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LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXV.

sion, consonantal stem patr, in the singular number, accusative

case, being the object of the transitive verb amat, by which ON PARSING.

it is governed, according to the rule, “transitive verbs require In the following Latin exercises ascertain, write down, and their object to be in the accusative case.” imprint on your memory the parts of the several verbs—that is, Observe, that in thus setting before you a specimen of the mood, tense, person, and number-together with the exact parsing, I have given you two rules in Syntax; thusEnglish meaning; at the same time tell the person, tense, 1. A subject must agree with its verb in number and person. and mood endings, as well as give the stems. This you should 2. Transitive verbs require their object to be in the accusado very completely with each lesson in succession. You tive case. thus make a commencoment in what is called parsing, that Of these rules you will forthwith have need to make constant is, telling or assigning the parts in Latin, pars, a part). application. Commit them to memory, and reprat them by Parsing applies to nouns and adjectives, as well as to verbs, heart whenever applied. A verbal and exact repetition of them, indeed, to all parts of speech; it is also concerned with and of all rules, is desirable at first; afterwards, I wish that syntax, or the combination of words into sentences; so that you should give the substance rather than the words of a rale, you cannot parse your lessons completely until they are ter- for if you express its substance you show that you understand minated. But you have now advanced far enough to begin its import. parsing, and would be rewarded if every day, before you

VOCABULARY. attempt a new lesson, you were to take " a back lesson," and Compăro, 1, 1 get to-1 Latro, 1, I bark. | Placidus, -a, -um, ples parso it carefully; that is, go over again from the first what

gether, acquire. Libero, 1, I set free cid, tranqul. you have done with the strictest regard to the forms and Emigro, 1, I go out, quit (E. R. liberation). Terror, vris, m., terror. rules.

(E. R. emigration). Narratio, -ōnis,f., a nar. Timor, -ōris, my jear I will give you an example of what I mean by parsing :- Flo, 1, I blow.

rative.

(E. R. timid). Let us take the short Latin sentence

Ingens, ingentis, very Numéro, 1, I number. Vehemens, vehemes. great.

Nuper, adv., lately. tis, vehement, wrY Tullia patrem amat.

Interštus, -ūs, m., ruin. Observo, 1, I keep under strong. The first thing I have to do is to construe it, or put it into Intro, 1, I go into, enter my eye, observe.

Ventus, -i, m., cixd. On looking at it I see that Jam, adv., already.

(E. R. entrance). corresponding English words.

Occupo, 1, I fall upon, Vigilo, I, I watch, le

take possession of (E. Tullia is in the nominative case. Consequently, Tullia is the Judico, 1, I judge.

avake, guard (E. B. R. occupation).

vigilant). subject, and with it I must begin. But patrem comes next : am I to take patrem in the second place ? This I cannot do;

EXERCISE 81.-LATIN-ENGLISH. for patrem is in the accusative case, and consequently must

1. Ego te laudabam. 2. Tu me vituperabas. 3. Frater judicabat be dependent on some verb. The verb is there. Amat then, 4. Ego te laudabo. 5. Tu me vituperabis. 6. Frater judicabit. 7. Ez comes after Tullia. Putting the two together, I have Tullia ambulavi. 8. Tu vigilavisti. 9. Ventus flavit. 10. Ego ambutan amat, Tullia loves. What does Tullia love ? Patrem, her veram, 11. Tu vigilaveras. 12. Ventus flaverat. 13. Ego te landarero. father. The whole then is, Tullia loves her father. Here you

14. Tu me vituperaveris. 15. Frater judicaverit. 16. Quum milites see a departure in the English from the Latin idiom. With urbem intrabant, omnes cives timoris pleni erant. 17. Quam in als such deviations you should familiarise your mind by constant ambulabamus, vehemens ventus per altas quercus flabat, dum vos ph

cidus somnus recreabat. and careful observation. The departure here is this, that to

18. Vos vigilabatis. 19. Quamdia eris felis,

multos numerabis amicos. make good or idiomatic English, I am obliged to add the pro- per vituperabo. 21. Si acriter pugnabitis, o milites, patriam interita

20. Bonos semper laudabo, improbos sennoun her, her father,” there being in the Latin no word cor

liberabitis. 22. Si virtutem amabis, omnes boni te amabunt. responding to her. Do not hence suppose that it would be bad Latin to say “Tullia amat patrem suum," her father; but

Remark that sometimes an abbrevation takes place in the it is not customary to employ the pronoun in such cases, except perfect tense, and the tenses formed from the perfect tense. it is wanted for the sake of emphasis.

