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NEPTUNE

one

3. Are you right or wrong? 4. I am right, I am not wrong. 5. Have called the square of that number. But the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, you my brother's good gun? 6. I have not the gun. 7. Are you cold | 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, etc., are the squares of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, to-day? 8. I am not cold; on the contrary, I am warm. 9. Have you 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., because they are found by multiplying the good bread? 10. I have no bread. 11. Are you not hungry? 12. I am neither hungry nor thirsty. 13. Are you ashamed? 11. I-am latter numbers each by itself ; and the fractions 4, 5, 6, e neither ashamed nor afraid. 15. Have we pepper or salt? 16. You & H, etc., are called the reciprocals or inverses of the squares; have neither pepper nor salt. 17. What book have you ? 18. I have and ratio means the rate at which anything increases or de my cousin's book, 19. Have you the iron hammer or the silver creases; hence, the force of heat, or quantity of heat received hammer! 20. I have neither the iron hammer nor the silver ham. from a common fire, is in the ratio of the inverses of the squares mer, I have the tinman's wooden hammer. 21. İş anything the of the distances; or more shortly, in the inverse ratio of the matter with you? 22. Nothing is the matter with me. 23. Have

squares of the distances. you the bookseller's large book ? 24. I have neither the book.

This may be explained in another way still. Suppose A seller's large book, vor the joiner's small book; I have the captain's to be placed at 2 feet distance from the fire, and B at 3 feet good book.

distance; then B will receive less heat than A, not in the

ratio of 2 to 3, the numbers which represent their distances, LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XV. but in the ratio of 2 times 2 to 3 times that is, of 4 to 9: in

other words, as 4 is contained 2 times in 9, 80 A will ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY.

receive 24 times the quantity of heat that B receives ; and this In our last lesson we endeavoured to explain to our geographi. is all that is really meant by the phrase, the inverse ratio of the cal students the nature of the motion of the earth round the squares of the distances. sun, and of its motion round its own axis. We there stated 1 Having thus explained the law of the influence of heat upon the principle or law of attrac

two bodies, or any number of bodies tion in the language peculiar to

at different distances from the the science of astronomy, somewhat

source of heat, in the case of a modified and simplified; but as

common fire, we again observe that some of our readers may be entire

this law is equally true of the in. novices, and may never have heard

fluence of light and of the influence or understood several of the terms

URANUS

of attraction upon bodies at different we made use of, we shall in this

distances from the source of light lesson endeavour to make the sub.

and of attraction. Thus we know ject clearer still.

and feel that the sun is the great First, then, as to the said law of

source of light and head to this attraction: let us illustrate this, by

SATURN

world of ours; and Astronomy a very familiar instance taken from

teaches us that it is also the source the heat of a common fire. Sup

of attraction, or of that power pose two persons, A and B, sitting

which has operated upon the earth at the same distance from the fire,

JUPITER

and the other planets, and which both in front of it—at least, the

continues still to operate upon as much as the other; it

them, by causing them to revolve is plain that they would both feel

in elliptical orbits or paths round

ASTEROIDS the same degree of heat; for,

that luminary, as explained in our whatever reason may be assigned

last lesson. to show that A received more

From the earliest ages up to the

MARS heat than B, the same

time of Kepler, the planets (Greek, might be assigned to show that B

alamtns, pla-ne'-tees, a wanderer), received more heat than A ; there

Moon

or wandering stars—so called in fore, they must both receive the

opposition to the fixed stars, which same heat.

VENUS

appear always to preserve the same Now, suppose that B removes to

relative distances from each otherdouble the distance that he was at

were reckoned to be in number only when alongside of A, and that A

sit; and this number being inaremains in the same place; it might

thematically perfect—that is, equal then be supposed that B would re

to the sum of all its factors, 1, 2, 3 ceive only half as much heat

-it was imagined that no more as he did before; or that A

DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE RELATIVE POSITIONS, planets could exist, or could be er. now enjoying double the

