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as the basis on which the projection is constructed. As in cases
where the projection is constructed on a large scale, a subdivision Name of Place.
into fractions of a degree or minutes is desirable for the pur.
pose of obtaining on the projection positions of places approxi-
mating as closely as possible to their actual positions on the Auxonne .
world's surface as determined by observations, we append a

Aveiro table of minutes in fractional parts of a degree, which our

Avignon

Avranches readers may find useful.

Aylesbury
Azov
Barcelona
Basle
Bassano

Bayonne
1
11 48 21

31
41
51

Beachy Head
12
22
32 ts 42

52

Beauvais
13
23
33
43
53

Belle-Isle (I.)
14
24
84

54

Bender
15
25
35
45
55

Bergamo
16
26
36
46 38
56 H

Bergen
17
27
37
47
57

Bergen-op-Zoom
18
28
38 36 48

58

Berlin
9
19
29

49
59

Berne
10
20
30
40
50
60

Berwick-on-Tweed
Besançon .

Beziers
When the positions of the cities and principal physical fea- Blois
tures, such as capes and headlands, mouths of rivers and moun- Bologna
tain peaks, have been marked, the contour of the coast and the Bomarsund
courses of rivers and mountain chains may be filled in from a Bommel
reliable map on a large scale which gives the details of the coast Bonifacio (Strait)
line and river windings. The political boundaries may also be Bordeaux .
filled in from the same source.

Bornholm (I.)

Boulogne . Having given these instructions, we now proceed with our

Bourges list of latitudes and longitudes, compiled from the best authori.

Brandenburg ties, in order to enable our students to proceed at once to the Braunau filling up of their projections. As every place in Europe lies Breda in some parallel of latitude north of the equator, the letter N. Bremen for north is appended only to the latitude of the first place, Brescia Aalborg ; but to prevent errors, the longitude of every place is Breslau

Brest distinguished by the letter E. or W. placed after it, as the posi.

Bridgewater tion of the place itself happens to be east or west of the meri.

Briel dian of Greenwich.

Brieux, St. TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES

Brighton

Bristol
IN EUROPE.

Brixen

Bruck Name of Place. Country, etc. Latitude. Longitude. Bruges

Brunn

Brunswick
Aalborg
Denmark.
57° 2' N.

Brussels

9° 55' E.
Aarhung
Denmark
56 9 10 13 E.

Bucharest
Abbeville
France
50 7 1 49 E.

Buckingham
Aberdeen
Scotland

57

2 8

Buda

5 W. Finland

60 28 22 18 E. Burgos Agen France

13 0 38 E.

Cadiz
Aix.
France
43 33 5

Caen

25 E.
Ajaccio
Corsica
41 55 8 45 E.

Caffa, or Kaffa
Akerman
Russia
46 12 30 19 E.

Cagliari
Aland Islands
Baltic Sea
60 15 20 O E.

Cahors
Alby
Franco
43 55 2 9 E.

Calais
Algeciras ,
Spain

Calmar, or Kalmar
36 8

5 29 W. Alicante

Calvi
Spain

38 23

0 25 W.
Alkmaar
Holland

52 88
4

Cambrai

46 E. Almeria. Spain 36 51 2

Cambridge

32 W. Alten Norway

Camerino. 69

23 55

4 E. Altona Prussia 53 32 9

Candia

56 E.
Amiens
France

49 53
2 18 E.

Canterbury
Amsterdam
Holland
52

Carcassone
22

53 E.
Ancona
Italy
43 37 13 31 E.

Cardigan
Angers
France
47 28 0

Carlisle

33 W.
Angouleme
France

45 39
0 10 E.

Carlsborg
Annan
Scotland
54

Carlscrona
59
3 15 W.

Carlshamn
Antwerp
Belgium

51 13

23 E.

Carlsruhe.
Aranjuez
Spain

0

3 38 W. Archangel

Carmarthen
Russia

64 33 40 38 E.
Arendal
Norway
58 28 8 51 E.

