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LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XXII.

the forehead in the other, with reference to the angles formed

by all these lines respectively. Although we are at present THE HUMAN FIGURE (continued).

attempting only a profile, yet with some additional remarks We now propose to give our pupils some practical instruction (to be made presently), this method of commencing the outin the method of drawing the figure, and hope that from the line may be applied to any other view of the face, full or directions given in former lessons on this portion of our subject three-quarters. We will, then, begin from a, and mark in the they will be prepared to accompany do with full confidence as distance to b, observing the inclination ; join these two points we proceed. They will perceive that all we have said through- by a straight line; from b drop a perpendicular line to s. out this course respecting the treatment of curved lines, dis- arrange the distance fe, and join be by a straight line; from tances, and especially the angles formed by the meeting of lines, a mark the distance and inclination a c. It will be noticed whether curved or straight, have a particular importance here. that the nose rises in the middle at d; observe the distance The rules of proportion, and the anatomical knowledge pre- of d from b, and also from e, and how far it departs from the viously acquired, muri now be called into servico; and we straight line be; join bd and de by other straight lines; trust that the principles we have given upon the theory of treat the points g, h, and all other extremities of lines, in the the figure will have been carefully studied, so that the con- same way.

When the whole is satisfactorily arranged, faint fidence hoped for may be well supported by the knowledge it, and carefully, with the points and lines es guides, draw the obtained; afterwards we feel assured the road will be easy, contours of each curve through the points, as in Fig. 134. and the practice pleasant. We have found from experience We recommend our papils to copy this example three or four that the readiest way for beginners to understand quickly timos, and then apply these principles of working to Fig. 135. how the arrangement of curved lines in conjunction may be ! It will be quite annecessary to repeat the details of this pro

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best effected, is to treat them, whilst arranging the drawing, coss for each figure, as we trust there can be no difficulty it first as straight lines, or as a succession of straight lines in the the pupil will be particular in placing a point to determine every course of the curve, with reference to their lengths, and to the angle as he proceeds—or, in another sense, whenever the outline extent and flexure of the curve. Observe how the curved lines alters its course — and on no account attempt the drawing in Fig. 134 are first represented by straight lines in Fig. 133. until this scaffolding of straight lines is completed. The ad.

Now, although the object of the pupil is to make a finished vantage of this method of arranging the drawing will be eri drawing as in Fig. 134, yet he must first put it together as dent after very little practice. In studying the contours of shown in Fig. 133. By this method he will not only obtain a the curves, almost the same remarks we made upon a former close resemblance to the general contour of the line, but also he occasion (Lesson XII.), respooting the management of halfwill more clearly understand the character and intention of the tints, and the amount of ability and observation necessary in curves in connection with each other, as well as their positions, order to do them justice, are applicable here.

Our present letting alone the labour saved, and the facility it ensures. Here subject relates to form, the lesson we refer to relates to coloor. is the first, and probably the most important step in the executive and light, and shade; yet the same degree of perception and part of the drawing, wherein most of the difficulties are found due appreciation of the delicacy of tone and tint is required that so frequently discourage beginners, and cause them to with respect to the delicacy of form. The slightest move. break down at the outset. Now, to prevent the occurrence of ment of a muscle changes the outline, and although it may anything so disheartening, let us dwell upon this for a few be even so trivial that the uneducated eye may not pereire moments, and endeavour, with minute explanation on our it, yet it is the aim and desire of the true artist to mark the part, and the close attention of our pupils, to go through fact, and introduce those changes in the outline which are the construction of the subject (Fig. 133). It is advisable known to be subject to laws depending upon the movements generally to commence from the bridge of the nose, for when of the body, and the disposition and manner in which the the position of this part of the face is settled, we can then muscles approach or overlap each other. He who can realiz better determine the line of the nose in one direction, and the changes in the contour of the body and its parts, and

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GREEK STEMS.

Stens
ep
er ein

Елор

er'-gon

metal
a custom

Edos

etb-os

metall
eth
cu

E.

en or you

en

a messenger

Γαστηρ

gen ary

Γλωττα
Πολυς
Γωνια

-use

opi

properly represent them according to the circumstances under of terms, as a means for the expression of your thoughts and which they are placed, may certainly claim the title of a feelings. draughtsman in its fullest meaning.

