. Dost thou number many soldiers: attention to them is, I assure you, requisite to make a sound wind blows through the house. scholar ; it is also requisite for that mental discipline which 20. I have numbered many friends. 21. He has liberated (set free)

his country from ruin. 22. Hast thou watched all night? 23. Lor the study of language may give, and which, in its perfect form, thy preceptors. 24. Let them love their parents. 25. O boys, love is of very high value.

virtue. 26. The narrative delighted my brother. 27. The narratirə Another word remains-patrem; patrem from pater, patris, delights the girls. 28. The narrative will delight father and mother. & parisyllabic noun, of the masculine gender, the third declen. 29. Thou hast acquired fame by the narrative of the ruin.


Remark.–The supines are supposed to have been nouns of Acerrime, very bravely. Immaturus, -a, -um, Religiose, conscienti- the fourth declension, that in um, a noun in the accusative Adhibeo, 2, I apply. unripe.


case; that in u, a noun in the dative case (u for ui). Adhibere curam, to Immortalitas, -ātis, f., Rogo, 1, I ask.

EXERCISE 90,-LATIN-ENGLISH. take care. deathlessness. Sano, 1, I heal (E. R.

1. Parentes mei in urbem migraverunt habitatam. 2. Exercitus Advento, 1, I come to, Maturus, -a, -um, ripe, sanætory).

hostilis adventavit agros nostros devastatam. 3. Uva immatura est arrive at. mature. Statio, -ōnis, f., a sta

acerba gustatu. 4. Ærumnæ sunt duræ toleratu. 5. Sitis difficillima Ægrotus,-i, a siek man. Medicus, -i, a physi- tion, a post.

est toleratu. 6. Pira sunt dulcia gustatu. Conscientia, -æ, f.,con- cian (E. R. medical). Supero, 1, I surpass, science, Obtempero, 1, I obey overcome.

EXERCISE 91.-- ENGLISH-LATIN. Evènit, it happens. (with the object in Tolero, 1, I endure, bear. 1. The soldiers approach to deliver (supine in um) the king. 2. The Exhilăro, 1, I exhila- the dative).

Tracto, 1, I handle, hostile army approaches to capture the city. 3. Ripe grapes are sweet rate, rejoice. Opto, 1, I wish (E. R. treat.

to the taste (supine in u). 4. Unripe grapes are difficult to be en. Expugno, 1, I capture. option).

Utilitas, -ātis, f., utility. dured. 5. They come to seize (fut. part, act. of occupo) the fields. Gusto, 1, I tasto. Pecco, 1, I sin.

Uva, -, a grape. 6. Birds by singing (gerund) delight the mind. Honestas, -ätis, f., ho- Redamo, I love again. Vide, see thou. nesty, honour.

Vide ne, see thou do not.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN. Rule.—The conjunctions at, that, in order that, so that, so

EXERCISE 79.LATIN-ENGLISH. as, and ne, not to, so that not, to prevent, require after them the

1. I was praised, thou wast blamed. 2. The city was attacked. subjunctive mood.

3. I shall be praised, thou wilt be blamed. 4. The city will be at.

tacked. 5. When the city was taken by the enemies, the minds of all the EXERCISE 84.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

citizens were occupied with great fear. 6. The citizens were greatly 1. Sæpe evenit ut utilitas cum honestate certet. 2. Vide ne pecces

disturbed by the enemies. 7. When the fight was most frightful, the contra virtutis præcepta. 3. Omnes parentes optant ut filii literas

sun was darkened by clouds. 8. The wicked after death will be diligenter tractent. 4. Ita vivere debemus ut in omni re rectam con- punished with just punishment. 9. The city was attacked by the scientiam servemus. 5. Medicus omnem curam adhibet ut ægrotum

enemies. 10. The minds of all the citizens were occupied with great sanet. 6. Amo te ut me redămes. 7. Dux imperavit ut milites sta.

terror. 11. If we have (shall have) cultivated learning diligently, we tiones suas servarent. 8. Heri ambulam ut tristem animum exhilarem.

shall be presented with beautiful rewards by our parents. 12. When EXERCISE 85.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

the city was (had been) taken by the enemies, all the citizens were 1. See that your son does not sin. 2. Dost thou sin against the tortured with the most bitter grief. 13. If your children have been precepts of virtue? 3. A wise father takes care that his children do well educated by you, you will be praised. 14. Let the industrious not sin. 4. The generals take care that the soldiers keep their posts. scholar be praised, let the idle (scholar) be blamed. 15, Let the divine 5. You take care to prevent your children from sinning (literally, that laws be conscientiously observed by men. 16. Be ye entreated, O my they do not (ne) sin). 6. Good mothers take care that their children parents. 17. O my boy, take delight in the study of letters! 18. Be enobey their commands.

