Imágenes de páginas

as well as in Greece itself, are all rigorously constructed upon soles, or projecting ornaments in stone, fitted so as to receive this principle, as may be seen in the Parthenon at Athens, a vertical rods, upon which was spread a velarium or large representation of which was given in page 129 of this volume. curtain, covering the seats and the arena, in order to defend

The Etruscans first carried the arts into Italy, and were the the spectators from the heat of the sun. Thus we see how instructors of the Romans even before the Greeks. This the long corridors, the numerous flights of steps, the cells for ingenious people constructed the first Roman edifices, and built animals, and the aqueducts, required arches and vaults of all their arches and vaults as they still exist in the Cloaca Maxima, dimensions and of all forms. These edifices are unquestion. or Great Sewer of Rome, and the Mamertine Prison, which may ably such as do the greatest honour to the architectural and be considered as the foundation of a style of architecture pecu- constructive genius of the Romans. Many of them still liarly Rɔman. Before the period of the Etruscans, the Pelasgians remain, and some are in such a high state of preservation us had attempted to construct arches; but

to enable us to examine their minutest de. they went no farther than the pointed arch,

tails. The finest example is the famous the difficulty of centering an arch having

Amphitheatre of Flavian at Rome, which completely arrested their progress. In

was capable of containing more than 100,000 fact, their pointed arches, formed by suc

spectators; those of Pola, in Istria, of Nimes cessive courses of horizonal stones, could

and Arles, in France, and of Thysdrus in only be considered as the two abutments

Africa. of a semi-circular arch approaching each

But although the Romans displayed their other. This fact is established by an exa

greatest science in the building of amphi. mination of the gate of Arpino, the build.

theatres, they exhibited their greatest art ings of Alba Fucensis, of Tiryns, and of the

in the construction of their public baths ; Treasury of Atreus at Mycenæ, The Ro.

for in these the building of arches and mans, on the other hand, after the example

vaults was most extensively employed. In of the Etruscans, entered fully into the

those of Diocletian and Caracalla at Rome, construction of the semi-circular arch; and

and that of Julian at Paris, we see arches this new principle led to the grandest re

of such large dimensions, and vaults of such sults. By this means, the architects and

great extent, that we are struck with astobuilders of old Rome were enabled to use

nishment and admiration at works so noble materials which were of a moderate size,

in structure and so bold in design. and easy to raise to great heights; and

As to the origin of the arch, we have to construct immense vaults, which agreed


attributed it to the Romans, or rather to with the arch in their circular form.

their original instructors, the Etruscans. The period of Roman invention is one of the most brilliant | But it must be mentioned that brick arches are said to hata in the history of art. Of the many edifices with which the been found buried in the tombs of Thebes, in Egypt; and that Romans covered their provinces, there still remains a sufficient Mr. Hoskins describes one eight feet six inches in span, which number to prove the excellence of their architectural system, was regularly formed. Among the ruins of Meroë, the capital and the perfection to which they brought the science and of ancient Ethiopia, he found a semi-circular arch of stone skill of the practical builder. Arches and vaults raised by covering a portico, and at Gibel el Berkel a pointed arch, them of rough stone and bricks, and even of rubble, preserve which was over the entrance to a pyramid. Under these cir. their primitive solidity to this day. Their temples were con cumstances, it appears remarkable that the use of the arch in structed, like those of the Greeks, on the principle of the building should not have passed from Ethiopia, or from Thebes architrave; but the remains of their aqueducts, their baths, itself, into the ordinary architecture of Egypt. As neither those edifices so imposing from their great extent, their trium. the latter country nor Greece adopted the arch in their conphal arches, their circuses, and their theatros, show us how struotions, the merit of introducing it into general architecture extensively the Romans employed the arch and the vault in must still remain with the Romans; for although Pericles their edifices. But of all their remarkable works, the amphi. adorned the city of Athens with splendid edifices, it was left theatres were those in which the multiplied and varied use of for the Romans to construct a stone arch over the small sirer these most frequently occur; those immense buildings in the Cephisus, upon the most frequented road to that city. It elliptical form, with rows of seats placed round and round, and appears that the construction of the arch was also known to rising gradually above one another, in which the spectators the Chinese long before it made its appearance in Europe. It assembled to witness their barbarous spectacles. The style covers the gateways in their great wall; it is seen in the conof architecture employed in these buildings was of a vigorous struction of their sepulchral monuments; and it was employed and substantial character, adapted to

in the construction of their bridges. its use. Two or three stories of im.