These remarks find verification in the study even of the In arranging the positions of the head and features, we must remnants of Greek which form part of our English speech. bear in mind that the general form of the head is oval. This If ours is a rich language, if ours is an expressive language, figure may be applied with great advantage in two ways, both wo owo a large debt of gratitude to the Greek. By the aid of which we will consider. As the oval which represents the which it affords, we express thoughts which we could not otherform of the head is a solid, and the several lines which we are wise have expressed ; and we acquire ideas, and modifications about to draw, to determine the proportions and positions of of ideas, the sources of which are found only in its literature. the features, are supposed to be drawn oz the surface, there. In exemplification, it suffices to refer to the single domain of fore the perpendicular line drawn throughout the length in theology. The creed of Christendom wears the shape and the Fig. 129, Lesson XXI., will decide the position of the face to huo which it received from the Greek language, in which the bo parallel, that is, a full face. In a retiring view this same Gospol was promulgated to the world, and by which it was line will be a curve, as A B in Fig. 136, upon which the features planted in the mind of all the most civilised nations. must be arranged as in Fig. 137. When the head is looking up or down, then all the lines which are straight in Fig. 129

Greek Words. Pronunciation. Meanings

Englia Fra. become curved in proportion to the extent of the inclination

ep'-os a word

orthoepy, epic. of the head. Figs. 138, 139 will illustrate these positions, anà Epnuos er-o'-mos a desert

cremite (hermit). show that the use made of the curved lines is the same as that Εργον

a work

erg (urg) energetic. employed in the full face. Regarding the treatment of the Metalow met-allon

metallurgy. details, more especially the peculiarities belonging to each

cthics. feature, the pupil must be left in a great measure to his own

tell

eulogy. observation and practice from nature and from casts. In the

erangelist. details no two faces are alike; consequently, there can bo no Αγγελος an'-gel-os

angol angel, special rules in reference to them. We must treat the subject

gas'-teer
the belly

gastr

gastric. as a whole, and use those rules only which are applicable to

Γενναει gen-na'-ine to produce

genesis. all, with regard to proportion and position. We may say, for

οξυς Ox'-189 sharp

orygen.

Υδωρ hu'-dor tator instance, that the length of the mouth is equal to the width

hydro hydrogen. Γενος

gen'-08 kind between the eyes; that the centre of the mouth is one-third

gen heterogeneous. het'-er-os 'Erepos

another's from the bottom of the nose to the lower part of the chin.

hetero heterodox.

Γλωσσα These and other regulations may be useful where a classical

glow'-sa

sgloss glossary. glow-ta)

a tongue head only is attempted, and it is right to know them; but

glott polyglot.
pol'-u
prany

poly polygon. Nature does not always carry out these exact dimensions, other.

go'-ni-a

an angle gori wise we should lose that individual character so admirable,

goniometry. 'EF bex siz

hera heragon. and in most cases indispensable to real beauty. The know

Γραμμα gram'-ma a letter

gram grammar. ledge of these proportions will help us to avoid extreme de

Επι ep'-i
tipon

grigram. formity, and many absurdities; it will likewiso quicken our per- θαλαμος

thal -a-mos

a bridechamber thalam epithalamium ception when studying the characteristic differences existing T'papour graph'-ine to write

graph autographs amongst heads ; consequently, this knowledge, coupled with close observation rogarding the angles of the face, and of the

The aid which the Greek language affords to the student in features one with another, and more minutely those angles making. exaot verbal distinctions is illustrated in orthoeps, which constitute the form of each feature singly, will together which is, by its derivation, soon to designato right speaking, as enable the pupil very quickly to acquire a power of giving cha- orthography is right writing ; the first, therefore, refers to proracter and individuality to his subject, either in portraiture nunciation, the second to spelling. or when engaged on an ideal head representing some passion

“The epic poem is a discourse invented by art to form the manners or emotion of the mind. What rule could be furnished for by such instructions as are disguised under the allegories of somo one drawing, a Roman or a snub nose, beyond that of marking important action, which is related in verse after a probable, diverting, the angle which gives character to the shape of the nose ?

and surprising manner." -- Popo. Nothing would prevent originality of drawing and a true feel.

