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The alkalies are the strongest bases. A base is generally the pence column, and adding the 2 shillings to the row of shil. oxide of a metal.

lings, we get 40 shillingsmi.e. 2 pounds exactly. Writing Acids which end in ic make salts which end in ate. Sulphuric | down a cipher under the shillings' column, to show that there acid (H.30.) makes sulphates. Nitric acid (HNO,) makes are no shillings over, and adding the 2 pounds to the pounds' nitrates. Those which end in ous make salts ending in ite. column, we get 23 pounds, which we write down under the Sulphurous acid (H,802) makes sulphites. Nitrous acid (HNO,) \ pounds' column. forms nitrites. And it will be observed that the acids in ous 4. Rule for Compound Allition. have an atom less oxygen than those in ic.

Write the quantities so that those of the same denomination CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE.-Salts may be formed by the stand under each other. Beginning with the lowest denominareplacement of the hydrogen in the acids by an atom of metal. tion, find the sum of each column separately, and divide it by Some metals are capable of replacing 1 atom of hydrogen, some that num.ber which is required to make one of the next highest 2, some 3, and others 4. They are said to be respectively mona denomination. Set the remainder under the column added, and tomic, diatomic, triatomic, and tetratomic, and the most important carry the quotient to the next column. may be arranged thus-only those in italics may be learnt- Obs.In the example given above we exprossed the farthings

Moratoxic. — Cæsium, Lithium, Potassium, Sodium, Rubidium, Silver, in a separate column for clearness, and not as fractions of a Thallium,

penny, but it is not usual to do so. DIATOMIC.— Barium, Cadmium, Calcium, Cerium, Chromium, Cobalt,

EXERCISE 43.
Copper, Didymium, Glucinum, Iron, Lanthanum, Lead, Magnesium,
Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Palladium, Strontium, Thorium, Uranium, 1. Add together the following examples in Compound

Addition :-
TRIATOMIC. — Aluminium, Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Gold, Rhodium. 1. .£3 179. 0:., £12 5s. 1038., £2 08. 57d.

TITRATOXIC. —Niobium, Platinum, Tantalum, Tin, Titanium, Zip- 2. £4 198. 11 d., £15 148. 31d., £21 178. 20., £57 134. 90., 169. 04d., conium.

£l 29. 3;d. The atomicity of the chief metalloids is here given :

3. £22 33. 5 d., £13 29. 04d., £33 148. 9;d., £23 198. 107a. MONATOMIC.-Bromine, Chlorine, Fluorine, Hydrogen, Iodine.

4. £987 178. 10;d., £896 16s. 11 d., £774 129. 10,d., £916 18s. 9;d., DIATOMIC.-Oxygen, Selenium, Sulphur, Tellurium.

£768 158. 6:. TRIATOMIC.-Boron, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.

5. £4736 168. 11:d., £9804 11s. 10:0, £3896 129. 60., £7925 178. 113d, TETRATOMIC.-Carbon, Silicon, I

£8730 12s. 10;d., £4913 15s. 7 d., £7835 168. 9,4., £9768 178. 10:0. If we take for the type of the oxides, water, H,0 (the oxide

14. of hydrogen), then K,O is the oxide of potassium or potash. To

tons. cwt. lbs.

yrs. mon. wks. d. get the oxide of gold, the H must be in a multiple of 3; there

hrs. min 17

22 fore take 3 atoms of H,0: 3H,0 = H,0g. Now gold is triatomic, 1 atom being capable of replacing 3 of H, hence the

1 15

7

21 1 oride of gold = Au,Og. Tin is tetratomic; we must therefore

2 37 have the H in 4 atoms, or a multiple of 4: 2H,0 = H,Og. 1 atom Sn replaces H., hence Sno, is the oxide of tin.

7. The mode of constructing this table will be easily understood,

tons. cwt. lbs.