Kircher, in his account of China, mense arcades, or rows of arches,

speaks of some three and four miles divided by piers ornamented with

long, and of an arch of the incredible columns or pilasters, admitted light

span of 600 feet. into the corridors or long passages

There are numerous specimens of which surrounded the edifice. Other

Roman architecture in France, the galleries, more or less numerous, and

ancient Gaul, which, by their stabi. parallel to the preceding, were con- su

lity and the excellence of their constructed below the seats. From floors

struction, have long survived the era on a level with these galleries, or by

of their architects. One of the finest numerous flights of steps, they were AMPHITHEATRE OF THYSDRUS, IN AFRICA.

of these is the bridge over the viadmitted to the seats by entrances so

dourle, at Sommières, in the departarranged as to prevent crowding and confusion. Four opon ment of the Gard. It is composed of seventeen arches, of which passages disposed along the axes of the building, which, as we nine have been encroached upon by the town, and are sank have said, was in the form of an ellipse, gave admittance to the under the principal street, so that the water now flows under arena from without; round the arena were placed the cells which eight arches only. Every pier is hollowed out into a small sech, ocontained the animals. Behind these cells were constructed, in order to increase the water-way during floods. This bridge is also, corridors or long passages communicating with every part supposed to have been built in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar. of the building, and placed under the first row of arches, or The bridge of Ceret, over the Tech, in the department of the firct row of seats for the spectators.

the Eastern Pyrenees, is a remarkable specimen of the age in The rain-water was carried off by water-courses and drains, which it was supposed to be built, which ascends to the tima which ran into an aqueduct passing under the arena; while of the Visigoths, and is still within the domain of ancisat other aqueducts were employed to inundate it when nautical Roman history. The middle arch is about 154 feet, and fra entertainments were brought before the spectators. At the abutments are relieved by arches, which contributo to the top of the building, and all round it outside, were placed con. I elegance and beauty of the whole.


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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXXIV. but their use is gradually dying out, as hastily written modern

Greek is quite difficult enough to read without an admixture of MODERN GREEK HANDWRITING.

almost arbitrary abbreviations. In bringing our Lessons in Penmanship to a conclusion in the The numerals in general use are the Arabio; the Greek and prosent number, we take the opportunity to give a specimen of Roman numerals being only occasionally used for datos, or to the handwriting in use among the modern Greeks. As many distinguish paragraphs. of our readers are doubtless aware, the alphabet of the modern As the modern Greek is essentially an accentuated language, Greek language is

care must be taken identical with that

to place the accents of the ancient

over the proper syi. tongue; but as the

lables in each word. latter alphabet can

This is extremely only be written slow.

necessary, as the poly, owing to the pe

sition of the accent culiar formation of

is frequently the many of the letters,

only means of disthe modern Greeks

tinguishing small ha Ta

Eta (n) from Kappa their handwriting

(«), the forms for several of the forms

which are both the of letters used in

in writing, the current Italian

ra kand, and have

marked difference slightly modified the

in the printed forms. printed shapes of

The forms used for the others. Thus ra

the accents in writ. se find that the


are identical capital letters A,

with those in the B, E, I, K, M, N,

printed books-viz., O, and T, as well

the three acoents

(""), the two breatha, b, o, and 8(final),

ings ('), the iota are identical in form

subscription (,), and with those in use by

the diæresis (TM). To 173. The reader will

those who are aoalso perceive that

quainted with the the sign for the capi.

Modern Greek pro tal letter Eta is the SPECIMEN OF A LETTER IN MODERN GREEK HANDWRITING.

nunciation no diffi. same as that for our

culty will exist, as English H, as in the printed characters, whilst that for the the sound of the voice alone is sufficient to indicate the place Capital letter Rho is identical with that for P. Upsilon, both where the accent ought to fall. We can only refer those who have capital and small, is formed in the same manner as our V. not this knowledge to the rules for the accentuation of ancient Small i differs from our letter i only in having no dot. The Greek, which obtain equally in the modern Greek grammar. other letters are all modifications of the ancient forms, which One word of warning to the student-write distinctly rather the student can easily acquire for himself by carefully imitating than rapidly. It is difficult enough to decipher the handwriting the copy we have given. It will be observed that, from the of many who write the ordinary Italian hand indifferently, but