The three great epics are Homer's “Iliad,” Virgil's “ Æneid," ing for Nature more effectually, than confining the practice in and Milton's “Paradise Lost.”. Such is the perfection of these all cases to set rules for details. Because Nature is varied in poems that they form a class by themselves. her details, therefore it is in generalities only that rules are

“ Three poets, in three distant ages born, useful, and where it would be unwise to reject them.

Greece, Italy, and England did adorn."
The formation of our hermit, from the Greek epmuitas

(e-re'-mi-tees), illustrates the change which words undergo is
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXVI. passing from one language to another.
GREEK STEMS (continued).

Metallurgy, an incomprehensible term to the ordinary English

student, discloses its meaning by its own act to those who know The learning of a new language is like the acquisition of a new the import of its component parts. Metallurgy is, in general, gense. This is true, if only because a new language affords a the art of working metals—that is, the extraction of metal from new set of means for the expression of our ideas. The capacity the ore. of the human mind is greater than is the power of expression Ethics is the science of morals—that is, of right feeling and possessed by any vocabulary. That greater capacity finds a right doing. The word ethics resembles the word morals in new channel, and a new outlet, in a new language. Besides, origin. They both signify customs, and they intimate that with language is a medium for conveying ideas to a recipient, as well the ancient Greeks and Romans, what is customary was what as an instrument for the expression of ideas already enter is right. At the bottom of such a notion there must have beea tained. With words, then, you gain ideas. The increase of a a low standard of morality. Thus does a knowledge of language man's vocabulary is the augmentation of his mental treasures. open to our eyes the character of nations. The termination of Now knowledge must run into the old moulds. If it bo truc ethics, like physics, mathematics, etc., denotes a science. Ethics that no idea no word, equally is it true that no word no idea. is the science of morals. You may, indeed, make a word contain more than it does con. Evangelist is, according to the derivation, the bearer of good tain. You may transmuto brass into silver, and silver into news. The Greek word for gospel-namely, evangeliox (60-88gold; but out of nothing comes nothing. There are, then, gel'-i-on)---means good news. (Luke ü. 10.) two ways by which I may impart knowledge; I may give

Tho gastric juice, or the liquor which digests the food in the stomach a new idea by giving a new word, and I may increase the of animals, is of all menstrua the most active, the most unirersal."value of the word you have. Equally may I aid the develop. | Paley, "Natural Theology." mont of your mind, and augment at once its knowledge and its power, by supplying you with a fresh term, or a fresh series In Grzek, when two g's come togother, the first sounds like m.

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Greek Words.

“Oxygen is a principle existing in the air, of which it forins the hecatombs of most happy desires, praying all things may prove prosrespirable part, and which is also necessary to combustion. Oxygon, perous unto you."- Drummond. by combining with bodies, makes them acid, whence its name, signi.

Isothermal lines are lines of equal heat in different parts of fying generator of acids.”—Todd's Johnson.

the globe. Iso is also found in isosceles (okedos, skel'-os, a leg), Hydrogen is water-producer. Hudor (übwp), in its form hydro; applied to a triangle which has its two sides of the same length. is found also in hydrocephalous (Greek, Kepaln, keph'-a-le, the

Aphelion is that point of the orbit of a planet in which it is head), having water in the head (tho brain) and in hydro- most distant from the sun; perihelion is that point in which it phobia (Greek poßos, phob-os, fear), water-madness. Hydropsy, is nearest to the sun. water-sickness, is shortened into our dropsy.

Anything whose duration or existence is very short is termed “Soft, swollen, and pale, here lay the hydropsy,

ephemeral, or lasting for a day. Thus, insects that spring into Unwieldly man, with belly monstrous round."

life at sunrise and perish at sunset are styled ephemera. Thomson, “ Castle of Indolence."

“ There are certain flies that are called ephemera, that live but a Hydrography is properly the opposite of geography; for as

day.”—Bocon. the latter, considered in its component parts, is a description of the land, so the former is a description of the water. By usage account of daily transactions. Ephemerides (the plural of ephe.