Thus, instead of saying in full, vigilavisti, as above, the Having translated the sentence, I must now parse it. I

Latins shortened the word into vigilasti, leaving out the si shall take each word in its grammatical order.

This process is called syncopation, and vorbs thus contracted

Other synce Tullia, Tulliæ, a noun feminine of the first declension, nomi- (drawn together) are said to be syncopated. native case, the subject to the verb amat.

pated forms ensue ; as landasti for landavisti ; amasti for The stem is Tulli (thus Tullia, genitive Tulliæ, the ze of amavisti: amasse for amavisse : also in other conjugations, as the genitive being removed, Tulli remains as the stem).

complesti for complevisti; audieram for audiveram; audierunt

for audiverunt. After giving the parts and relations of a noun as above, go through or decline the noun. So with all

I here resume the exercises, in which instances of syncopation

will be found. nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adjectives. Amat, from amo, is a verb transitive of the first conjugation,

EXERCISE 82.- LATIN-ENGLISH. indicative mood, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its subject Tullia, according to the rule, "a subject must magnam vobis laudem comparastis. 2. Cur per totam noctem vigi

1. Quia semper virtutis præcepta observastis (for observaristis) agree with its verb in number and person.” The four chief lasti ?

3. Præceptores meos semper amavi, nonne amasti tuos ? parts of amo are-amo, amavi, amatum, amare. The stem of 4. Acriter contra hostes pugnastis. 5. Quum milites urben intramo is am, the stem of the present tense is ama, the person. verant, ingens terror omnium civium animos occupabat. 6. Narratio endings are -6, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant. Amao is contracted quam mihi nuper narraveras, vehementer me delectaverat. 7. Quum into amo.

Then go throngh the tonse uniting the stem with exercitus hostilis urbem oppugnaverat, nos jam emigraverimus. 8. Si the person-endings. You would act wisely if, in addition, you

animum virtutibus ornaveris (ornaris) semper beatus eris. 9, Quan made amat the subject of inquiry ; thus, what would amat be hostes urbis nostræ agros devastaverint, urbem ipsam oppugnabunt. in the subjunctive mood? In the passive voice ? In the sub

EXERCISE 83.-ENGLISH-LATIN. junctive passive ? By what change is amat made plural ?

1. We praised thee. 2. Thou didst blame me. 3. The father was What is the corresponding second person singular ? Plural ?

5. He will praise thee. judging. 4. Thou wilt praise me.

6. The What does amat become in the future tense ? In the plu- father will judge us.

7. Thou hast walked (syncopated form). & I perfect indicative ? Go through the imperfect of amo. Give have watched. 9. The winds blew. 10. I will walk abroad. 11. Thoa the perfect subjunctive first person singular ; third person art watching. 12. The wind was blowing. 13. The soldiers will plural.

enter the city. 14. The soldiers were entering the city. 13. The These things may seem minute and troublesome to you: soldiers are entering the city. 16. The soldiers have entered the

18. A very strong they would, however, be required by any good teacher; and city. 17. The soldiers had entered the city.

19. Dost thou number many soldiers! attention to them is, I assure you, requisite to make a sound wind blows through the house. scholar; it is also requisite for that mental discipline which 20. I have numbered many friends. 21. He has liberated (set frue) the study of language may give, and which, in its perfect form, thy preceptors. 24. Let them love their parents. 25. O boys, lors

22. Hast thou watched all night? 93. Loru

his country from ruin. is of very high value.

virtue. 26. The narrative delighted my brother. 27. The narratire Another word remains-patrem; patrem from pater, patris, delights the girls. 28. The narrative will delight father and mother. & parisyllabic noun, of the masculine gender, the third declen- 29. Thou hast acquired fame by the narrative of the ruin.

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VOCABULARY.

Remark.-The supines are supposed to have been nouns of Acerrime, very bravely. Immaturus, -a, -um, Religioso, conscienti- the fourth declension, that in um, a noun in the accusative Adhibeo, 2, I apply. unripe.

ously.

case; that in u, a noun in the dative case (u for ui). Adhibere curam, to Immortalitas, -ätis, f., Rogo, 1, I ask.

EXERCISE 90.-LATIN-ENGLISH. take care. deathlessness, Sano, 1, I heal (E. R.