15. and the student should accustom himself to write the formulas

15
45

drams. scruples. grains. of all the salts of the metals, the simple rule being, take the acid

17 80

2

17 of the required salt, and for its hydrogen substitute the equivalent 26

5

2 number of atoms of the metal. The types which are placed at the head of the columns are the compounds of hydrogen, in

14 some cases acids :

8.

oz. dwts. grs.
Chlorides
Sulphates
Oxides
Nitrates

Chlorates
Sulphides

21
HC

16.
H,SO,
1.0
ANO,

H,S
HCIO,

(hydro-
(sulphuric (nitric
(sulphu-

in.

cubic yds.
(chloric
(water).

ft.
6
0

15
chloric
retted

14
acid).

17 acid).

1623 acid). acid). hydrogen).

728

1727 9 0 0

54 Opotash. Na,so, KNO, Ag Cl.

K CI 0,

S. Cu 0. Cu So, Zn 2NO,. Fe Cig. Fe 2010, Sb, Sg. As, 0, B1,3 SO,. Au 3NO, au ci,. etc.

eto.

9. Sn 280

leagues. m. tur, rods. yds. ft.

17. Occasionally other terms are used, but their meaning is at

18 2

sq.m. acres. once obvious. Binoride means an oxide in which are 2 atoms of oxygen : Snog. In a sesquioxide, the oxygen is in the pro

27 portion of 11 (sesqui), Fe,0, (sesquioxide of iron).

2 The mode of naming any of the above given examples is to

10. name the metal and then the salt.

p. Cu So, copper sulphate. Ag,S silver sulphide.

18. Au 3NO, = gold nitrate. KC10, = potassium chlorate.

Fr. e.

pl. 15

7 LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXV. COMPOUND ADDITION.

11.

12. 3. The process of adding together two or more compound sq. yds. ft. in. gals. qts. quantities of the same kind is called Compound Addition. The 15

73 3

19. method scarcely requires any explanation, and will be under

60 2

cong

o 13 13 m stood at once from an example.

25
40 1
2 5 15 7

42 d. far.

7

65 2

5 2 11 3 13 EXAMPLE.—Add together £6 119. 540., 11 5 1

3 7 9 2 11 £4 9s. 61d., £3 128. 8 d., and £8 6s. 9 d. 3 12

Placing the farthings under the farthings,

3 8

13.
the pence under the pence, etc., we add the
farthings, which amount to 7-i.e., to 1 penny

wks. d. hrs. min.

20.
10
12

loads. qrs. bush. pks. gais. 5 3 and three farthings. Writing down the 3

2 4 7 2 1 farthings under the farthings' column, and

40
17

3 3 6 3 0 adding in the 1 penny to the row of pence, we get 29 pence- 42

15 2 5 0 1 i.e., 2 shillings and 5 pence. Writing the 5 pence under the

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KEY TO EXERCISE 42, LESSON XXIV. (Vol. II., page 7). climb; bravado, a boast, from the Spanish bravata, or the French 1. 1806.

33. 17 m. Ofur, 20 65. 32640858360 sq. bravade, a boastful threat. 2. 68810.

rods, or 17

inches,

“What can be more strange than that we should, within two months, 3. 86768. Ofur. 110 yds. 66. 582 acr. I rood 3

have won one town of importance by scalade, battered another, and 4. 284079. or 30030 yards. p. 29 yds, 8 ft.

overthrown great forces in the field ? "- Bacon. 5. 96615.

34. 132000000 feet. 67. 259200 cub. in. 6. £25 136, 630 35. 2560 ns.or 640 qs. 68. 4551552 cub. in.

Age, from the Latin termination ago, as in imago (an image), 7. £433 18. 2fa. 36. 5000 qrs. or 1250 69. 2325888 cub. in. through the Spanish azgo, and the French age (as in avantage, 8. 66 gns. 158. 20.

yards.

70. 49 cubic ft. 1 in. an advantage): it denotes a state of being. 9. 1448 sixpences, 37. 6396 yds. 2 qrs. 71. 1452 cub.yds.12ft.

“That to the utmost of our ability, we ought to repair any damage 2172 grts.

1 pail.
72. 4492800 cub. in.

we have done to others is self-evident."-Beattio, "Moral Science." 10. 6050.

38. 9302 French ells, 73. 52 tons 40 cub. ft. 11. 170472.

4 qrs, 3 nls.

180 cubic inches. The term average is from the low Latin averagium (from the 12. 9000.