An ephemeris is properly a journal (French, jour, day), an these significations are modified, so that geography, signifying a description of the surface of the earth, comprisos hydrography, meris) denote a set of astronomical tables, showing the state of

the heavens for every day. which describes, by maps, charts, etc., the surface of the water, and especially the sea-coast, with its rocks, islands, shoals, and of Geometry," in reference to lines and angles that correspond

The expression homologous is used by Euclid in his “ Elements shallows.

in relative position, proportion, or structure : hence any two “ Christopher Columbus, the first great discoverer of America, was

forms or expressions that exactly correspond in position, pro& man that earned his living by making and selling hydrographical portion, formation, or value, may be said to be homologous. maps."— Chambers.

Comparing the homologous or correspondent members on both sides, By derivation, grammar is the science of letters. This is not

we find that the first member of the expression,” etc.-Bishop Berkeley, an incorrect definition, for the science of letters, considered in “ Analyst.” all its relations, is the science of language, of which letters

Apocalypse, by its very derivation, signifies uncovering ; in are the elementary portions. “Letters” is often used, how, Latin it is unveiling—that is, revelation. ever, for systematic knowledge, or the results of a high and

In apocrypha we have another theological term, which is varied education. So wo speak of " a man of letters." In this interpreted to mean a hidden writing, from ano (ap-o), from, and Bonse the term is used in the question, “How knoweth this man letters, having never learned ?" (John vii. 15.) The hostile kputteiv, krup-tino (cryph), to hide. But why should not the

apo here have the same meaning as in apocalyse, and so reverse questioner took Jesus to be ignorant (Acts iv. 13)—that is, as

the import of kryptein (English crypt), to hide, and thus signify in the original, id.corns (id-i-o'-tees), idiot, untaught-such as

the disclosed, discovered, or detected writing ? Any way, Peter and John were accounted.

apocryphal is equivalent to spurious, and opposed to canonical I made it both in forme and matter to emulate the kind of poeme

or authentic. which was called epithalamium, and by the ancients used to be sung

“Now, beside the Scriptures, the bookes which they called eccle. when the bride was led into her chamber."--Ben Jonson, "Masques."

siasticall were thought not unworthy sometimes to bee brought into Pronunciation, Meanings. Sterns. English Words.

publicke audieuce; and with that nume they intituled the bookes which “Αγιος hag'.1-03 holy

hagio hagiography, we term apocryphal."--Hooker, Ecclesiastical Polity."
hek'-&-ton hundred hocato hecatomb,
bous

b
hecatomb.

Laity denotes the people as contradistinguished from the 'Ηλιος he'-li-os

helion aphelion.

clergy. In ancient times the laity were ignorant, the clergy Περι per'.i

perihelion.

learned. Hence aroge a broad contrast, exhibiting the people as ap':o

from

ap apology. wicked as well as untaught, and the clergy (clerks) no less holy 'Huepa he'-mer-a a day hemer ephemeral. than instructed. These usages are found in the substance of hep'-ta

soren

hept hoptagon. our language, and still linger amongst us in both thought and "lepos hi'-e-ros

holy

hiero hieroglyphics. feeling. Γλυφειν glu'-pbine

to ingrave
glyph glyphography

“He entended (intended) to set forth Luther's heresy, teaching Ιππος hip’-pos

hippo hippopotamus. that presthed (priesthood) is no sacrament, but the office of a lay-man Ποταμος pot'-a-mos

a river

rotam Mesopotamia. or a lay-woman appointed by the people to preache."--Sir T. More. hod'-os

exodus.

“No wonder though the people grew profane, Ex, es ek, ex out of exorcism.

When churchmen's lives gave laymen leave to fall."- Drayton. «Ομος hom'-os

the same

homo homologous. * Υγρος hu'-gros

Synthesis is properly the putting together, as analysis (ava, vet

hygro hygrometer. Ιχθυς ik'-thuse a fish ichthy ichthyology.

an'-a, up; and Averv, lu'-ein, to undo, to loosen) is the undoing. is-os

equal
iso isothermal.

A watchmaker performs an act of analysis when he takes a bad

cacophony.

watch to pieces, and an act of synthesis when he puts the parts Φωνη phoʻ.no a sound phono phonography.

together again. Καλος kal-08

beautiful

cali
caligraphy.