ETC., OF THE SUN, PLANETS, AND PLANETOID8. pected to be found. Kepler, inheat which B was receiving in his

deed, inquired most earnestly rohy new position. Such is not the case, however; for the degree, they were only six in number; but Galileo, who first applied of heat does not diminish at the same rate that the distance the telescope to astronomy, opened a new door in the temple of increases, as you might expect at first sight; but it diminishes science, by the discovery of the four satellites of Jupiter, in at a mach greater rate, and the question is how much greater? 1610, and led by this discovery to that of the other planets Now, well-conducted and careful experiments in Natural at a later period, which put to flight all reasons why the Philosophy have proved that the heat received at the dis- number of the planets should be limited to any given number. tances of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc., feet, is not }, }, 1, 1, 3, }, He would be a bold man indeed now-a-days who would try to of the heat received at 1 foot; but it is *, , limit the number of the planets, seeing that so many have etc., of the heat received at 1 foot. So that B will receive at been discovered within these few years past. double the distance of A, only one-fourth of the heat which The six planets known from antiquity are the following: A receives; at triple the distance, only one-ninth of the heat; Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; no satel. and so on.

lite was known from antiquity but the Moon. The first addiThe law of progression then is as follows:--Let the heat re- tion to the planets of the Solar System was Uranus, at first ceived at the distance of 1 foot be denoted by 1, then the heat called the Georgium Sidus (the Georgian Star), in honour of received at the distance of 2 feet will be represented by 1 King George III., by Sir William Herschel, who discovered it, divided by 2 times 2, ord; the heat received at the distance of March 13th, 1781. It was afterwards called Herschel, in honour 3 feet will be represented by 1 divided by 3 times 3, ord; the of the discoverer ; but it is now called Uranus, because, forheat received at the distance of 4 feet will be represented by 1 sooth, Uranus was in the Greek mythology (the fables of divided by 4 times 4, or id; and so on.

the heathen gods) the father of Saturn! Uranus has eight Now, dividing i' by any number gives a result which in satellites, of which six were discovered by Sir William Herschel. mathematics is called the reciprocal or inverse of that number ; Of these, five have since been observed by other astronomers. and multiplying any number by itself gives a result which is the planet Neptune, the third in point of size of those that

reason

EARTH

MERCURY

was

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32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

42

43

are yet known to form part of our Solar System, was discovered by Dr. Galle, of Berlin, September 23, 1846, in consequence of a letter received from Leverrier, of Paris, stating that he had calculated the position of a planet outside Uranus which would account for certain irregularities in the motion of that planet, hitherto unexplained, and indicating the part of the heavens in which it ought to be found. Neptune has two satel. lites. The credit of the discovery of the planet Neptune belongs to Leverrier and Galle, but it should be said that Mr. J. Couch Adams, of Cambridge, had also gone through a series of calculations establishing the existence of this planet, and would have had the honour of being its discoverer, had the French astro. nomer been a little less prompt in giving publicity to the result of his calculations. By means of the calculations of Mr. Adams, Professor Challis, of Cambridge, also detected the planet simul. taneously with Dr. Galle. In 1859 a French physician named Lescarbault asserted that he had discovered a planet, to which he gave the name of Vulcan, moving in an orbit within that of Mercury. Leverrier was satisfied at the time that Lescarbault had really lighted on a fresh member of our Solar System, but as no astronomer has yet been successful in detecting it a second time, it is supposed that Lescarbault was mistaken and that Leverrier gave credit to the supposed discovery because it satisfied an hypothesis he had formed, that a planet existed, moving between Mercury and the sun, and which would be at that time in that part of the heavens in which Lescarbault supposed he had found Vulcan.

At the close of the last century, and for some time prior to this, it was supposed that a planet, which had either escaped discovery or had disappeared from the Solar System, moved in an orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter, for reasons detailed at the close of this lesson. This suspicion was confirmed by the discovery of Ceres by a Sicilian astronomer named Piazzi, at Palermo, January 1, 1801, moving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Further research has resulted in the discovery of nearly one hundred of these small planetary bodies having orbits near that of Ceres. These small planets are called planetoids or asteroids. They were at first supposed to be fragments of a shattered planet which once revolved round the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter; but this supposition has been proved to be antenable. The following is a list of the planetoids that have been discovered since the finding of Ceres, with the names of their discoverers and the dates and places of their discovery: LIST OF PLANETOIDS REVOLVING BETWEEN THE ORBITS OF

MARS AND JUPITER.