39. 10156 nails, 74. 576 lbs, avoirds. Latin verb habeo, I have), which denoted a duty or service paid 13. 1010047.

22851 in.

75. 691 lbs. 10,14oz. primarily in labour by the tenant to the lord, by means of his 14. 2 lbs.1 oz. 10 dwts. 40. 51 brls. 2 gals.

avoirdupois. beasts, and carriages, and implements of husbandry, and thus 41. 14851 gals. 3 qts. 76. 823 lbs. 134 oz. av. becoming in a secondary sense a sort of tax on movable pro15. 177 lb. 9

1 pt. 2 qtns,

77. 1234 lbs. 47 oz. av. 12 dwts.

42. 100000 pints. 78. 58 lbs. 4 oz. troy: perty. From average, and the custom it denotos, como avercorne 16. 1785. 43. 43200 pints. 79. 122 lbs. 333 oz.

and avorpenny in old legal documents. 17. 631680. 44. 105 brls. 8 gals.

troy.

“Whether the small town of Birmingham alone doth not upon an 18. 116869.

45, 540 hghds.44 gals. 80. 2 lbs. 8342 oz. av. average circulate every week, one way or other, to the value of £50,000." 19. 80797440.

46. 22760 pints. 81. 12 square yards. -Berkeley, “Querist." 20. 9 cwt. 0 qrs. 8 lbs. 47. 488 quarts.

82. 360 square feet.

Al, from the Latin al, as in animal, an animal, and animalis, 21. 119 tons 6 owt. 48. 24440 quarte. 83. 16 acres 0 roods 3 lbs. 49. 28992 pints.

belonging to an animal. Al in Latin indicates personality; thus,

10 rods. 22. 19 owt. 2 qrs. 50. 1427 bush. 1 pk. 84. 108 sq. yds. 8 sq.

anima is life, and animal one who possesses life. Al, from alis, 18 lbs, 1 oz. 51. 508 qrs. 1 bush.

feet.

signifies belonging to. 23, 9120. 2 pks. 1 gal. 85. 446 acres 1 rood.

"Mr. Monkhouse happening one day to pull a flower from a tree 24, 37608 scrupies, 52. 36360 m. 2181600 s. 86. 40 acres.

which grew in one of their sopulohral inclosures, an Indian, whose 752160 grains. 53. 31557600 sec. 87. 36 square yards.

jealousy had probably been upon the watch, came suddenly behind him 25. 64 lbs, 11 OE 54. 84 wks. 6 hrs. 45 88. 66 square yards. and struck him."-Cook, " First Voyage." 5 dwts.

min., or 588 days | 89. 111} square yds. 26. 88 lbs. 4 oz 6 hrs. 45 min. 90. 60 cubic feet.

An, a suffix from the Latin adjective form anus: as humanus, 7 drms. 2 sops.

55. 65 days 2 hrs. 4 91. 56cubic feet. human, pertaining to a man; from humanus comes also human27. 47520 yds, 142500 min. 40 sec. 92. 8375}{t!!! imp. kind, like a man, in which you see an in another form. From ft. 1710720 in. 56. 31556928 sec.

bushels.

the termination of these Latin adjectives in the neuter plural 28. 712800 ft. 8553600 57. 946128000 sec. 93. 7198 sy imp. ana is derived, the once favourite ana; as in Johnsoniana, the inches, 58. 5148000 sec.

gallons.

things of Johnson, that is, his lighter sayings and doings, what 29. 960000 perches, 59. 9505200 sec. 94. 77111814 imp. bus.

is sometimes called table-talk, from the German tisch-reden. 5280000 yards. 60. 99000".

95. 128/16 cub, feet. 30. 54 m. 7 fur. 2X1 61. 2126° 11' 54".

Ance or ancy, a substantive suffix from the Latin antio, as in

96. 667 yards. yds. 2 ft.

62. 185185 right an. 97. 27993600 cub, in constantia, constancy; it denotes a condition; in constancy, 31. 29 m. 4 fur. 172 gles 16° 40'. 98. 4374279936 cubic | the condition of being constant or firm. Ance sometimes passes yde. 2 ft. 7 in. 63. 470660 sq. ft.

inches.

into ence, as in condolence, the state of grioving (Latin, doleo, 82. 5031 rods 276704

64. 628714548 sq. in., 99. 10% pieces. I grieve) with (con) another. yards. or 43660734 sq.ft. 100. 800 days.