E o N P u T V P x y w. abj de Jndongurzowpostvexy wozidi mio. u, kai. Kumzarlivos Adñral Hepnupa Lánvrdos Ilorditor Télpos Ívarons Europilwr Mat dãos Ilalpan Afyor Zuipro



configuration of many of the letters, the joining together of it is infinitely more troublesome to understand modern Greek every letter in a word, as is done in the Italian current hand, is when written hastily and illegibly. quite impossible. The rules for the breaks thas occurring can We have thought it necessary to introduce the accompany. only be acquired by practice, as they are quite arbitrary, each ing specimens of Modern Greek Handwriting for the benefit of writer joining his letters as best suits the peculiar style of his such of our readers who may be in Greek mercantile houses in own handwriting.

this country, or engaged in mercantile transactions with Greek We give the three principal abbreviations——viz., ot, ov, kal. firms abroad. We would recommend thos0, however, who are Many others are to be found in the correspondence of old men, I not likely to require a knowledge of Greek handwriting for

business purposes, but are merely studying Greek for the sake Préférez-vous demeurer au rez-de- Do you prefer to live on the ground of availing themselves of the riches that lay heaped up in

chaussée ?

floor? the storehouses of ancient Greek literature, to use the printed Je désire demeurer au premier I wish to live on the first story.

étage. characters; as, although the writer's progress may be in a measure slow, when compared with the rate at which he writes Nous préférons lonor le second We prefer to take the second story. his ordinary hand, the adoption of the ordinary printed forms Nous espérons louer une chambre We hope to rent a room on the second will impart to his handwriting those most excellent and desirable

au second.

story. qualities in handwriting of any kind-legibility, neatness, and

VOCABULARY. distinctness.

Cabinet, m., closet. En haut, upstairs, | Plaisir, m., farce, The following is the letter as given in Greek handwriting in

Compt-er, 1, to cipher. above.

pleasure. the preceding page, in printed characters, with the pronunciation Demain, to-morrow. Faisan, m., pheasant. Salle, f., parlour. under every word :

Déjeun-er, 1, to break- Jou-er, 1, to play. Touch-er, 1, to touch, Φίλτατε Κυριε


Lou-er, 1, to rent, let, play. Phil-ta-te Ku'-r-ie

En bas, down stairs, Pinc-er, 1, to play. Troisième, third stor:

below. Σας ζητώ συγγνώμην διά το βάρος σας δίδω αλλά ών

Violon, m., violin Sas zee'-to sug-gno-meon di'-a toh bar'.ros sas di'-do al'-la own

EXERCISE 145. έπασχολομένος και μην δυνάμενος να εξέλθω εκ της οικίας 1. Combien de chambres comptez-vous louer ? 2. Noge o-pas-ko-lom'-en-og kai meen du-nam'-en-os na ex-eľ-tho ek tees oi-ki-as comptons louer une salle au rez-de-chaussée et deux cabinets μου παρακαλώ να έλθητε εις ανταμπωσίν μου σήμερον το au troisième. 3. Ne préférez-vous pas louer une chambre-amou pa-ra-kal.o na el-thce'.to eis an-tam-poʻ-sin mou see-me-ron toh coucher au second ? 4. Nous préférons demeurer au rez-de. εσπέρας περί τας επτά ώρας. Μένω Πρόθυμος. chaussée, 5. Ne pouvez-vous rester à dîner avec nons auhes'-per-as per'-ri tas hep-ta ho'-ras. Me'-no Pro'-thu-mos. jourd'hui ? 6. Je vous remercie, je préfère venir demain. 7.

The translation of the above letter in English is as follows:- M. votre père viendra-t-il demain déjeuner avec nous ? 8. I Dear Sir,

compte venir demain, de bonne heure. 9. Que voulez-vous I beg pardon for the trouble I give you, but being unwell and leur dire ? 10. Je veux les prier de me faire ce plaisir. 11. unable to go out of my house, I request (you to be good enough) to come Comptez-vous faire ce plaisir à mon frère ? 12. J'espère le lni to visit me this evening at about seven o'clock.

faire. 13. Préférez-vous demeurer en haut ou en bas ? 14.