1. Parentes mei in urbem migraverunt habitatam. 2. Exercitus Advento, 1, I come to, Maturus, -a, -um, ripe, sanætory).

hostilis adventavit agros nostros devastatum. 3. Uva immatura est arrire at. mature, Statio, -ōnis, f., a sta

acerba gustatu. 4. Ærumnæ sunt duræ toleratu. 5. Sitis difficillima Ægrotus, -i, a sick man. Medicus, .i, a physi. tion, a post.

est toleratu. 6. Pira sunt dulcia gustatu. Conscientia, -æ, f., con- cian (E. L. modicul). Supero, 1, I surpass, science. Obtempero, 1, I obey overcome.

EXERCISE 91.-- ENGLISH-LATIN. Evènit, it happons. (with the object in Tolero, 1, I endure,bear. 1. The soldiers approach to deliver (supine in um) the king. 2. The Exhilaro, 1, I exhila

the dative).

Tracto, 1, I handle, hostile army approaches to capture the city. 3. Ripe grapes are sweet rate, rejoice. Opto, 1, I wish (E. R. treat.

to the taste (supine in u). 4. Unripe grapes are difficult to be en. Expugno, 1, I capture. option).

Utilitas, -ătis, f., utility. dured. 5. They come to seize (fut. part, act. of occupo) the fields, Gusto, 1, I tasto. Pecco, 1, I sin.

Uva, -e, a grape. 6. Birds by singing (gerund) delight the mind. Honestas, -ātis, f., ho- Rědámo, I love again. Vide, see thou. mesty, honour.

Vide ne, see thou do not.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN. Rule.- The conjunctions at, that, in order that, so that, so

EXERCISE 79.–LATIN-ENGLISH. as, and ne, not to, so that not, to prevent, require after them the 1. I was praised, thou wast blamed. 2. The city was attacked. subjunctive mood.

3. I shall be praised, thou wilt be blamed. 4. The city will be at

tacked. 5. When the city was taken by the enemies, the minds of all the EXERCISE 84.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

citizens were occupied with great fear. 6. The citizens were greatly 1. Sæpe evenit ut utilitas cum honestate certet. 2. Vide ne pecces

disturbed by the enemies. 7. When the fight was most frightful, the contra virtutis præcepta. 3. Omnes parentes optant ut filii literas

sun was darkened by clouds. 8. The wicked after death will be diligenter tractent. 4. Ita vivere debemus ut in omni re rectam con- punished with just punishment. 9. The city was attacked by the scientiam servemus. 5. Medicus omnem curam adhibet ut ægrotum

enemies. 10. The minds of all the citizens were occupied with great sanet. 6. Amo te ut me redămes. 7. Dux imperavit ut milites sta.

terror. 11. If we have (shall have) cultivated learniug diligently, we tiones suas servarent. 8. Heri ambulam ut tristem animum exhilarem.

shall be presented with beautiful rewards by our parents. 12. When EXERCISE 85.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

the city was (had been) taken by the enemies, all the citizens were 1. See that your son does not sin. 2. Dost thou sin against the tortured with the most bitter grief. 13. If your children have been precepts of virtue? 3. A wise father takes care that his children do well educated by you, you will be praised. 14. Let the industrious not sin. 4. The generals take care that the soldiers keep their posts. scholar be praised, let the idle (scholar) be blamed. 15. Let the divine 5. You take care to prevent your children from sinning (literally, that laws be conscientiously observed by men. 16. Be ye en treated, O my they do not (ne) sin). 6. Good mothers take care that their children parents. 17. O my boy, take delight in the study of letters! 18. Be en. obey their commands.

treated, O judge! 19. Let the soldiers on a certain day be collected

into the city. 20. Let not the citizens be contaminated by shameful Rule.-After non dubito, the conjunction quin is used, re

deeds. 21. A certain peace is better than the hope of (a hoped) victory. quiring the subjunctive mood; thus, non dubito quin, I doubt 22. The changing of the country (the changed country) does not change not but, or that. In the same way, nemo dubitat quin, no one

the character. 23. Grief borne patiently is less bitter. 24. A good doubts that; quis dubitat quin? who doubts that? dubium non man ought to be praised. 25. Good parents take care that the man. est quin, there is no doubt that.

ners of their children are amended. 26. Take care that in every. EXERCISE 86.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

thing a pure conscience is preserved. 27. Thou art loved by me, that

I may be loved again by thee. 28. I walked yesterday that my sad 1. Non dubito quin milites nostri superaverint hostes. 2. Non

mind might be gladdened. 29. Our soldiers fought very vigorously dubitabam quin milites nostri hostes superavigsent. 3. Non dubito

that the city might be preserved from ruin. 30. See that you are quin milites nostri hostes superaturi sint.