Carrickfergus
Arles
Franco
43 42 4

Cartagena

37 E. Arras France 50 17 2

Cassel

46 E. Astrakhan Russia 46 15

Castiglione

48 4 E. Athens

Castres
Greece

37 58 23 43 E. Auch

Catania
France

43 38 0 37 E. Augsburg

Cavan
Bavaria

48 52 10 53 E.
Auxerre
France

49

3 3-6 E.

France
Portugal
France
France
England
Russia
Spain
Switzerland
Italy
France
England
Franco
France
Russia
Italy
Norway
Holland
Prussia
Switzerland
Scotland.
France
France
France
Italy
Russia
Holland
Corsica
Franco
Baltic Sea
France
France
Prussia
Austria
Holland
Prussia
Italy
Prussia
France
England
Holland
France
England
England
Austria
Austria
Belgium
Austria
Germany
Belgium
Turkey in Europe
England
Hungary
Spain
Spain
France
Russia
Sardinia
France
France
Sweden
Corsica
Franco
England
Italy
Crete
England
France
Wales
England
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Baden
Wales
Ireland
Spain
Prussia
Italy
France
Sicily
Ireland

47° 12'N.
40 38
43 57
48 41
51 49
47 2
41 23

33
45 46
43 31
50
49 26
47 20
46
45 42
60 26
51 29
52 31
46 57
55
47 17
43 20
47 35

30
60 15
51 48
41 18

50
55 10
50 43
47
52 26
48 15
51 35
53 5
45 33
51 6
48 23
51 8
51 53
48 33
50 49
51 28
46
47 25
51 13
49 12
52 16
50 52

25
52 0
47 30
42 21
36 33
49 11
45 4
39 13

26 50 57 56 39 42 34 50 10 52 13 43 8 35 21 51 16 42 12

5 54 54 58 31 56 9 56 10 49 0 51 52 54 43 37 37 51 19 42 53

36 37 28 53 59

5° 23' E. 8 39 W.

50 E 1 22 W. 0 49 W. 39 28 E. 2 9 E. 7 35 E. 11 43 E. 1 26 W. 0 15 E. 2 5 E. 3 10 W, 29 32 E.

41 E. 5 22 E. 4 17 E. 13 29 E. 7 26 E. 2

ow. 6 5 E. 3 12 E. 1 20 E. 11 20 E. 20 11 E. 5 15 E. 9 02. 0 31 W. 15 O E 1 35 E. 2 24 E. 12 32 E. 13 2 E.

46 E. 8 48 E. 10 13 E. 17 2 E. 4 27W.

zw.

10 E. 2

45 W. 0 8W. 2 33 W. 11 37 E. 15 16 E.

3 12 E. 16 37 E. 10 31 E.

21 E. 26 5 E.

0 59 W. 19 2 E. 3 42W, 6 19 W. 0 21 W. 35 25 E. 9 6 E. 1 27 E. 1

50 E. 16 22 E. 8 44 E. 3 12 E. 0 6 E. 13 4 E. 25 7 E. 1 5 E. 2 21 E.

39 W. 2 55 W. 14 28 E. 15 39 E. 14 52 E. 8 25 E.

19 W. 5 49 W. 0 55 W. 9 31 E. 10 48 E.

2 14 E. 15 3 E. 7

22 W.

.

Abo

52

40

43

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LESSONS IN GREEK. ---XIII.

Singular.
Nom.

η πραεια,

το πραν, THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued).

Gen.
πραουν,

πραειας,

πραου. THERE are some nouns of the third declension which cannot

Dat. πρας,

πραεια,

πρα. be classified, and the differential points of these must therefore

Aco. πραόν,

πραειαν,

πραν. be given separately; they are as follow :

Voc. .
πράος, πραε,

πραιά,

πρου,

Plural. EXCEPTIONAL NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Nom. .

πρα€ιαι, πραοι, πραείς,

Τραεα. 2. Ανηρ, ανδρος, 4 man; γαλα, γαλακτος, milk; γονυ, γονατος,

Gen.
πραεων,

πραειών, πραεα. a knee ; δορυ, δορατος, & spear ; ους, ωτος, ιn ear ; χειρ, χειρος,

Dat.