I remain, yours obediently. Nous préférons demeurer en bas. 15. Que pensez-vous faire The following are the Greek proper names given after the de ce jeune faisan? 16. Nous pensons l'envoyer à M. votre alphabets of the capital and small letters in the preceding page, beau-frère. 17. Ne savez-vous pas jouer du violon? 18. Je with their pronunciation and meaning :

sais en jouer. 19. Mlle. votre cousine sait-elle toucher le Kwotavtivos (kone-stan-sti'-nos), Constantine ; 'Aonai (a-the'. piano ? 20. Elle sait toucher le piano et pincer la harpe. 21. nai), Athens; Kepkupa (ker-ku'-ra), Corcyra, or Corfu; Zakurdos Ne savez-vous pas écrire ? 22. Nous savons lire, écrire et (za-kun'-thos), Zanto; Aovdivov (lon-di-non), London ; fletpos comptor. 23. Savez-vous jouer de la guitare ? 24. Nous de (pet'-ros), Peter; Iwávons (i-o-an'-nees), John; Stiplowy (spi-ri'. savons pas en jouer. 25. Nous souhaitons trouver un apparte done), Spiridon; Maraios (mat-thai'-os), Matthew; Natpai (pat- ment au roz-de-chaussée. rai), Patras; Apyos (ar-gos), Argos; Suúpvn (smur-ne), Smyrna.

EXERCISE 146. 1. Doos your brother-in-law intend to rent the ground floor

2. He intends to rent two rooms on the second story. 3, How LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXXIX. many rooms does your son intend to take ? 4. He intends to SECTION LXXV.-REGIMEN OR GOVERNMENT OF

take two rooms on the second story. 5. Does he prefer to live VERBS ($ 129).

on the second floor ? 6. He prefers to live on the ground floor.

7. Does your father wish to come to dinner with us to-morrow? 1. MANY verbs come together in French without prepositions, 8. Ho intends to come to-morrow at two o'clock. 9. Do you which are in English joined by them. Many others are con prefer to live up stairs or down stairs ? 10. I prefer to live nected in French by prepositions different from those connecting above. 11. Does your sister know how to play on the piano ? the corresponding verbs in English. No satisfactory general | 12. She knows how to play on the piano. 13. Where do you rules can be given on this point. We shall give in Part II. of intend to live (demeurer) ? 14. We intend to live at your these Lessons (S$ 130, 131, 132] copious lists of the verbs in father's. 15. Will you go up to my room?

16. I will go general use, with the prepositions which follow them, when down to your father's. 17. Do you wish to live on the ground they come before other verbs. We have also hitherto noted floor ? 18. I wish to live on the second floor. 19. Is it neces the propositions usually placed after the verbs introduced in our sary to stay here? 20. It is not necessary to stay here. 21. lessons.

What do you think of doing with (de) your book ? 22. I think 2. The student will recollect that a verb following another of giving it to my son. 23. What do you wish me to say to verb (not avoir or étre) or a preposition (not en) must be in the that gentleman ? 24. I wish to beg him to do me a favour. infinitive.

25. Do you wish to send that pheasant to your mother? 26. 3. The following verbs, extracted from the list, $ 130, although I wish to send it to her, she is ill. 27. Cannot your sister they, in English, take a proposition before another verb, do not play on the violin ? 28. She cannot play on the violin, but sbe take one in French :

can play on the guitar. 29. Does your sister wish to live up Aler, 1, ir., to go. Falloir, 3, ir., to be ne- Préférer, 1, to prefer. stairs ? 30. She prefers living down stairs. 31. Will you not Compter, 1, to intend.

Savoir, 3, ir., to know. do me that favour? 32. I will do it with pleasure. 33. CseConrir, 2, ir., to run. Mener, 1, to lead, take. *Souhaiter, 1, to wish. not your brother stay and dine with us to-day? 34. He has Daigner, 1, to deign. Penser, 1, to think.

Valoir mieux, 3, ir., to promised my father to come and dine with him. 35. Our friend * Désirer, 1, to desire, Pouvoir, 3, ir., to be be better.

knows how to read, write, and cipher. Devoir, 3, lo owe.


Venir, 2, ir., to come. Envoyer, 1, ir., to send. Prétendre, 4, to pro- Vouloir, 3, ir., to wish, SECTION LXXVI.-GOVERNMENT OF VERBS (continued). *Espérer, 1, to hope.


1. Many vorbs in French are joined with other verbs followRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

ing, by means of the preposition de, of, whoro the corresponding Comptez-vous diner avec nous ? Do you intend to dine with us?

verbs in English either take no preposition, or one other than of Jo vais déjeuner chez mon père. I am going to breakfast at my father's. Besides avoir besoin, eto. Sect. XX. 4), the following verbs, erNe voulez-vous pas doonor à man. Will you not feed that dog ? tracted from the list, $ 132, belong to this class : ger à ce chien ?

Achever, to finish. Dire, to say.

Menacer, to threater Désirez-vous monter dans ma Do you wish to go up to my room ? Avoir tort, to be wrong. Dispenser, to dispense. Négliger, to neglect chambre?