treated, O judge! 19. Let the soldiers on a certain day be collected

into the city. 20. Let ņot the citizens be contaminated by shameful Rule.-After non dubito, the conjunction quin is used, re

deeds. 21. A certain peace is better than the hope of (a hoped) victory. quiring the subjunctive mood; thus, non dubito quin, I doubt 22. The changing of the country (the changed country) does not change not but, or that. In the same way, nemo dubitat quin, no one

the character. 23. Grief borne patiently is less bitter. 24. A good doubts that ; quis dubitat quin? who doubts that? dubium non man ought to be praised. 25. Good parents take care that the manest quin, there is no doubt that.

ners of their children are amended, 26. Take care that in every. EXERCISE 86.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

thing a pure conscience is preserved. 27. Thou art loved by me, that 1. Non dubito quin milites nostri superaverint hostes. 2. Non mind might be gladdened. 29. Our soldiers fought very vigorously

I may be loved again by thee. 28. I walked yesterday that my sad dubitabam quin milites nostri hostes superavissent. 3. Non dubito

that the city might be preserved from ruin, 30. See that you are quin milites nostri hostes superaturi sint. 4. Non dubitabam quin not blamed by the teachers. 31. A good citizen takes care that the milites nostri hostes superaturi essent. 5. Non dubitabam quin vos

laws are not violated by him. 32. I doubt not that my friend will patriam servitute liberaturi essetis. 6. Dubium non erat quin exer.

be released from sickness. 33. No one doubted that peace had been citus noster omnes labores et ærumnas facile toleraturus esset: 7. rogained. 34. I know not wherefore peace has been disturbed. Quis dubitat quin Hannibal contra Romanos fortissime pugnavěrit.


1. Pax recuperata est. 2. Pax recuperabitur. 3. Pax recupera1. No one doubts that you will fight bravely for the liberty of your batur.

4. Non dubito quin illi pacem recuperaturi sint. 5. Pax tur country. 2. No one doubts that he fought bravely. 3. No one will

bata est. 6. Estne pax turbata ? 7. Nonne pax turbata est? 8. Pax doubt that he will fight bravely. 4. No one doubted that he had

turbabitur, 9. Pax non turbanda est. 10. Ego laudabor, ille vitafought bravely. 5. Who doubts that the soldiers will capture the

perabitur. 11. Ille vituperandus est, 12. Ile vituperatus est. city? 6. There is no doubt that you endeavour (studeo) to preserve

13. Urbs non expugnata est. 14. O pater, ab supplice filia tua exorare! honour. 7. I do not doubt that my father will come.

15. Mater exorahatur. 16. Sol nube obscuratur. 17. Sol heri nubibus Though non dubito quin requires the subjunctive mood in obscurabatur. 18. Care fili, animus tuus terrore occupatur. 19. Meus Latin, the verb must be Englished by an indicative mood; as animus dolore occupabatur. 20. Omnium civium animi timore et may be seen in the English examples just given. In order to dolore occupabuntur. 21. Adolescentes, ne flagitiis contaminamini. make this quite plain, I will give another instance :

22. Ego te amo, ut ego a te redămer. 23. Pater amandus est. 24. Malus Non dubito quin bonus sit avunculus tuus,

puer castigandus est. 25. Civitatis leges ab omnibus civibus sancte

observantor. I doubt not that thy uncle is good.

26. Divinæ leges ab sanctis hominibus observantur. 27.

Virtutisne præcepta ab urbis adolescentibus observata sunt?
Here, then, you see the verb which in Latin must be in the
subjunctive mood, must stand in the indicative mood in English.
Such is by no means an unusual fact.


With the imperative the negative ne is used, and not ARCHITRAVES, ARCHES, AND VAULTED ROOFS. the negative non, as ne crede, do not believe.

In ancient times an order, the principal element of architecture, EXERCISE 88.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

was connected with the adjacent buildings, which it was em1. Diligenter cura, mi amice, valetudinem tuam. 2. Amate literas, ployed to ornament and to distinguish, by the architraves or o pueri! 3. Ne dubitato de animarum immortalitate. 4. Semper horizontal pieces which constituted one of the important parts serva, mi fili, conscientiam rectam. 5. Discipulus amato præceptores. of its combination. Down to the period of the Greek archi6. Laudatote probos, vituperatote improbos. 7. Ne lauda malos tecture, we find no example of any deviation from this great pueros. 8. Omnes homines amanto Deum.

principle of primitive construction. All the ancient edifices of EXERCISE 89,-ENGLISH-LAYIN.

Assyria and Babylonia, as well as of Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, 1. My sons, take care of your mother, 2. Charlex, do not doubt of and India, invariably show the mode of connecting one column the deathlessness of the good. 3. Preserve, children, an upright con- with another, in horizontal lines, by means of a single piece, or science. 4. Let children love (their) preceptors. 5. Do you, my solid plate-band or bressumer, as it may be fitly denominated. friends, love God. 6. Do not blame thy sister, Charles.

The Greeks, who worked out the ideas of the nations which Rule.—The first supine, that is, the supine in um, is used preceded them in civilisation, and reduced them to system, as after verbs denoting motion; the second supine, that in u, is we have shown in former lessons, adopted the same principle of used after certain adjectives.

construction. Their edifices in Asia Minor, in Italy, in Sicily,

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