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Pomona Goldschmidt
Polyhymnia Chacornac
Circe

Chacornac
Leucothea Luther
Fides

Luther Atalanta Goldschmidt Leda

Chacornac Lætitia Chacornac Harmonia Goldschmidt Daphne Goldschmidt Isis

Pogson Ariadne Pogson Nysa

Goldschmidt
Eugenia Goldschmidt
Hestia Pogson
Melete

Goldschmidt
Aglain Luther
Doris

Goldschmidt
Pales

Goldschmidt Virginia Ferguson Nemausa Laurent Europa Goldschmidt Calypso Luther Alexandra Goldschmidt Pandora Searle Mnemosyne Luther Concordia

Luther Danaë

Goldschmidt Olympia Chacornac Erato

Forster Echo

Ferguson Ausonia De Gasparis Angelina Tempel Cybele Tempel Maia

Tuttle Asia

Pogson
Hesperia Schiaparelli
Leto

Luther
Panopea Goldschmidt
Feronia Peters
Niobe

Luther
Clytio Tuttle
Galaten Tempel
Eurydice Peters
Freia

D'Arrest Frigga Peters Diana

Luther Eurynome Watson Sappho Pogson Terpsichore Tempel Alcmena Luther Beatrix De Gasparis Clio

Luther Ιο

Peters Semele Tietjen Sylvia Pogson Thisbe

Peters Julia

Stephan
Antiope Luther
Agina Stephan

Peters
Watson

Watson
Arethusa Luther
Ægle

Coggia Clotho Tempel Ianthe Peters

Paris

Oct. 26, 1854. Paris

Oct. 28, 1854. Paris

April 6, 1855. Bilk

April 19, 1855. Bilk

Oct. 5, 1855. Paris

Oct. 5, 1855. Paris

Jan. 12, 1856. Paris

Feb. 8, 1856. Paris

Mar. 31, 1856. Paris

May 22, 1856. Oxford

May 23, 1856. Oxford

April 15, 1857. Paris

May 27, 1857. Paris

June 28, 1857. Oxford

Aug. 16, 1857. Paris

Sep. 9, 1857. Bilk

Sep. 15, 1857. Paris

Sep. 19, 1857. Paris

Sep. 19, 1857. Washington Oct. 4, 1857. Marseilles

Jan. 22, 1858. Paris

Feb, 6, 1858. Bilk

April 4, 1858. Paris

Sep. 10, 1858. Albany, U.S. Sep. 10, 1858. Bilk

Sep. 22, 1859. Bilk

Mar. 4, 1860. Paris

Sep. 9, 1860. Paris

Sep. 12, 1860. Berlin

Sep. 14, 1860. Washington Sep. 14, 1860. Naples

Feb. 10, 1861. Marseilles

Mar. 4, 1861. Marseilles

Mar. 8, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 9, 1861. Madras, U.S. April 17, 1861. Milan

April 29, 1861. Bilk

April 29, 1861. Paris

May 5, 1861. Clinton, U.S. May 29, 1861. Bilk

June 13, 1861. Cambridge, U.S. April 7, 1862. Marseilles

Aug, 30, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 22, 1862 Copenhagen Oct. 21, 1862. Clinton, U.S. Nov, 15, 1862. Bilk

Mar, 1, 1863. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 14, 1863. Madras, U.S. May 2, 1864. Marseilles

Sep. 30, 1864. Bilk

Nov. 27, 1864. Naples

April 26, 1865. Bilk

Aug. 25, 1865. Clinton, U.S. Sep. 19, 1865. Berlin

Jan. 4, 1866. Madras, U.S. May 17, 1866. Clinton, U.S. June 15, 1866. Marseilles

Aug. 6, 1866. Bilk

Oct. 1, 1866. Marseilles

Nov. 4, 1866. Clinton, U.S. July 7, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Aug. 24, 1867. Ann Arbor, U.S. Sep. 6, 1867. Bilk

Nov. 23, 1867. Marseilles

Feb. 1808. Marseilles

1868. Clinton, U.S. April 18, 1868. Marseilles

May 29, 1868. Detroit

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Feb. -,

1 Ceres

Piazzi 2 Pallas

Olbers 3 Juno

Harding 4 Vesta

Olbers 5 Astræa Hencke 6 Hebe

Hencke 7 Iris

Hind 8 Flora

Hind 9 Metis

Graham 10 Hygeia De Gasparis 11 Parthenope De Gasparis 12 Victoria Hind 13

Egeria De Gasparis 14 Irene

Hind 15 Eunomia De Gasparis 16

Psyche De Gasparis 17 Thetis

Luther 18 Melpomene Hind 19 Fortuna Hind 20 Massalia De Gasparis 21 Lutetia Goldschmidt 22 Calliope Hind 93 Thalia