Brûler, to burn, to long. Empêcher, to prevent. Prier, to beg.. Je préfère descendre chez votre I prefer to go down to your father's, Cesser, to cease. Eviter, to avoid. Promettre, to presies père.

Commander, to com- Se flatter, to fatter Proposer, to propose Domeure-t-il en haut ou en bas ? Does he live above or below


one's sols.

Refuser, to refues.

Conseiller, to advise. Jurer, to swear. Supplier, to entrata * May also take the preposition “ De" before an infinitive. Défendre, to forbid. Manquer, to fail, Trembler, to trendik






to pay him. 31. I have forgotten to pay you. 32. Do not Pourquoi n'achevez-vous pas d'ap. Why do you not finish learning that neglect to write to me, 33. Tell him to go to my father. 34. prendre ce métier? trado?

Do not cease to work. 35. Tell him to come on Christmas Eve Nous brulons de continuer nos We burn to continue our studies. 36, I have told him to come the day after.

études. Il ne cesse de nous tourmenter. He does not cease tormenting us. Me défendez-vous de faire du bien Do you forbid my doing good to that


EXERCISE 57 (Vol. I., page 295). No négligez pas do lui faire uno Do not neglect paying him a visit.

1. Does General N. put on his uniform? 2. He does not put it or. visite. Me promettez-vous de faire une Do you promise me to pay a visit to

3. Why do you not wear your black cloak? '4. I am afraid of spoiling

it. visite à mon ami ?

5. Do you put on your satin shoes every morning? 6. I put them my friend ? Je vous prie d'aller tout droit chez I beg you will go straight home.

ou Sundays only. 7. It is twelve; does the servant lay the cloth?

8. He does not lay it yet, he is going to lay it immediately. 9. Is not vous. Je vous conseille de venir par le I advise you to come by rail.

dinner ready? 10. Does the servant take away the things? 11. He

does not take them away yet, he has no time to take them away. cheinip de fer, Ne manquez pas de lui faire mes Do not fail to present my compli- when I am too warm.

12. Do you take off your coat when you are warm ? 13. I take it off compliments.

14. Have you à cloth coa'o made? 15. I have ments to him. L'avez-vous menacé de le frapper? Have you threatened to strike him ?

a cloth coat and a black satin waistcoat made. 16. Are you not J'ai refusé de lui faire crédit. I refused to give him credit.

having your velvet slippers mended ? 17. Do you not have a cellar Me proposez-vous de lui confier Do you propose me to trust him with dug? 18. I have a large cellar dug. 19. What does the druggist

mean? cet argent?

20. He means that he wants money.' 21. Do you know what this money?

that means ? 22. That means that your brother is angry with you. Je vous conseille de le lui confier. I advise you to trust him roith it. J'évite de lui reprocher ses fautes. I avoid to reprooch him with his

23. Have you a wish to put on your cloak? A. I intend to put it OD,

for I am very cold. 25. I am going to take it off, for I am warm. faults. VOCABULARY.

EXERCISE 58 (Vol. I., page 295). Arros-er, 1, to water. Gard-er, 1, to keep. Tout droit, straight on.

1. Otez-vous votre habit? 2. Je n'ôte pas mon habit je le mets. Arrosoir, m., watering. Jardinier, m., gardener. Rend-re, 4, to do, lo

3. Otez-vous votre manteau quand vous avez froid ? 4. Quand j'ai pot. Lendemain, m., next render.

froid je le mets. 5. Votre petit garçou ôte-t-il ses souliers et ses Au contraire, on the


Veille, f., eve, day be. bas ? 6. Il les ôte, mais il va les remettre. 7. Cette petite fille metcontrary. Noël, m., Christmas. fore.

elle le couvert ? 8. Elle met le couvert, tous les jours à midi. 9. OteCorrig-er, 1; to correct, Oubli-er, 1, to forget. Voie, f., conveyance,

t-elle le couvert, après le diner? 10. Elle 6te le couvert tous les jours. Faire part, to commu- Se rend-re, 4, ref., to way, or mode of tra

11. Avez-vous l'intention de faire faire un habit? 12. J'ai l'intention nicate. repair.


de faire faire un habit. 13. Je vais faire faire un habit et un gilet.

14, M. votre frère fait-il raccommoder ses bottes ? 15. n les fait EXERCISE 147.

raccommoder. 16, M. votre fils que veut-il dire ? 17. Je ne sais pas 1. Pourquoi ne cessez-vous pas de lire ? 2. J'aurais tort de

ce qu'il veut dire. 18. Est-il fåché contre moi ou contre mon frère ?