πραοις, πραεσι, πραειαις, πράσι. a hand. The peculiar forms of these have been already set

Acc. .
πραους, πραείς,

πραειας,

πραεα. forth.

Voo.

πραειαι, πραοι and πραείς,

πραεα. 2. Turn, y, a married woman, a wife; gon. Yuvalk-os, dat. γυναικ-1, 800. γυναικ-α, το0. γυναι; pl. γυναικες, γυναικων,

Dual. γυναιξι, γυναικας.

Ν.Α.Υ.
πραώ,

πραεια,

πραώ. 3. Ζευς, Zous (Jupiter), gon. Διοs, dat. Διϊ, acc. Δια, τόc. G.D,

πρασιν,

πραειαιν, πραοιν. Zev.

Singular. 4. Θριξ, ή, hair, gon. τριχος, dat. τριχι, etc. ; dat. pl. θριξι.

δ. η.

δ. η. 5. Kλεις, ή, a key, gen. κλειδος, dat. κλειδι, acc. κλειν; pl.

Nom. πολυς, πολλη, πολυ. μεγας, μεγαλη, μεγα. nom. and acc. κλείs, also κλειδες, κλειδας. 6. Κυων, και, ή, dog, gen. κυν-ος, dat. κυν-ι, acc. κυν-α, γοο.

Gen. πολλου, πολλης, πολλου. μεγαλου, μεγαλης, μεγαλου,

Dat. πολλά, πολλη, πολλω. κυον; pl. κυνες, κυνων, κνσι, κυνας,

μεγαλώ, μεγαλη, μεγαλφ, dat.

Acc. πολυν, 7. Μαρτυς, 6, 8 witness (our martyr), gen. μαρτυρος,

πολλην, πολυ.

μεγαν, μεγαλην, μεγα.

Voc. πολυ, πολλη, πολυ. μεγα, μεγαλη, μεγα. μαρτυρι, acc. μαρτυρα, νο0. μαρτυς; dat. pl. μαρτύσι. 8. Naws (Latin, navis), i, a ship, gen. vews, dat. uni, aco.

Plural. ναύν, dual gen. and dat. νεοιν (the nom. and acc. do not occur); | Nom. πολλοι, πολλαι, πολλα. μεγαλοι, μεγαλαι, μεγαλα. pl. νήες, νέων, ναυσι, ναύς ; comparo γραυs and βασιλευς.

Gen. πολλων, πολλων, πολλων. μεγαλων, μεγαλων, μεγαλων. 9. Υδωρ, τo, water, gen. ύδατος, dat. υδατι, etc.

The other parts are regular.
VOCABULARY.

VOCABULARY.
Αθηναιος, -ου, o, en 1θυνω,

I mako | Μαρτυρια, ας, ή, togAthenian, straight, I direct. timony.

Αιγυπτος, ή, Ιλιας, -αδος, ή, the Παθος, -ους, το, εufΑιακος, -ου, δ, Αάοus. Ιστος, -ου, o, a loom Οικια, -ας, ή, a dwell. Egypt.

Iliad.

fering. Αίδης, -ου, ο, Hados, or mast.

ing. .

Αλεξανδρος, «ου, ο, Κροίσος, -ον, 6, Προσαγορένω,Iname, god of the lower | Καστωρ,-ορος, Castor. Oικος, -ου, o, a house. Alexander.

Crosus.

call. world (Plato). Κιστη, -ης, ή, α| Πετρα, -ας, ή, o rock | Αλγος, -ούς, τo, pain, Μακεδων, -ονος, o, a Προσοδος, -ου, ή, epΑιθιού,

ohest.
«Οπος,

.
(hence Peter). grief.

Macedonian.
.

proach, income. Ethiopian. . Κοιλαινω, I hollow. Πολυδεύκης, -ου, 6, Αφθονια, ας, ή, free- Μεγα, adν., greatly, Σιτος, -ου, 6, wheat, Απιστος, -ον, unfaith- Κομιζω,Ι

Carry, Polydeukes, Pol.

dom from envy (α,

very: ful, inadmissible. bring. .

lux.

not), abundance. Ολιγος, -η, -ον, Small; Φοβος, -ου, 6, fear; Δεησις, εως, ή, ο Κτεις, κτενος, o, ο Σταγων, -ονος, ή, | Eθος,-ους, τo, custom; plural, few.