“ Synthesis consists in assuming the causes discorered and estaka-lūp'-to

calyp apocalypse. blished as principles, and by them explaining the phenomena proceedΚοσμος kos'-mos

the viorld kosm microcosm. ing from them, and proving the explanations."-Nouton, “Optics." Κυκλος ku'-klos a circle cycl cycle.

Analysis consists in making experiments and observations, and in Aaos la'-os

the people

lai
laity.

drawing general conclusions from thom by induction."--Ibid. Movos mon'-03 alone

monosyllable.

Analysis is the way of discovery, synthesis is the way of
syn synthesis.
with

syl
syllogism.

teaching or communication. By synthesis men put together and

exhibit what they have ascertained by analysis. Ααμβανειν lam'-ba-nino to taka

lab syllable.

Metamorphosis denotes a change of form.
θησις
the-sis a placing

Şthesis.
(thet synthetic.

“Thus men (my lord) be melamorphosed Moppan mor-phe shape morph metamorphosis.

From seemly shape to byrds and ougly beasts."-Gascoigne. Schange

metathësis, met'-a

Metempsychosis (ueta, meta, change ; ev, en, in; and yuxn, after met method.

psu'-ke, the soul) has for its Latin equivalent transmigration Mulos mu-thoi Şa speech

myth {a fable 3

mythology.

(trang, over; migro, I change my place).

"The sages of old live again in us, and in opinions there is a metem. Νεκρος nek'-ros

desde

necromancy

psychosis. We are our re-animated ancestors, and antedate their Marteta man-tei'-a divination mancy geomancy. resurrection."-Glanvill.

A hecatomb is the slaughter of a hundred oxen in sacrifice. Metathesis is a change of position or a transposition. Thus It is sometimes used metaphorically, as, for example :

what we write bird was formorly bryd, the i and the r changing “And here, sir, she offers by me to the altar of your glory, whole places.

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the sun

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od

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loos Kakos

kak'-os

caco

Καλυκι

I cover

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FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES.

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Mythology is the science of fable, and is applied to the religion and opposite foroes—the weight of the water above it, and the of the Greeks, the Romans, the Hindoos, etc., in opposition to upward pressure of that below it. Now the former is clearly the pure religion of the Gospel. German philosophy has intro equal to the weight of a column of water having, like G 1, an duced amongst us the new term myth, as denoting a legend, or area of 1 square inch, and whose height is equal to G K. I a version of facts, shaped and coloured by opinion, fancy, preju-a u be now sunk to a lower level, it will havo to sustain the dioe, by the workings of the intellect, the workings of the weight of a longer column, and therefore

or 1 imagination, or the workings of the heart. In origin, myth, the pressure of the water on it will be fable, and legend are one, for the words severally denote a word, greater. We see thus, that the pressure something spoken, something narrated. But as old stories soon increases with the depth. If we take a lose their primitive form, and acquire new shapes and hues, so number of bags of four or sugar, and pile words pass into legends, and legends are corrupted into fables.

them one

on the top of the other, the Necromancy is the fancied art of learning and disclosing facts lower ones have to sustain the weight of by communication with the dead. The witch of Endor dealt those above, and will accordingly be comnecromantically with Samuel at the request of Saul. (1 Sam. pressed to a greater extent than those xxviii. 7; compare Deut. xvii. 9.)

which are higher up in the pile, and there

GO
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

fore have to sustain the weight of fewer. P

Just in this way each layer of liquid has
Words with their Prepositions to be formed into sentences. to sustain the weight of all above it, and

thus the lower layers are more powerfully
Arrive at,
ripa, a river-side.

compressed. An illustration of the great
Ask of a person,

Fig. 5. pressure thus exerted is seen in the fact for or after a person, Sascian, to petition. for a thing,

that if a tightly-corked bottle be sunk to a depth in the sea it
Aspire to,
spiro, I breathe.

will be broken, or else the cork will be driven into it.
Assent to,
sentio, I feel.