4. Non dubitabam quin not blamed by the teachers. 31. A good citizen takes care that the milites nostri hostes superaturi essent. 5. Non dubitabam quin vos

laws are not violated by him. 32. I doubt not that my friend will patriam servitute liberaturi essetis. 6. Dubium non erat quin exer

be released from sickness. 33. No one doubted that peace had been citus noster omnes labores et ærumnas facile toleraturus esset. 7.

regained. 34. I know not wherefore peace has been disturbed. Quis dubitat quin Hamníbal contra Romanos fortissime pugnavěrit.

EXERCISE 80.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
EXERCISE 87.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

1. Pax recuperata est. 2. Pax recuperabitur. 3. Pax recupera1. No one doubts that you will fight bravely for the liberty of your

batur. 4. Non dubito quin illi pacem recuperaturi sint. 5. Pax turcountry. 2. No one doubts that he fought bravely. 3. No one will

bata est. 6. Estne pax turbata ? 7. Nonne pax turbata est ? 8. Pax doubt that he will fight bravely. 4. No one doubted that he had turbabitur. 9. Pax non turbanda est. 10. Ego laudabor, ille vitufought bravely. 5. Who doubts that the soldiers will capture the

perabitur. 11. Ille vituperandus est. 12. Ne vituperatus est. 6. There is no doubt that you endeavour (studeo) to preserve 13. Urbs non expugnata est. 14. O pater, ab supplice filia tua exorare! honour. 7. I do not doubt that my father will come.

15. Mater exorahatur. 16. Sol nube obscuratur. 17. Sol heri nubibus Though non dubito quin requires the subjunctive mood in obscurabatur. 18. Care fili, animus tuus terrore occupatur. 19. Meus Latin, the verb must be Englished by an indicative mood; as animus dolore occupabatur.

20. Omnium civium animi timore et may be seen in the English examples just given. In order to dolore occupabuntur. 21. Adolescentes, ne flagitiis contaminamini. make this quite plain, I will give another instance :

22. Ego te amo, ut ego a te redămer. 23. Pater amandus est. 24, Malus Non dubito quin bonus sit avunculus tuus.

puer castigandus est. 25. Civitatis leges ab omnibus civibus sancto

observantor. 26. Divinæ leges ab sanctis hominibus observantur. 27. I doubt not that thy uncle is good.

Virtutisne præcepta ab urbis adolescentibus observata sunt?
Here, then, you see the verb which in Latin must be in the
subjunctive mood, must stand in the indicative mood in English.
Such is by no means an unusual fact.

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-IX. Rule.-With the imperative the negative ne is used, and not ARCHITRAVES, ARCHES, AND VAULTED ROOFS. the negative non, as ne crede, do not believe.

In ancient times an order, the principal element of architecture, EXERCISE 88.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

was connected with the adjacent buildings, which it was em1. Diligenter cura, mi amice, valetudinem tuam. 2. Amate literas, ployed to ornament and to distinguish, by the architraves or n pueri! 3. Ne dubitato de animarum immortalitate. 4. Semper horizontal pieces which constituted one of the important parts serva, mi fili, conscientiam rectam. 5. Discipulus amato præceptores. of its combination. Down to the period of the Greek archi. 6. Laudatoto probos, vituperatote improbos. 7. Ne lauda malos tecture, we find no example of any deviation from this great pueros, 8. Omnes homines amanto Deum.

principle of primitive construction. All the ancient edifices of EXERCISE 89,-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Assyria and Babylonia, as well as of Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, 1. My sons, take care of yonr mother, 2. Charles, do not doubt of and India, invariably show the mode of connecting one column the deathlessness of the good. 3. Preserve, children, an upright con- with another, in horizontal lines, by means of a single piece, or science. 4. Let children love (their) preceptors. 5. Do you, my solid plate-band or bressumer, as it may be fitly denominated. friends, love God. 6. Do not blame thy sister, Charles.

The Greeks, who worked out the ideas of the nations which Rule.-The first supine, that is, the supine in um, is used preceded them in civilisation, and reduced them to system, as after verbs denoting motion; the second supine, that in u, is we have shown in former lessons, adopted the same principle of Dsed after certain adjectives.

construction. Their edifices in Asia Minor, in Italy, in Sicily,

city ?

as well as in Greece itself, are all rigorously constructed upon soles, or projecting ornaments in stone, fitted so as to receive this principle, as may be seen in the Parthenon at Athens, a vertical rods, upon which was spread a velarium or large representation of which was given in page 129 of this volume. curtain, covering the seats and the arena, in order to defend