20. A-t-il cesser de lire avant de savoir ma leçon. 3. Avez-vous défendu 19. Il n'est fâché ni contre vous ni contre M. votre frère. à votre jardinier d’arroser ces fleurs ? 4. Au contraire, je lui thicaire a-t-il besoin d'argent ? 23. il n'a pas besoin d'argent.

21. Il n'a pas peur de le gåter. 22. L'apoavais commandé de les arroser. 5. Pourquoi a-t-il négligé de 24. Mlle. votre scur a-t-elle ôté mon livre de la table ? 25. Elle ne l'a le faire ? 6. Parce qu'il a oublié d'apporter l'arrosoir. 7. Que pas ôté. 28. Pourquoi Ôtez-vous vos souliers? 27. Je les ête parce. désire faire M. F.? 8. Il brûle de continuer l'étude de la qu'ils me gênent. 28. Avez-vous l'intention de foire bâtir une maison ? médecine. 9. N'avez-vous pas tort de faire des visites à ce 29. J'ai l'intention d'en faire batir une, 30. Le tailleur gåte-t-il votre monsieur? 10. J'aurais tort de le négliger. 11. N'avez-vous habit? 31. Il ne le gâte pas. $2. Qui gâte vos habillements? 33. Per. pas refusé de rendre ce service à votre ennemi? 12. J'aurais en

sonne ne les gâte. 34. Quel chapeau portez-vous ? 35. Je porte un tort de refuser de le lui rendre. 13. Quelle voie nous avez

chapeau noir. vous conseillé de prendre ? 14. Je vous ai conseillé de prendre

EXERCISE 59 (Vol. I., page 315). la voie du bateau à vapeur. 15. Avez-vous menacé de frapper

1. What weather is it to-day? 2. It is very beautiful weather. cet enfant ? 16. Je l'ai menacé de le corriger. 17. Avez-vous

3. Is it very fine weather to-day? 4. It is clondy and damp weather. refusé de vendre des marchandises à mon frère ? 18. J'ai re

5. Does it rain much this morning ? 6. It does not rain yet, but it is

going to rain. 7. Is it windy or foggy ? 8. It is not windy. 9. The fusé de lui en vendre à crédit. 19. Avez-vous dit à mon fils de

fog is very thick. 10. How many persons are there in the assembly? se rendre à la maison ? 20. Je l'ai prié d'y aller tout droit. 11. There are more than two hundred persone. 12. Are there not 21. Vous proposez-vous de venir la veille de Noël ? 22. many manuscripts in your library : 13 There are not many, there Nous nous proposons de venir le lendemain. 23. Votre com- are only fifty-five. 14. Is it too cold for you in this room? 15. It is pagnon se propose-t-il de garder le secret ? 24. Il se propose neither too cold nor too warm. 16. Is there much bey in your stable ? de faire part de cela à tout le monde.

17. There is enough for my horse. 18. Do you remain at home when

it rains ? 19. When it rains, I remain at home; but when it is fine EXERCISE 148.

weather, I go to my cousin's. 20. Is there any meat in the market ? 1. Have you forbidden my cousin to speak to the gardener ? 21. There is much, there is game also. 22. There is veal, mutton, and 2. I have not forbidden him to speak to him. 3. Has your poultry. 23. Are there not also vegetables and fruit? 21. There are mother ordered the gardener to water her roses (roses)? 4.

25. There are some also. She has ordered him to water them. 5. Has he forgotten to

EXERCISE 60 (Vol. I., page 315). do it? 6. He has neglected to do it, he has not forgotten it. 1. Avez-vous froid ce matin? 3. Je n'ai pas froid, il fait chaud co 7. What conveyance will you take to go to Paris ? 8. I advise matin, 3. Fait-il du bronillard ou du vent. 4. Il ne fait ni brouillard you to take the railroad. 9. Have you told (d) your son to take ni vent, il pleut à verse. 5. Va-t-il pleuvoir on neiger? 6. Il va geler, the steamboat! 10. No, Sir, I have told him to take the stage- il fait très froid. 7. Il fait du vent et du brouillard. 8. Y a-t-il coach (diligence, f.). 11. Is not your brother wrong to neglect quelqu'un chez M. votre frère aujourd'hui ? 9. Mon frère est à la paying a visit to his brother-in-law? 12. He is wrong to neg- maison, et ma scur est à l'église. 10. Y -t-il de la viande au marché ? lect it. 13. Does not that young German long to read that letter? froid dans cette chambre pour Mlle. votre sour? 13. Il ne fait pas si