We have now to show that this pressure is quite independent
Assimilate to,
similis, like.

of the shape of the vessel. Instead of that shown in Fig. 4, Associate with, socius, a companion.

let us have one made in the shape of a small tube fitted into Assure of, assurer, to assure.

the top of a larger one, as shown in section in Fig. 5. The Atone for, at one, to at.one.

pressure on the part directly under A E will, as before, depend
Attached to,
attacher, to bind.

on the height of the column of water above it.
Attain to,
atteindre, to reach.

part of the base, m N, must sustain the same pressure, for Attend to,

tendre, to stretch, Averse to, from,

otherwise there would not be equilibrium, but the liquid would verto, I turn.

move towards that part where the pressure was least. Every EXERCISES FOR PARSING.

part of a horizontal layer sustains then exactly the same presA pedagogue is a term of Greek origin, equivalent to our school- We thus arrive at the apparently strange result, that master. Pedagogue is a word which is now used contemptuously. if the vessels represented in Figs. 4 and 5 be filled to the same In an oligarchy the interests of a few predominate. In a demo- height, and the areas of their bases be equal, the pressure on cracy the interests of the many prevail. The real and the apparent each base will be the same, although one contains a much larger interests of men are sometimes very different. A polemical spirit is quantity of water than the other. We must not, however, undesirable. Polemical writings are occasionally required. The character of the apostle Paul is very noble. Apostolical virtues are

suppose that, since the pressures are equal, the vessels, if placed rare. The apostles received their mission immediately from Christ. in opposite pans of a pair of scales, would balance each other. Without enthusiasm the best of causes cannot be carried forward

This paradox is easily explained. Suppose we have a bor, Enthusiasm is in danger of degenerating into fanaticism.

the lid of which fastens down by a catch, and we place a spiral spring inside, so that when the lid is closed the spring is

powerfully compressed, the pressure on the bottom is manifestly HYDROSTATICS.-II.

much greater when the box is closed than when it is open, and

yet it weighs no more. The fact is, the spring presses the top PRESSURE OF LIQUIDS AKIBING

of the box upwards with exaotly the same force as it presses CENTRE OF PRESSURE-LEVELS-SPRINGS AND

the bottom downwards, and these two forces noutralise each

other. So in the vessel shown in Fig. 5, the pressure of the Having now mastered the principle of the equal transmission of liquid, being transmitted in all directions, presses up against pressure in all directions, we must pass on to notice the pressure the surface PGF R, and balances a part of the pressure ca which is produced by the weight of the liquid itself. Water, in the base, and the pressure on the scale pan will be the difference common with all other substances, possesses weight, and this between these two, the upward pressure on P R being exactly weight must cause pressure on the sides of the vessel containing it. If we have an upright cylindrical vessel with straight sides, and place in it a cylinder just fitting, it will press on the bottom of the vessel with a force equal to its own weight. If now we replace the solid by a liquid having the same weight, the pressure on the bottom of the vessel will remain the same as before, but, in addition to this, every part of the sides of the vessel will sustain an outward pressure. This is clear from the fact that, if we remove the side, or any portion of it, the liquid

Fig. 6. will no longer retain its shape, but will spread AL e itself out as widely as possible.

equal to the weight of the ring of water required to make up The first fact we have to notice about this the quantity there is in the other vessel. pressure is that it increases with the depth of The following experiment affords a proof of this principle of the liquid, and in the same proportion, but is the pressure being dependent alone on the area of the sun

perfectly independent of the shape of the face and the depth of liquid. Fig. 4.

Procure three Fessels of the vessel containing it. In the proof of this shapes represented in Fig. 6, and let their bases be made of and other propositions, we shall make the following assump- exactly the same size, and arranged so as to open like trap-doora tion--that any portion of a bulk of fluid may be supposed by means of hinges. to becomo solid without making any difference in the state To a similar part of the base of each attach a string, and let of equilibrium of the liquid, or in the forces which act upon these pass over pulleys and have equal weights affixed to their it. A moment's thought makes this fact self-evident. Let ends, so as to keep the bottoms closed. A B C D (Fig. 4) represent a vessel filled with water to the If now water be poured into each vessel it will be found tbat level A B. Take in it any horizontal layer, EF, and in this the bottoms will open, not, as might be supposed, when an let a portion, G H, having an area of 1 square inch, be equal weight of water has been poured in, but when the water supposed to become solid. It is now kept at rest by two equal stands at the same level in each.

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