The Etruscans first carried the arts into Italy, and were the the spectators from the heat of the sun. Thus we see how instructors of the Romans even before the Greeks. This the long corridors, the numerous flights of steps, the cells for ingenious people constructed the first Roman edifices, and built animals, and the aqueducts, required arches and vaults of all their arches and vaults as they still exist in the Cloaca Maxima, dimensions and of all forms. These edifices are unquestion. or Great Sewer of Rome, and the Mamertine Prison, which may ably such as do the greatest honour to the architectural and be considered as the foundation of a style of architeoture pecu- constructive genius of the Romans. Many of them still liarly Rɔman. Before the period of the Etruscans, the Pelasgians | remain, and some are in such a high state of preservation as had attempted to construct arches; but

to enable us to examine their minutest de. they went no farther than the pointed arch,

tails. The finest example is the famous the difficulty of centering an arch having

Amphitheatre of Flavian at Rome, which completely arrested their progress. In

was capable of containing more than 100,000 fact, their pointed arches, formed by suc.

spectators; those of Pola, in Istria, of Nimes cessive courses of horizonal stones, could

and Arles, in France, and of Thysdrus in only be considered as the two abutments

Africa. of a semi-circular arch approaching each

But although the Romans displayed their other. This fact is established by an exa

greatest science in the building of amphi. mination of the gate of Arpino, the build.

theatres, they exhibited their greatest art ings of Alba Fucensis, of Tiryns, and of the

in the construction of their public baths ; Treasury of Atreus at Mycenæ. The Ro.

for in these the building of arches and mans, on the other hand, after the example

vaults was most extensively employed. In of the Etruscans, entered fully into the

those of Diocletian and Caracalla at Rome, construction of the semi-circular arch ; and

and that of Julian at Paris, we see arches this new principle led to the grandest re

of such large dimensions, and vanlts of such sults. By this means, the architects and

great extent, that we are struck with asto. builders of old Rome were enabled to use

nishment and admiration at works so noble materials which were of a moderate size,

in structure and so bold in design. and easy to raise to great heights; and

As to the origin of the arch, we have to construct immenso vaults, which agreed

ROMAN AQUEDUCT.

attributed it to the Romans, or rather to with the arch in their circular form.

their original instructors, the Etruscans. The period of Roman invention is one of the most brilliant | But it must be mentioned that brick arches are said to hava in the history of art. Of the many edifices with which the been found buried in the tombs of Thebes, in Egypt; and that Romans covered their provinces, there still remains a sufficient Mr. Hoskins describes one eight feet six inches in span, which number to prove the excellence of their architectural system, was regularly formed. Among the ruins of Meroë, the capital and the perfection to which they brought the science and of ancient Ethiopia, he found a semi-circular arch of stone skill of the practical builder. Arches and vaults raised by covering a portico, and at Gibel el Berkel a pointed arch, them of rough stone and bricks, and even of rubble, preserve which was over the entrance to a pyramid. Under these cir. their primitive solidity to this day. Their temples were con- cumstances, it appears remarkable that the use of the arch in structed, like those of the Greeks, on the principle of the building should not have passed from Ethiopia, or from Thebes architrave; but the remains of their aqueducts, their baths, itself, into the ordinary architecture of Egypt. As neither those edifices so imposing from their great extent, their trium- the latter country nor Greece adopted the arch in their conphal arches, their circuses, and their theatres, show us how struotions, the merit of introducing it into general architecture extensively the Romans employed the arch and the vault in must still remain with the Romans; for although Pericles their edifices. But of all their remarkable works, the amphi- adorned the city of Athens with splendid edifices, it was left theatres were those in which the multiplied and varied use of for the Romans to construct a stone arch over the small river these most frequently occur; those immense buildings in the Cephisus, upon the most frequented road to that city. It elliptical form, with rows of seats placed round and round, and appears that the construction of the arch was also known to rising gradually above one another, in which the spectators the Chinese long before it made its appearance in Europe. It assembled to witness their barbarous spectacles. The style covers the gateways in their great wall; it is seen in the conof architecture employed in these buildings was of a vigorous struction of their sepulchral monuments; and it was employed and substantial character, adapted to

in the construction of their bridges. its use. Two or three stories of im.