φοβον εχειν, to roquest, entreaty. comb.

drop. .

plural, , manners, Οφελλω, I lourish, have fear that Δεχομαι, I receive. Κτενιζω, I comb. Eww, I save, rescue. morals; henco our augment, aid. is, to canse fear. Εκκλησια, ας, ή, an Κυβερνητης, -ου, ο, Σωτηρ, -ηρος, 6, 8 ethics. assembly : ( (the steersman.

saviour, deliverer.

EXERCISE 49.-GREEK-ENGLISH. New Testament Kυβος, -ου, ο (our Ωφελεια, -ας, ή, ad

1. Πολυν οινον πινειν κακον εστιν. 2. Οι βασιλεις μεγαλας προword for church). / cubo), a dio.

vantage, ability.

σοδους εχουσιν. 3. Εν Αιγυπτη πολλη σιτου αφθονια. 4. Ή 'EXERCISE 47.--GREEK-ENGLISH.

θαλαττα μεγαλη εστιν. 5. Κροιση ην πολυς πλουτος. 6. Πολ. 1. Αι γυναικες το κοσμο χαιρoυσιν. 2. Οι Έλληνες σεβονται λακις εξ ολιγης ηδονης μεγα γιγνεται αλγος. 7. Πραεσι λογους Δια και Ποσειδω και Απολλω και αλλους θεους. 3. Ταις γυναιξιν

ήδεως εικομεν. 8. Τα μεγαλα δωρα της τυχης εχει φοβον. 9. η αιδως πρεπει.

10. Πονος αρετην μεγα οφελλει. Πολλων ανθρωπων εθη εστι πραεα.

5. 'O 4. Οι κυνες τον οικον φυλαττουσιν. κυβερνητης την ναυν ιθυνει. 6. Αι σταγονες του ύδατος πετραν γουσιν. 12. Ομιλιαν εχε τοις πραεσιν ανθρωποις. 13. Αί γυναικες

11. Οι παιδες τους πραους πατερας και τας πραειας μητερας στερκοιλαινουσιν. 7. Της γυναικος εστι τον οικον φυλαττειν. . Γυναικος εσθλης εστι σωζειν οικιαν. 9. Αει ευ πιπτουσι Διος

πραειαι εισιν. 14. Αλεξανδρον, τον Μακεδονων βασιλεα, μεγαν κυβοι, 10. Οι κυνες τους ανθρωπους ωφελειαν και ηδονην παρε

προσαγορευσι οι πολλοι. χουσιν. 11. Αί των μαρτύρων μαρτυριαι πολλακις απιστοι εισιν.

EXERCISE 50.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 12. Κομιζε, ω πάι, την της κιστης κλείν. 13. Ω Ζευ, δεχον την του ατυχούς δεησιν. 14. Καστωρ και Πολυδεύκης των νέων σωτηρεΣ | wine. 3. Much wine injures men.

1. Abstain from much wine. 2. Bad men delight in much

4. Kings have great inησαν. 15. Γυναικι παση κοσμον ή σιγη φερει. 16. Οι Αιθιοπες

5. The income of the kingdom is great. 6. Egypt has την τριχα μελαίναν εχουσιν. 17. Ω γυναι, σωζε την οικιαν. 18.

much corn.

7. Many have much wealth, but little understanding. Το κτενι τας τριχας κτενιζομεν. 19. Αιακος τας Αιδου κλείς

8. Strive after mild manners. 9. The manners of the womea φυλαττει.

279 mild. 10. (There) is beauty in (to) mild manners. 11. EXERCISE 48.-ENGLISHI-GREEK.

Alexander, the king of the Macedonians, is often called the 1. Ornament becomes a woman. 2. It is the business of Great. women to guard the house. 3. They bring the keys of the

THE SECOND DECLENSION CONTRACTED. house. 4. The koys of the house are brought to the mother. 5. The Athonians had (to the Athenians were) many ships. 6.