“She had so steadfast countenance,

So noble porto and maintonance." -Chaucer.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XV.

Ant and ent are connected with the Latin participles in ans

and ens, as amans, loving; docens, teaching, etc. Adjectives SUFFIXES.

onding in ant sometimes come to us through the Frenoh, as in WORDS are affected in their import not only by particles set dormant, sleeping; the present participle of the Latin verb before them, but also by particles set after them. In presumable, dormio, I sleep, being dormiens, and of the French vorb dormir, you have a word, the meaning of which is affected by both a

dormant. foregoing and an after-coming particle. It may be divided "Logicians distinguish two kinds of operations of the mind; the thus :

first kind produces no effect without the mind; the last does. The
PREFIX,
BOOT.
SUFFIK.

first they call immanent acts, the second transitive."
pro

Ar from the Latin substantive ending in ar, as calcar, a spu; before tako capacity.

and the Latin adjective ending in aris, as regulāris (Latin, The root of the word is the Latin gumo, I take. By the addition regula, a rule), according to rule, regular. The ar having once of pre, sum becomes presume, I take before ; that is, before becomo a recognised termination in English, was added to words positivo proof. If you add able, then you form presumable, of Latin origin, as similar (similis, like, from the Latin simia, which signifies what may be presumed.

an ape; the likeness of the ape to man being such as to cause Having treated of prefixes, I pass on to snffixes, and shall the same word to be applied to both ape and likeness ; so we give a list of the principal.

use to ape, that is, to imitate).

“You have heard how first they began of laymen onely, leading : LIST OF ENGLISH SUFFIXES.

straiter life from the society of other persons, who, then following the Able, from the Gothic abal, strength, found in the Latin habilis, rule of S. Bennet (Benedict), were called regulars and votaries."— For. fit for, and in the Latin termination bilis; as, amabilis, lovable.

Archy, a Greek termination, signifying chief, government, has It is found also in our word ability. In the sense of power or been spoken of under the prefixes. capacity, it occurs in many English words; as, reasonable,

Ard (connected with the German art, kind, manner), a subdurable, oto. Sometimes it passes into the form ible; as comprehensible, visible, etc. When preceded by v, the a ori

stantive termination, signifies a permanent state ; as, sluggard,

one who is in the habit of being sluggish; drunkard, one whose blends with the v into U, as in soluble.

habitual state is intoxication : a good man may be once drunk, “Where all life dies, death lives, and nature breeds,

but a good man cannot be a drunkard. The dull, in dullard, is Perverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things,

allied to the Dutch dol, mad, or dolen, to wander or rave, or to Abominable, inutterable."

Milton, "Paradise Lost."

the German toll, mad. Ade (ado), coming into the English through the French, the Italian, and the Spanish, gives us such words as brocade, em

“ But would I bee a poet if I might,

To rub my browes three days and wake three nights, broidered silk; comrade, from the French camarade, or the

And bite my nails and scratch my dullard head, Italian camerata, through the Latin camera, a chamber; scalade,

And curse the backward muses on my bed from the Latin scala, a ladder, or from the Spanish escalar, to

About one peevish syllable."

Bishop Hall

sum

able

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.

Ary, from Latin adjective termination arius, as found in shove; stopple, from to stop; needle, from the Dutch naad, a seam; auxilisrius, (Latin, auxiliam, aid), auxiliary, tributary. This in Anglo-Saxon, nædel; German, nadel, doubtless allied to the same arius gave rise to our termination in arious, as in gregarious Anglo-Saxon nøgel, the German nagel, and the English nail. (Latin, gres, a flock), flocking together.