Kircher, in his account of China, mense arcades, or rows of arches,

speaks of some three and four miles divided by piers ornamented with

long, and of an arch of the incredible columns or pilasters, admitted light

span of 600 feet. into the corridors or long passages

There are numerous specimens of which surrounded the edifice. Other

Roman architecture in France, the galleries, more or less numerous, and

ancient Gaul, which, by their stabi. parallel to the preceding, were con.

lity and the excellence of their con structed below the seats. From floors

struction, have long survived the era on a level with these galleries, or by

of their architects. One of the finest numerous flights of steps, they were AMPHITHEATRE OF THYSDRUS, IN AFRICA.

of these is the bridge over the Vi. admitted to the seats by entrances so

dourle, at Sommières, in the departarranged as to prevent crowding and confusion. Four open ment of the Gard. It is composed of seventeen arches, of which passages disposed along the axes of the building, which, as we nine have been encroached upon by the town, and are sunk have said, was in the form of an ellipse, gave admittance to the under the principal street, so that the water now flows under arena from without; round the arena were placed the cells which eight arches only. Every pier is hollowed out into a small arch, contained the animals. Behind these cells were constructed, in order to increase the water-way during floods. This bridge is also, corridors or long passages communicating with every part supposed to have been built in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar. of the building, and placed under the first row of arches, or The bridge of Ceret, over the Tech, in the department of the first row of seats for the spectators.

the Eastern Pyrenees, is a remarkable specimen of the age in The rain-water was carried off by water-courses and drains, which it was supposed to be built, which ascends to the time which ran into an aqueduct passing under the arena; while of the Visigotha, and is still within the domain of sncisat other aqueducts were employed to inundate it when nautical Roman history. The middle arch is about 154 feet, and to entertainments were brought before the spectators. At the abutments are relieved by arches, which contributo to the top of the building, and all round it outside, were placed con. I elegance and beauty of the whole.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXXIV. but their use is gradually dying out, as hastily.written modern

Greek is quite difficult enough to read without an admixture of MODERN GREEK HANDWRITING.

almost arbitrary abbreviations. In bringing our Lessons in Penmanship to a conclusion in the The numerals in general use are the Arabic; the Greek and prosent number, we take the opportunity to give a specimen of Roman numerals being only occasionally used for dates, or to the handwriting in use annong the modern Greeks. As many distinguish paragraphs. of our readers are doubtless aware, the alphabet of the modern As the modern Greek is essentially an accentuated language, Greek language is

care must be taken identical with that

to place the accents of the ancient

over the proper syi. tonguo; but as the

labley in each word. latter alphabet can

This is extremely only be written slow.

necessary, as the poly, owing to the pe

sition of the accent culiar formation of

is frequently the many of the letters,

only means of disthe modern Greeks

tinguishing small

Eta (n) from Kappa their handwriting

(x), the forms for several of the forms

which are both the of letters used in

saine in writing, the current Italian

ra kand, and have

marked difference slightly modified the

in the printed forms. printed shapes of

Tho forms used for the others. Thus

the accents in writ. we find that the

ing are identical capital letters A,

with those in the B, E, I, K, M, N,

printed books-viz., O, and T, as well

the three acoents as the small letters

(""), the two breath. a, b, o, and s(final),

ings '), the jota are identical in form

subscription (,), and with those in use by

the diæresis (). To 13. The reader will

those who are &0also perceive that

quainted with the the sign for the capi.

Modern Greek protal letter Eta is the SPECIMEN OF A LETTER IN MODERN GREEK HANDWRITING.

nunciation no diffi. filme as that for our

culty will exist, as English H, as in the printed characters, whilst that for the the sound of the voice alone is sufficient to indicate the place capital letter Rho is identical with that for P. Upsilon, both where the accent ought to fall. We can only refer those who have capital and small, is formed in the same manner as our v. not this knowledge to the rules for the accentuation of ancient Small i differs from our letter i only in having no dot. The Greek, which obtain equally in the modern Greek grammar. other letters are all modifications of the ancient forms, which Ono word of warning to the student-write distinctly rather the student can easily acquire for himself by carefully imitating than rapidly. It is difficult enough to decipher the handwriting the copy we have given. It will be observed that, from the of many who write the ordinary Italian hand indifferently, but

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THE MODERN GREEK WRITTEN ALPHABET :

CAPITALS AND SMALL LETTERS. PROPER NAMES IN MODERN GREEK WRITING.

configuration of many of the letters, the joining together of it is infinitely more troublesonce to understand modern Greek every letter in a word, as is done in the Italian current hand, is when written hastily and ibly. quite impossible. The rules for the breaks thus occurring can We have thought it necessary to introduce the accompany. only be acquired by practice, as they are quite arbitrary, each ing specimens of Modern Greek Handwriting for the benefit of writer joining his letters as best suits the peculiar style of his such of our readers who may be in Greek mercantile houses in own handwriting.

this country, or engaged in mercantile transactiong with Greek We give the three principal abbreviations—viz., ot, ov, kal. firms abroad. We would recommend those, howover, who are Many others are to be found in the correspondence of old men, I not likely to require a knowledge of Greek handwriting for

business purposes, but are merely studying Greek for the sake | Préférez-vous demeurer au rez-de- Do you prefer to live on the ground of availing themselves of the riches that lay heaped up in

chaussée ?

floor the storehouses of ancient Greek literature, to use the printed Je désire demeurer au premier I wish to live on the first story.