A deviation from the usual form of the Second Declension Jupiter had (to Jupiter were) many templos. 7. The fish may here claim the student's attention. emerge out of the water. 8. The steersman guides the ship.

A few substantives in which an o or an e stands before the 9. The ship is guided by the steersman. 10. You worship case-endings undergo cuntraction. By contraction is meant the Jupiter and Apollo.

blending of two vowels into a diphthong, or some other equiva

lent. The student must learn both the uncontracted and the IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.

contracted forms, first horizontally, as πλοος, πλούς; πλοου, τλεϊ, There also gome irregular adjectives, the forms of which I etc.; and then perpendicularly, as πλοος, πλοου, πλορα, αποφατηust set before you-such as πραος, πραεια, πραυ, soft; πολυς, | tracted; and πλούς, πλού, πλά, contracted. Thas are declined πολλη, πολυ, much, pl. many: μεγας, μεγαλη, μεγα, great-as | ο πλοος, ο Bailing or voyage; o περιπλοος, ο Bailing round or α. follow :

oumnavigation ;. And το οστεον, a bone.

comes.

10. Ορεγου

EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED NOUNS, BECOND DECLENSION. 6. Συν να τον βιον αγε.. 7. Ο οχλος ουκ εχει νούν. 8. Μη εριζε Singular,

τοις ανθρωποις. 9. Οι αγαθοι τοις αγαθοις ευνοί εισιν. Uncon- Con

Uncon.

Con-
Uncon- Con-

φιλων ευνών. 11. Τα Ορεστου οστά εν Τεγεα ην. 12. Αι θεραtracted, tracted, tracted. tractod. tracted. tracted. παιναι εν κανοίς τον αρτον προσφερουσιν, 13. Οι θεοι και καλον Nom. πλοος, πλούς. Η περιπλους, περιπλους. οστεον,

οστούν. και κακον πλούν τους ναυταις παρεχουσιν. 14. Ψυχης χαλινος Gen. πλοου, πλού. περιπλοου, περιπλου. οστεου, οστού.

ανθρωποις ο νούς εστιν. 15. Πολλακις οργη ανθρωπων νουν εκκαDat. πλοφ, πλή. περιπλοφ, περιπλω. οστεω, οστώ. λυπτει, 16. Απλούς εστιν και της αληθειας λογος.

17. Λογος Ac, TÀoov, πλούν. περιπλούν, περιπλουν. οστεον, οστούν. ευνους επικουφιζει λυπην. 18. Το κυπελλον εστιν αργυρούν. 19. Voc. πλοε,

πλου.

περιπλοε, περίπλου. οστεον, οστούν. Ο θανατος λεγεται χαλκούς ύπνος.
Plural.

EXERCISE 52.- ENGLISH-GREEK.
Nom. πλοοι,
πλοί. περιπλοοι, περιπλοι. οστεα,

οστά. 1. The understanding is a teacher to men. 2. The vell. Gen. πλοων, πλων. περιπλοων, περιπλων. οστεων, οστών. | disposed friend is honoured (θεραπευω). 3. Well-disposed friends Dat. πλοοις, πλοίς. περιπλοοις, περιπλοις. οστεοις, οστοίς. are honoured. 4. To the well-disposed are many friends (that Acc. πλοους, πλούς. | περιπλοους, περιπλους. οστεα,

οστά. is, the well-disposed have many friends). 5. Abstain from the Voc. πλοοι, πλοί. περιπλοοι, περιπλοι. οστεα,

οστα. senseless. 6. Strive after benevolent friends. 7. Bring the Dual.

bread in a basket. 8. Avoid senseless youths. 9. Senseless Ν.Α.Υ. πλοω, πλω. περιπλοω, περιπλω. οστε,

οστώ. youths are avoided. 10. The goblet is golden. 11. Silver G.D πλοριν, πλούν. | περιπλοοιν, περιπλoιν. | oστεoιν, οστούν. | goblets are beautiful. 12. Pass life (βιον άγειν) with under

standing. 13. Contend ye not with the senseless. After this manner decline the multiplicative adjective, ending in -00s (-ούς), -οη (-η), -οον (-ούν), as απλοίς, απλή, απλούν, single