Damsel, a young woman, is an abridged form of the French demois From Latin words ending in arius, we have statuary (ars sta- selle, which of old denoted a daughter of noble parents : the tran. taaria); lapidary (Latin, lapis, a stone), a (precious) stone-cutter; sition of demoiselle into damsel may be seen in the rendering of ariary, a place for keeping birds (Latin, avis, a bird).

the word by English versions of different ages; as Wicliff (1380) Aster, as in poetaster, which comes immediately from the a damysel; Tyndale (1534), a damsell; Cranmer (1539), a French poétastre, a bad poet, is found in the Italian astro, a ter damsell; the Authorised (1611), a damosell. The Greek word, mination denoting contempt. The aster in disaster, a calamity, which properly denotes a female servant, is translated by the has nothing to do with the suffix. Disaster seems to be from Geneva version (1557), a mayde (maid); and by the Rheims dis and the Greek astpov (as'-tron), or Latin astrum, a star, and version (1582), one vuenche (wench). (Matt. xxvi. 69.) so signifies an ill-starred condition.

En, a suffix, by which nouns are converted into adjectives, Ate is a verbal (derived from a verb) termination, the origin and adjectives into verbs; as brass, brazen ; white, to whiten. of which is found in the Latin passive participle, as congregatus; In the same way, we have long, length, lengthen; dark, darken ; hence the verb to congregate.

soft, soften ; leather, leathern; south, southern, and southron. * The infuriate bill shoots forth the pillared flame."

En forms also one ending of passive participles ; as weave, wove, Thomson, “ Summor."

woven ; shear, shorn. It is found in some nouns as their plural

termination; as ox, oxen. Of old, en and n formed the plural Ated, ted, or ed, are the terminations of the passive participle of the present tense of verbs, representing the Anglo-Saxon don. in English, equivalent to the same Latin participle ending in I quote the words of Ben Jonson :atus ; thus the Latin communicatus is in English communicated. In the same way we have adapted, devolved, affixed, imputed,

“The persons plurall keepe the termination of the first person etc. Participles in ed become adjectives by suppressing the d, singular. In former times, till about the reigne of King Henry the as desolated becomes desolate.

Eighth, they were wont to be formed by adding on, thus : Loven, Ce is an English representative of the Latin termination in

sagen, complainen."-"Gramruar." tia, as gratia, favour, grace. Cy is sometimes used instead of in ens; as pænitens, pænitentia, penitence; existens, existentia,

Ence, a suffix, formed from the active participle in Latin ending ce: for example, clementia, clemency; that is, mercy. In the older forms of the language words ending in cy were

existence. spelt cie. These nouns denote the abstract quality; thus prudens

End, a Saxon termination which denotes an agent; as wegmeans prudent, as a prudent man; but prudentia means prudence, ferend, a wayfarer; friend, in Saron freond; German, freund; in the abstract; that is, the quality is considered apart from probably connected with the verb to free; that is, to make free; any subject.

and to free may have its source in the moro general import of

the term-namely, to love, to woo; so that a friend is one who “But even that mightye loue (love) of his great clemencle,

loves, and therefore freos another. Friend and friendly, in the Hath given me grace at last to judge the truth from herosie."

older forms of the language, signified lover and loving.

Gascoigne. Ch, a Saxon termination found in church, ditch, which, etc.,

“The true faith, whereever it is, worketh and frameth the heart to and of old pronounced as a guttural, or at least like k, as in the friendlike dispositions unto God, and brings forth friendliko carriage

in the life towards God."-Goodwin. Scotch whilk, or quwilk, and the German ch or ich, as ich (ick), I; doch, yet; thus we have the Latin sic, and the English such;

Ent (sometimes ant, as in “church militant"), an adjeotivo the Scotch mickle, and the English much; the Scotch kirk, Ger termination, the origin of which is found in both the Saxon and man kirche, and the English church. Ditch or dike is a thing the Latin; as, writend, writing ; absens (absentis), absent. Ad. that men produce by digging. The words run thus, dig, dike, jectives ending in ent denote a present condition-e.g., different; ditch Another form of dike and ditch is digue.

or a quality considered concretely; that is, in relation to some

subject. "The people ran into so great despair that in Zeland they gave over working at their digues, suffering the sea to gain every tide upon estate and degree throughout Christendom, is this reverent othe (oath)

“Lord God, how frequente and famyliar a thynge with euery (every) the country.”—Sir W. Templo.