étage. characters; as, although the writer's progress may be in a measure slow, when compared with the rate at which he writes Nous préférons louor le second We prefer to iake the second story.

étage. his ordinary hand, the adop'ion of the ordinary printed forms Nous espérons louer une chambre Wo hope to rent a room on the second will impart to his handwriting those most excellent and desirable

au second,

story. qualities in handwriting of any kind-legibility, neatness, and

VOCABULARY. distinctness. The following is the letter as given in Greek handwriting in Compt-er, 1, to cipher.

Cabinet, mn., closet. En haut, upstairs, Plaisir, m., face,

above.

pleasure. the preceding page, in printed characters, with the pronunciation Demain, to-morrow. Faisan, m., pheasant. Salle, f., parlour. under every word:

Déjeun-er, 1, to break- Jou-er, 1, to play. Touch-er, I, to touch, Φίλτατε Κυριε

fast.

Lou-er, 1, to rent, let, play. Phil'-ta-to Ku'-r-ie

En bas, down stairs, Pinc-er, 1, to play. Troisième, third stor, Σας ζητώ

below,

Violon, m., violin. συγγνώμην διά το βάρος σας δίδω αλλά αν Sus zee'-to sug-gno-meen di'-a toh bar'-ros sas di'-do al'-la own

EXERCISE 145. έπασχολομένος και μην δυνάμενος να εξέλθω εκ της οικίας 1. Combien de chambres comptez-vous louer ? 2. Noor e-pas-ko-lom'-en-os kai meen du-nam'-en-os na ex-el-tho ek tees oi-ki'-as comptons louer une salle au rez-de-chaussée et deux cabinets μου παρακαλώ να έλθητε εις ανταμπωσίν μου σήμερον το au troisième. 3. Ne préférez-vous pas louer une chambre-àmou pa-ra-kal'.o na el-thoe'-to eis an-tam-poʻ-sin mou see-me-ron toh coucher au second ? 4. Nous préférons demeurer au rez-de

εσπέρας περί τας επτά ώρας. Μένω Πρόθυμος. chaussée. 5. Ne pouvez-vous rester à dîner avec nong auhes'-per-as per'-ri tas hep'-ta lo'ras. Me'.no Pro-thu-mo8. jourd'hui ? 6. Je vous remercie, je préfère venir demain. 7.

The translation of the above letter in English is as follows :- M. votre père viendra-t-il demain déjeuner avec nous ? 8. I Dear Sir,

compte venir demain, de bonne heure. 9. Que vonlez-vous I beg pardon for the trouble I give you, but being unwell and leur dire ? 10. Je veux les prier de me faire ce plaisir. 11. unable to go out of my house, I request (you to be good enough) to come Comptez-vous faire ce plaisir à mon frère ? 12. J'espère le lai to visit me this evening at about seven o'clock.

faire. 13. Préférez-vous demeurer en haut ou en bas ? 14.

I remain, yours obediently. Nous préférons demeurer en bas. 15. Que pensez-vous faire The following are the Greek proper names given after the de oe jeune faisan ? 16. Nous pensons l'envoyer à M. votre alphabets of the capital and small lotters in the preceding page, beau-frère. 17. Ne savez-vous pas jouer du violon? 18. Je with their pronunciation and meaning :

sais en jouer. 19. Mlle. votre cousine sait-elle toucher le Kwotavtivos (kone-stan-sti'-nos), Constantine ; 'Aonvai (a-the'. piano ? 20. Elle sait toucher le piano et pincer la harpe. 21. nai), Athens; Kepkupa (ker-ku'-ra), Corcyra, or Corfu; Zakuvos Ne savez-vous pas écrire ? 22. Nous savons lire, écrire et (za-kun'-thos), Zanto; dovdivov (lon-di-non), London ; lletpos comptor. 23. Savez-vous jouer do la guitare ? 24. Nous ne (pet-ros), Peter; lwávons (i-o-an'-nees), John; Swipowv (spi-ri' savons pas en jouer. 25. Nous souhaitons trouver un appartedone), Spiridon; Matoaîos (mat-thai'-os), Matthew; Harpai (pat- ment au rez-de-chaussée. rai), Patras; Apyos (ar-gos), Argos; Suúpvn (smur'-ne), Smyrna.