Remark that, as a general rule, the subject (or what is or simple; also adjectives of two terminations in -oos (-os) and commonly called the nominative) has the article, the predicato -00v (-oûv), formed from the substantive voos (voûs), the mind, being without it. Thus, if, as in the last Greek sentence, you as , ervolls, To evvoûv, well-minded, that is, well-disposed; meet with a sentence having two nouns oonnected by the verb and from the substantine πλοος (πλούς) και, ή ευπλούς, το ευπλούν, ειναι, take first-that is, take as the subject-that which has voyaging successfully. These differ from their substantives the article before it, asonly in this, that in the neuter plural they suffer no contraction,

Subject.

Predicate. ending in -yoa and -10a. Decline in the same manner adjectives

και θανατος λεγεται χαλκούς υπνος. ending in -oos, and denoting that of which a thing is made, as

Death is called a brazen sleep. χρυστος (χρυσούς), χρυσεα (χρυσή), χρυσεον (χρυσούν), golden. In the neuter plural ea is contracted into â. When the femi. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XII. nine termination ea is preceded by a vowel or p, the ea is con.

EXERCISE 41.-GREEK-ENGLISH, tracted, not into î, but into â, as

1. The earth blooms with lovely flowers. 2. Keep not free from heat ερε-εος (ερεούς), ερε-εα (ερεά), ερεεον (ερεούν), woollen.

and cold. 3. We judge the honourable, not by length of time, but by αργυρ-εος (αργυρούς), αργυρ-εά (αργυρά), αργυρ-εον (αργυρ- | virtue. 4. Every height in the mortal race is not secure. 5. Do not ούν), of silver.

speak false.

6. Keep from evil gains. 7. Wicked gains ever bring EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED ADJECTIVES, SECOND DECLENSION.

disgrace. 8. Brass is the mirror of beanty, and wine of the mind. 9.

Men aim at glory. 10. Men rejoice in glory. 11. The brave aim al
Singular. .

glorious deeds. 12. We admire the glorious deeds of men.
8. η.
δ.

EXERCISE 42.--ENGLISH-GREEK.
Nonm. χρυσούς χρυσή, χρυσούν. απλούς, απλή, απλούν.

1. Απεχου πονηρων κερδων. 2. Οι σπουδαίοι απεχονται των πονηρών κερδων Gen. χρυσού, χρυσής, χρυσού. απλού, απλής, απλου.

3. Οι σπουδαίοι ορεγονται των καλων. 4. Μη απεχου, ω νεανια, θαλπους και Dat. χρυσό, χρυση, χρυσώ. απλώ, απλή, απλώ.

ψυχους αλλα των πονηρων. 5. Ζημια έπεται το ψευδει. 6. θαυμαζομεν Aoc. χρυσούν. χρυσήν, χρυσούν. απλούν, απλών, απλούν.

τους Έλληνας τοις κλεεαι. 7. Φευγομεν πονηρα κερδη. 8. Οι στρατιωται Voc. χρυσούς, χρυσή, χρυσούν. απλούς, απλή. απλούν.

χαιρονσιν εν τοις κλεεσι. Plural.

EXERCISE 43.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Nom. χρυσοί, χρυσαι, χρυσά. απλοί, απλαι, απλά.

1. The fishes rise up out of the river. 2. The hunters catch wild Gen. χρυσών, χρυσών, χρυσών. απλών, απλών, απλών.

boars. 3. All were like corpses. 4. God rules our souls. 5. The Dat. χρυσοίς, χρυσαις, χρυσοίς. απλοϊς, απλαις, απλούς. vine brings forth grapes. 6. The earth brings forth ears of corn and Acc. . χρυσούς, χρυσας, χρυσα. απλούς, απλάς, απλά. grapes. 7. The mice fought once with the frogs. 8. The mice aro Voc. χρυσοί, χρυσαι, χρυσά. απλοί, απλαί, απλά. caught in traps. 0. The Syrians worship fishes as gods. 10. Wo Dual.

catch fishes with a hook. Ν.Α.V. χρυσώ, χρυσά, χρυσώ. απλώ, απλά, απλώ.