on the Gospills of Christ."-Sir T. Elyot, Cle or le, a diminutive, formed after the manner of the Latin Er (in the forms er, r, re). By comparing the Anglo-Saxon diminutive termination culus, masculine, and cula, feminine : for writere, the Latin scriptor (scribo, I write), and the English example, homunculus, a little man; a manikin; rogulus (Latin, writer, we find that the termination er, or, denotes an agent. res, a king), a little king; matercula, a little mothor. The ending So in Saxon eædere, a sower ; plegere, a player; and in Latin, cle appears in particle, a little part; pellicle (Latin, pellis, skin), amator, a lover; doctor, a teacher. The endings ere in Saxon, or a little skin; in muscle (masculus a little mouse), so called in in Latin, and er in English, are very common. You must, how. reference to its appearance under the skin.

ever, in following analogy, use words so formed with judgment Dom, a suffix, found as a noun in the Latin and the Saxon, as and taste. Having an active signification, they are generally well as the English ; as in domus, a house ; dominus, master; formed from verbs, thus : to mend, a mender; to think, a thinker ; halidom, holiness; kingdom, the jurisdiction of a king. Dom is to build, a builder. But it is not from every verb that such found also in the German thum; as reichthum, riches. Dom nouns can be properly formed. We can say, to better, but not denotes power, authority, office. It is the same word that we a betterer; yet a bettering has some authority. Proper names have in doom; as doom's-day, the day of judgment. It occurs arise from these nouns—e.g., Mr. Barker, Mr. Tyler, Mr. Hellier, in the Saxon dom-boc, doom-book.

Mr. Fisher.

The suffix er also forms the comparative in adjectives; as, “For neither the Fadir jugith ony man, but hath gouun (given) echo green, greener. It is, too, found in some verbs of Gallic origin; dome to the sone." — Wicliff's " Testament," John v. 22.

as in encounter (encontre, a meetiny); cover (couvrir, to cover). “And looke, when I am king, clayme thou of me the earldome of Hereford."-Shakespeare, Richard III." Ee, a termination of Gallic origin, found in refugee, debauchee,

LESSONS IN DRAWING.–XV. originated in an effort to represent in English the vocal force of We now propose to direct the attention of our pupils to the the French accented e; as, debauché, refugié. The French

principles of light and shade in trees, or what is artistically word is the passive participle. Hence, frequently the words termed "massing in the foliage,” and introduce somo illusending in ee have a passive sense: a trustee is one who is trusted trations. Figs. 104 and 105 represent the same subject. The by a trustor or truster ; that is, one who trusts. It is the same with feoffer and feoffee.

arrangement and outline of the trunk, branches, and foliage

must be first made, as in Fig. 104, and we beg the pupil "And though his majesty came to them by descent, yet it was but especially to remember that this must be his mode of proin nature of the beire of a feofe in trust, for the use and service of the kingdom."-Prynne.

* Friendlike, abbreviated into friendly; in German it is freundlich. El, le, a suffis, denoting an instrument; as, shovel, from to compare what is said before on the termination ch.

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of the oak, or the drooping and almost perpendicular style of the willow. These should be copied on a larger scale, as a broader and more effective drawing will be obtained thereby than if it be done on too diminutive a scale; and, besides, the details will be better understood, and there will be also greater opportunity for entering fully into all minor particulars, which, if carefully observed, without descending to littleness of manner, will have so much influence upon the whole.

As there is in many respects a close affinity between foregrounds and trees, it might be advisable at this stage to enter somewhat upon the treatment of foregrounds, preparatory to the remaining instructions we propose to give upon trees. Shrubberies, scattered bushes overgrown with brambles and honey. suckle, very properly belong to foregrounds; their mixed character, being neither trees nor plants, claim most of the remarks we shall have to make upon both. For studies for foregrounds, nature will be our greatest help and resource, affording at all times an endless variety of subjects, which can be more conveniently obtained than the larger specimens of vegetation. It is an excellent practice, and one that is very common amongst artists, to collect