EXERCISE 146. 1. Does your brother-in-law intend to rent the ground floor?

2. He intends to rent two rooms on the second story. 3, How LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXXIX. many rooms does your son intend to take ? 4. He intends to SECTION LXXV.-REGIMEN OR GOVERNMENT OF

take two rooms on the second story. 5. Does he prefer to live VERBS ($ 129).

on the second floor ? 6. He prefers to live on the ground floor.

7. Does your father wish to come to dinner with us to-morrow? 1. Many verbs come together in French without prepositions, 8. He intends to come to-morrow at two o'clock. 9. Do you which are in English joined by them. Many others are con- prefer to live up stairs or down stairs ? 10. I prefer to live nected in French by prepositions different from those connecting above. 11. Does your sister know how to play on the piano ? the corresponding verbs in English. No satisfactory general | 12. She knows how to play on the piano. 13. Where do you rules can be given on this point. We shall give in Part II. of intend to live (demeurer) ? 14. We intend to live at your these Lessons (S$ 130, 131, 132] copious lists of the verbs in father's. 15. Will you go up to my room? 16. I will go general use, with the prepositions which follow them, when down to your father's. 17. Do you wish to live on the ground they come before other verbs. We have also hitherto noted floor ? 18. I wish to live on the second Hoor. 19. Is it necesthe prepositions usually placed after the verbs introduced in our

sary to stay here? 20. It is not necessary to stay here. 21. lessons.

What do you think of doing with (de) your book ? 22. I think 2. The student will recollect that a verb following another of giving it to my son. 23. What do you wish me to say to verb (not avoir or étre) or a preposition (not en) must be in the that gentleman ? 24. I wish to beg him to do me a favour. infinitive.

25. Do you wish to send that pheasant to your mother ? 26. 3. The following verbs, extracted from the list, $ 130, although I wish to send it to her, she is ill. 27. Cannot your sister they, in English, take a preposition before another verb, do not play on the violin ? 28. She cannot play on the violin, but ebe tako one in French :

can play on the guitar. 29. Does your sister wish to live up Aller, 1, ir., to go. Falloir, 3, ir., to be ne. Préférer, 1, lo prefer, stairs ? 30. She prefers living down stairs. 31. Will you not Compter, 1, to intend.

cessary.

Savoir, 3, ir., to know. do me that favour ? 32. I will do it with pleasure. 33. CseCourir, 2, ir., to run. Mener, 1, to lead, take. *Souhaiter, i, to wish. not your brother stay and dine with us to-day? 34. He has Daigner, 1, to deign. Penser, 1, to think. Valoir mieux, 3, ir., to promised my father to come and dine with him. 35. Our friend * Désirer, 1, to desire, Pouvoir, 3, ir., to be be better,

knows how to read, write, and cipher. Devoir, 3, to owe.

ablo.

Vepir, 2, ir., to come. Envoyer, 1, ir., to send. Prétendre, 4, to pro- Vouloir, 3, ir., to wish, SECTION LXXVI.-GOVERNMENT OF VERBS (continued). *Espérer, 1, to hope. tend.

will.

1. Many verbs in French are joined with other verbs follor. RÉSUMÉ or EXAMPLES.

ing, by means of the preposition de, of, where the corresponding Comptez-vous diner avec nous ? Do you intend to dine with us ?

verbs in English either take no preposition, or one other than a Jo vais déjeuner chez mon père. I am going to breakfast at my father's. Besides avoir besoin, etc. (Sect. XX. 4), the following verbs, esNe voulez-vous pas donnor à maa. Will you not feed that dog ?

tracted from the list, § 132, belong to this class : ger à ce chien ?

Achever, to finish. Dire, to say.

Menacer, to thinsator Désirez-vous monter dans me Do you wish to go up to my room ? Avoir tort, to be wrong. Dispenser, to dispense. Négliger, to neglect. chambre?

Brûler, to burn, to long. Empêcher, to present, Prier, to beg. Je préfère descendre chez votre I prefer to go down to your father's, Cesser, to coase. Eviter, to avoid. Promettre, to prosim père.

Commander, to com- Se flatter, to flatter Proposer, to propose Domeure-t-il en haut ou en bas? Does he live abode or belor

mand.

one's soll.

Refuser, to refuse. Conseiller, to advise. Jurer, to swear,

Supplier, to entreat * May also take the preposition " De" before an infinitive, Défendre, to forbid. Manquer, lo fail, Trembler, to frenadila

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