EXERCISE 44.-ENGLISH-GREEK. G.D. χρυσούν, χρυσαϊν, χρυσούν. απλοϊν, απλαϊν, απλοϊν. 1. Αγκιστροις αγρευομεν τους ιχθυς. 2. Οι ιχθυες αγρενονται αγκιστροις. VOCABULARY.

3. Ο θηρευτης ενεδρευει τους αγριους συνας. 4. Οι βοτρυες και οι σταχυer eισι

καλοι. 5. Αμπελος φερει βοτρυας. 6. Τοις βατραχοις ποτε ην μαχη προς Αδηλος, -ον,unknown. | Θεραπαινα, -ης, η, ο Οχλος, -ου, o, a mul

τους μνας. 7. Προσβλεπομεν τους νεκυας. 8. Η γη φερει πολλας αμπελους. Αληθεια, -ας, ή, truth. female servant. titude, crowd.

9. ο θεος βασιλευει των ιχθυων και βατραχων. 'Ανούς, -ούν (α, ποt, Και-και, both. Προσφερω, I carry, I

EXERCISE. 45.-GREEK-ENGLISH. and νοος), αnintel- Κανεον, -ου, το, bring to. . ligent, senseless. small basket. Συν, with.

1. Wantopness produces outrage. 2. Many are our comrades is

3. Wealth sets men free Αρτος, -ου, ο, bread. | Κατοπτρον, -ου, το, Τεγεα, -ας, ή, Tegea, eating and drinking, but few in a good work.

from scarcity and want. 4. Follow your nature. 5. The passions of the Δηλος, -η, -ον, known, & mirror.

a city in Arcadia.

body produce wars, and insurrecticus, and battles. 8. The magis evident, clear. Κυπελλον, -ου, το, 8 Τεκνον, «ου, το,

trates are the guardians of the laws in a city. 7. O citizens, keep Εκκαλυπτω,Ι goblet.

child. .

away from sedition. 8. O men, desire good deeds. 9. The natures Λεγω, I say, Iname. Yπνος, -ου, ο, sleep. of men differ. 10. Many evils spring from arrogance. 11. The gifts of Επικουφιζω,I lighten. Nούς, -ου, o, the un- Χαλινος, -ου, , 8 a bad man bring no gain. 12. Character and wealth without wisdom Εριζω, I contend, I derstanding, the bridle, rein. are not safe possessions. 13. The fruits of the fig-tree are sweet. am in strifo with mind, the soul. Χαλκεος, -έα, •ον,

14. The possessions of virtue alone are secure. 15. Many cities have some one.

Ολιγος, -η, -ον, few. brazen, made of walls. 16. The towers of the city are strong. 17. The towers are an Ευνούς, -ουν, well. Oργη, -ης, ή, anger. brass. .

ornament to the city. disposed, benevo- Ορεστης, ου, 8,/ Vuxn (Eng., Psyche),

EXEROISE 46.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
Lent.
Orestes. .
ης, ή, the soul.

1. Ο πλούτος λνει σπανεως. 2. Ημιν εισ: φιλοι εν ποσει και βρωσει, αλλ' EXERCISE 51.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

3. Εν τη πολει ο βασιλευς εστι φυλαξ των νομων. 4.

Πιθου, ω νεαnα, τοις εν τελει. 5. Ω παι, ορεγου των καλων. 6. Κτησις της 1. Λογος κατοπτρον, εστι του νου. 2. Τον νούν εχουσιν οι αν

αρετης εστι μονη βεβαια. 7. Το αστει εισι πολλοι πυργοι. 8. Αγαθοι νομοι θρωποι διδασκαλoν. 3. Τον ευνούν φιλον θεραπευε. 4. Οι αγαθοι | Φροναν τιμη», τφ αστει. 9. Επου τη φυσει. . 10. Οι στρατιωται μαχοντος φιλοι πιστον νούν εχουσιν. 5. Ο πλούς εστιν αδηλος τους ναυταις.