11. Il y a de la viande et de la volaille 12. Fait-il trop chaud ou trop 14. He longs to continue his studies. 15. Do you propose to chaud dans cette chambre que dans la bibliothèque de M. votre frère. trust him with that money ? 16. I propose to trust him with 14. Y a-t-il de bons livres anglais daus la bibliothègne de Mlle. votre it. 17 Do you neglect to reproach him with his faults ? 18. scur? 15. Il y en a de bons. 16. Y a-t-il des pêches et des prunes dans I avoid to reproach him with them. 19. Have you threatened votre jardin ? 17. Il y en a beaucoup. 18. Restez-vous chez M, votre to punish your son ? 20. I have threatened to strike him. 21. frère quand il neige ? 19. Quand il neige nous restons à la maison. 20. Do not fail to present my compliments to my sister's friends. Y a-t-il des dames chez Madame votre mèrel 21. Vos deux seurs y 2. I will not fail (je n'y manquerar pas). 23. Have you re

sont aujourd'hui. 22. Avez-vous le temps d'aller les chercher? 23. used to sell him goods ? 24. I have refused to sell him goods Je n'ai pas le temps ce watin. 24. Votre cheval est-il à l'écurie! 25.

Il n'y est pas, il est chez mon frère. 26. Gréle-t-il co matin ? 27. n n credit. 25. Which mode of travelling do you advise me to

ne grêle pas, il gèle. 28. Quel temps fait-il ce matin? 29. Il fait un ake ? 26 I advise you to take the railroad. 27. Do you temps superbe. 80. Fait-il trop chaud? 31. Il ne fait ni trop chaud ni orbid him to come P 28. I have forbidden his writing. 29. trop froid. 32. Va-t-il geler? 33. Il va neiger. 34. Neige-t-il tous les [ave yon failed to pay your gardener ? 30. I have not failed jours? 35. Il ne neige pas tous les jours, mais il neige très-sonvent.







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LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXVI. the projection that he has made of a map of Europe, and on

which he is desirous of fixing the position of places given in CONSTRUCTION OF A MAP OF EUROPE (continued).

our list. First, a strip of cartridge-paper or thin Bristol board In our last lesson we gave our readers ample instruotions for must be taken, such as is represented by A B C D in Fig. 18, and making a conical projection of a map of Europe; and to enable in this an open space, abcd, must be cut out with a sharp penthem to finish the map by marking in the chief geographical knife, equal in length to nine spaces of five degrees each of the features, and cities, and towns of this continent, we commence length assumed in the projection to be equal to five degrees, and in the presont lesson a list of the names of the principal places just wide enough to include the whole of a strip of the map in Europe, the countries in which they are situated, and their from north to south contained between any two contiguous respective latitudes and longitudes, so that the student may be meridians, which, it will be remembered, have been traced on enabled to fix for himself the proper position of each in his pro- the meridian at the distance of five degrees of longitude apart. jeotion, and thus learn geography in the most effective

Having done this, paste at the back of the cardboard manner possible, while he is at the same time ac

a strip of tracing-paper, taking care to strain it quiring the power of constructing maps in general.

tightly; and then place the strip over the projection, The student must remember that the position of the

so that the line a b in Fig. 18 falls exaotly on the line point (markod u in Fig. 14, page 356, and F in Fig.

GH in Fig. 17; the line FE in the former coinciding 17, page 356) from which the concentrio aros are de

with the line FE in the latter. Now, thrust a dram. scribed which form the parallels of latitude in a coni

ing-pin through the coinciding points, F, F, in each cal projeotion, varies according to the point where the 90

figure, and moving the strip a little to the right or circumscribing cone is supposed to touch the sphere or

left, so as to get the meridians of 150 and 20°, or the the points where it is supposed to enter the sphere.