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cedure in all cases. We have frequently noticed beginners, in their first attempts to draw trees, start off with that which they call “the shading," regardless of the fact that trees have trunks and stems apon which the foliage depends, and equally so as to the importance of the lights, which vary as much as the trees themselves; these lights must be so managed that all the half tints and darker parts must be made subservient to them. A proper acquaintance with the growth of the stems will assist us in understanding the disposition of the lights, as by them we must give the individual character of the tree: in other words—the lights, as they fall upon the foliage, are in their extent governed by that upon which the foliage depends, that is, the stems. We shall return to this again ; in the meantime we will place before the pupil an example which practically has more to do with detail, than with the broader manner we shall enter upon in the next lesson. Our object in this arrangement is with a view of showing him the necessity of making himself capable, by this additional example, of entering into details, previous to the practice of the general distribution of light and shade, which, it will be our endeavour to show, must after wards receive those characteristic details which belong to trees in particular. Fig. 107 is the finished drawing of a fir-tree, whilst Fig. 106 represents the method we recommend in copying it. The sharp angular manner of execution will be noticed in contradistinction to the horizontal and broader method

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specimens of wild plants and pre

jccts behind them : this rule may serve them in water; or, what is

be applied to all objects, regardbetter when practicable, take

less of their size or form. The them up bodily with the roots

strength of the shadows must be and plant them in pots. From

allowed to be an important consithese, separate and careful stu

deration. Our pupils will rememdies may be made, which will

ber the observation, that near the prove to be an excellent prepara

highest lights are the darkest tion for more extensive practice

shadows; so, for example, should when drawing them collectively

the light fall strongly upon the in their natural state, as seen on

leaves of a plant, the shadows the common, under the hedges,

beneath them will bear the same or in shady lanes. We cannot

proportion of depth, and those here refrain from expressing re

leaves which receive less light gret that we are limited in these

will have less strength in their lessons to form only, since so

shadows. Whilst we recommend much is gained by colour in the

our pupils to make close copies general effect of ground plants.

of plants separately, in order to If we reflect for a moment upon

obtain a knowledge of their conthe infinite variety of growth they

struction and character, we are exhibit upon the flowers whose

not advising them to make bobrilliant colours, blue, red-and

tanical studies, but art studies; yellow, and sparkling white

this procedure will be all that is crop op from amongst greens of

necessary to obtain a practical acevery hue, we must confess that

quaintance with their forms, and we should be very glad, were it

will enable our students to reprepossible, if we could take up

sent them with greater skill and the palette as well as the pencil,

freedom, which is of such great and by introducing our pupils

importance when grouping plants to these additional charms, give

in a landscape. The work then them another sensation besides

will be in the end pleasing and that which is produced by form

Fig. 106.

satisfactory, because it is truth. only; but, even if this were prac

ful; otherwise, when less attenticable, we must withstand the

tion is paid to particular details, temptation to turn aside from the path we are pursuing, which and a slovenly manner is employed, it is sure to terminate in leads to a point where form and colour meet and help to perfect confusion and failure. Mr. Burnet, in his work on Landscape each other by their union; for if we must maintain that form | Painting, says, “ To begin with the foreground, as being that without colour is less satisfactory, it is, nevertheless, expressive; part of the landscape nearest the eye, it is necessary, therefore, but colour

that it should without form,

receive all however bead

those qualities tiful the ar

conducive to rangement

its situation may be, con

such as detail, veys no meani

breadth, and ing, and pre

largeness of sents nothing

parts.”

In whereby to

contrast to characterise it.

this, the sarae

writer says, tice of draw.

“In the early ing foreground

stages of the herbage,

art, the minuwriter on art

tise of indivi. observes“ that

dual plants the edges of

and flowers the several

were carried more advanc

to the highest ing leaves

pitch of must be made

a bsurdity; sharp and de

not only is the cisive against

whole ground the ground,

of these picwhilst those

tures inlaid that retire

with endless may have less

specimens of opposition ;

botanic scruthis will assist

pulosity, but their perspec

the interventive," and they

ing spaces are will acquire a

filled with more receding

reptiles and character by

insects, as if slightly toning

the lives of down or blend

the artists ingthe remoter

Fig. 107. had been of parts with the

antedilu. ground or ob

vian length.”

[graphic]

In the prac

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