€πε τη σωτηρία της πολεως. 11, Ω πολιτα, φευγε στασιν.

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OVK EV TOUS Kakore.

LESSONS IN DRAWING.—XXII.

the forehead in the other, with reference to the angles formed

by all these lines respectively. Although we are at present THE HUMAN FIGURE (continued).

attempting only a profile, yet with some additional remarks We now propose to give our pupils somo practical instruction (to be made presently), this method of commencing the outin the method of drawing the figure, and hope that from the line may be applied to any other view of the face, full or directions given in former lessons on this portion our subject three-quarters. We will, then, begin from a, and mark in the they will be prepared to accompany us with full confidence as distance to b, observing the inclination; join these two points we proceed. They will perceive that all we have said through- by a straight line; from b drop a perpendicular line to j, out this course respecting the treatment of curved lines, dis- arrange the distance fe, and join be by a straight line ; from tances, and especially the angles formed by the meeting of lines, a mark the distance and inclination a c. It will be noticed whether curved or straight, have a particular importance here. that the nose rises in the middle at d; observe the distance The rules of proportion, and the anatomical knowledge pre- of d from b, and also from e, and how far it departs from the viously acquired, mus: now be called into servico; and we straight line be; join bd and de by other straight lines; trust that the principles we have given upon the theory of treat the points g, h, and all other extremities of lines, in the the figure will have been carefully studied, so that the con

same way.

When the whole is satisfactorily arranged, faint fidence hoped for may be well supported by the knowledge it, and carefully, with the points and lines as guides, draw the obtained; afterwards we feel assured the road will be easy, contours of each curve through the points, as in Fig. 134. and the practice pleasant. We have found from experience We recommend our papils to copy this example three or four that the readiest way for beginners to understand quickly times, and then apply these principles of working to Fig. 135. how the arrangement of ourved lines in conjunotion may be It will be quite unnecessary to repeat the details of this pro.

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best effected, is to treat them, whilst arranging the drawing, coss for each figare, as we trust there can be no difficulty if first as straight lines, or as a succession of straight lines in the the papil will be particular in placing a point to determine every course of the curve, with reference to their lengths, and to the angle as he proceedsmor, in another sense, whenever the outline extent and flexure of the curve. Observe how the curved lines alters its course — and on no account attempt the drawing in Fig. 134 are first represented by straight lines in Fig. 133. until this scaffolding of straight lines is completed. The ad.

Now, although the object of the pupil is to make a finished vantage of this method of arranging the drawing will be evidrawing as in Fig. 134, yet he must first put it together as dent after very little praotice. In studying the contours of shown in Fig. 133. By this method he will not only obtain a the curves, almost the same remarks we made upon a former close resemblance to the general contour of the line, but also he occasion (Lesson XII.), respeoting the management of halfwill more clearly understand the character and intention of the tints, and the amount of ability and observation nooossary in curves in connection with each other, as well as their positions, order to do them justice, are applicable here. Our present letting alone the labour saved, and tho facility it ensures. Here subject relates to form, the lesson we refer to relates to colorr, is the first, and probably the most important step in the executive and light, and shade; yet the same degree of perception and part of the drawing, wherein most of the difficulties are found due appreciation of the delicacy of tone and tint is required that so frequently discourage beginners, and cause them to with respect to the delicacy of form. The slightest movebreak down at the outset. Now, to prevent the occurrence of ment of a muscle changes the outline, and although it may anything so disheartening, let us dwell upon this for a few be even so trivial that the uneducated ege may not perceire moments, and endeavour, with minute explanation on our it, yet it is the aim and desire of the true artist to mark the part, and the close attention of our pupils, to go through fact, and introduce those changes in the outline which are the construction of the subject (Fig. 133). It is advisable known to be subject to laws depending upon the morements generally to commence from the bridge of the nose, for when of the body, and the disposition and manner in which the the position of this part of the face is settled, we can then muscles approach or overlap each other. He who can realiæ better determine the line of the nose in one direction, and the changes in the contour of the body and its parts, w

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