meridians of 20° and 25°, in Fig. 17, showing through For example, it is only for the map of Europe, or for

the clear tracing-paper in the position shown by the any part of the zone that surrounds the sphere be

two thick meridian lines in Fig. 18, trace the paral. tween the parallels of 350 and 75o N. latitude, that the

lels from 75° to 30°, and then subdivide the whole, point from which the parallels of latitude are described

as shown by the dotted parallels and meridians in the can be taken at 50 beyond the pole for projections on

figure. The strip of cardboard will turn about the a small scale-or, more accurately, at 4° 30'30" for pro

point F as a centre, and on being turned so as to jections on a large scale; because, in the construction

bring the subdivided tracing-paper over any strip of of a projection for any part of the sphere lying in the

the projection bounded by two contiguous meridians zone included between these parallels north and south,

traced on the projection at a distance of five degrees and bounded by any two meridians east and west, the

apart, will exhibit the strip beneath divided into spaces cironmscribing cone on which the portion of the sphere


each measuring a degree of latitude or longitude each to be drawn is projeoted, is supposed to enter the

way. By moving the strip of cardboard as required, sphere in the parallels of 45° and 65° N. latitude, two

the position of any place can be fixed on the projecparallels equidistant from the parallels that bound the

465 tion with a pin or any sharp-pointed instrument. zone on the north and south. If the student will take

We will give the reader another method of fixing the trouble to draw for himself a quadrant of a circle

the position of places according to their latitude or graduated from 0° to 900 in spaces of 5o, as in bol

160 longitude on his projeotion. Let him take a strip of Fig. 14 (page 356), and then draw a series of straight

cardboard similar to that which is shown in Fig. 18, lines, like LM, entering the sphere at pairs of points,

but suited, of course, as far as length is concerned, to 5, 10, 15, or 20 degrees distant from each other, as he


the extent of his map from north to south. A portion

55 may determine, he will find that the nearer to the pole

of the strip of cardboard marked G HC in the figare are the points in which the circumscribing cone enters

must then be cut clean away, the line G K being in the the sphore, the legs is the distance beyond the pole of

straight line drawn through E from the point F, the the point from which the concentric aros representing

centre from which the concentric arcs representing the parallels of latitude are to be described, and that

the degrees of latitude have been described, and about this point becomes farthor and farther removed from

which the strip of cardboard must work. Having the pole as the points throngh which the oircumscrib.

45! *45

secured the strip as before with a drawing-pin passing ing oono enters the sphere approach nearer and nearer

through F, and also precisely through the point on to the equator. It is evident, then, that when we are

the paper underneath from which the parallels of making a conical projection of any portion of the 40!

latitude have been described, let the edge of the card. sphere near the equator, or any portion in higher lati

board, represented by G H, be laid against the central tudes on a large scale, it would be a difficult matter to

meridian of the projection, and carefully graduated is draw the aros representing the parallels of latitude 35 435

divisions, each representing a degree or a part of a from the point representing the common centre of the

degree, if the projection be on a sufficiently large scale ciroles of whose circumferences these aros form a part,

Having got a scale of degrees numbered along EG wwing to the great length of the radii with which the

from 30 to 75 (supposing that the map of Europe ia arcs must be described. It would be perfectly prac

the map on which we are at work), which will indicate ticable, it is true, if we had our paper pinned down at

the latitude of any place to be inserted in the map, by the end of a long table or board several feet in length,

moving it east or west from the central meridian 24 and also had a beam compass wherewith to describe

required, the longitude may be fixed by bringing the the required aros representing the parallels of latitude;

Fig. 18. edge GK of the cardboard to the required longitude, but as those appliances are too costly to be bought by

as shown in the graduated line at the bottom of the any but professional draughtsmen and map engravers, a method map, in which is marked the longitude east and west from has been found by which parallels of latitude can be represented Greenwich, and the position of the place determined by making by a number of short straight lines, arranged in such a manner a mark on the paper at its proper latitude, as shown on the gras as to correspond very nearly with the circular arcs that would duated line, G K. In using this method, however, care must be properly represent the parallels of latitude. Our readers shall taken to make allowance for the thickness of the point of the be put in possession of this method of drawing parallels of lati. pencil or steel-point with which the position of the place is tudo when we show them how to make a projection for the marked on the projection. whole or any part of the British Isles.

These methods may be recommended as obviating the near We will now show our readers a way by which they may fix sity of subdividing the whole projection into spaces of 8 degree the position of any place on their projections, according to its each way, as shown in the centre of the lower part of Fig. 17. latitude and longitude, with great acouracy, and without the The subdivisions of any strips of paper prepared as we have trouble of making separate measurements for each place. That directed for fixing the position of places on a projection accori this method may be clearly understood, we must ask our readers ing to their latitude and longitude, must depend on the size to turn to Fig. 17 (page 856).

the projection, and the length of the line assumed to represent The reader must suppose the figure in question to represent five degrees, two degrees, one degree, or even less, which in taksa








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