Hind 24 Themis De Gasparis 23

Phocea Chacornac 26 Proserpine Luther 27 Euterpe Hind 28

Bellona Luther 29 Amphitrite Marth 30 Urania

Hind 31 , Euphrosyne ! Ferguson

Palermo Bremen Lilienthal Bremen Driesen Driesen London London Markree Naples Naples London Naples London Naples Naples Bilk London London Naples Paris London London Naples Marseilles Bilk London Bilk London London Washington

Jan. 1, 1801. Mar. 28, 1802. Sep. 1, 1804. Mar. 29, 1807. Dec. 8, 1815. July 1, 1847. Aug. 13, 1847. Oct. 18, 1847. April 25, 1848. April 12, 1849. May 11, 1850. Sep. 13, 1850. Nov. 2, 1850. May 19, 1851. July 29, 1851. Mar. 17, 1852. April 17, 1852. June 24, 1852. Aug. 22, 1852. Sep. 19, 1852. Nov. 15, 1852. Nov. 16, 1852. Dec. 15, 1852. April 5, 1853. April 6, 1853. May 5, 1853. Nov. 8, 1853. Mar. 1, 1854. Mar. 1, 1854.

July 2, 1854, 1 Sep. 1, 1854,

Watson

The additions made to the satellites of the planets since the discovery of those of Jupiter and the ring of Saturn by Galileo, Are the following :-M. Huygens discovered one of Saturn's satellites in 1665; M. Cassini, four, between 1671 and 1685; Sir W. Herschel, two, between 1787 and 1789; and Messrs. Lassell and Bond, one, September 19th, 1847; making in all eight satellites for Saturn. Mr. Lassell has discovered satellites belonging to Neptune; it was once supposed that this planet possessed a ring like Saturn. The following is a table of the principal planets of the solar system; their approximate mean

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Astronomical

Marks.

Approximate
Mean Dis me-
ters in Miles.

Inclination
of Axes to the

Ecliptic.
Inclination
of Orbits to
the Ecliptic.
Times of Rev.

round the

2,900 8300

distances from the sun; their approximate mean diameters; the RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY, inclinations of their axes and orbits to the ecliptic, or path

THE BUTTERFLY. in the heavens in which the sun and planets move; their periodic times, or times of a complete revolution round the sun, as far as “WILL he catch it? Does that thoughtless little imp know what they are known; and the axial time of rotation occupied by a creature of beauty he is trying to crush? Well done, bright each planet. Further particulars respeoting the planets and fairy of the spring! that last wave of thy sun-tinted wings has their satellites we must reserve for our Lessons on Astronomy, carried thee over that blooming hedge now far away from the otherwise we shall lose sight of those on Geography. We may baffled, puffing, red-cheeked schoolboy.” Such were our reflecremind our readers that the actual existence of Vulcan has not tions as we once watched“ my noble English boy” in hot pursuit been confirmed, that is to say, it has not been noticed by any

of a Swallow-tail” (Papilio * Machaon) butterfly. (See illusastronomer since its alleged discovery by Lescarbanlt. For this tration, page 48.) “ Kill, kill,” were the words written on young reason a note of interrogation has been appended to its name, Hodge's face as with determination, worthy of a Briton, he etc., in the subjoined table, in which we have arranged the chased the winged type of beauty. At first it seemed two to one planets in the order of their distances from the sun :

in favour of the boy; nearer and nearer he came up went his cap

full at the "Swallow-tail." It was so well aimed, that the insulted TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. butterfly indignantly swept into a neighbouring field, leaving the

young hunter in a rage at the useless expenditure of so much Approximate

toil. To make his defeat more ignominious, the cap had stuck Mean

Times of
Names
Distances

Rotation

in a thorn bush, from which the little biped did not recover it of the

from the Sun Planets.

upon without sundry pricks and provoking scratches. We rejoiced in Miles,

Axes.

in the escape of the insect, knowing well that its hunter did not

wish to examine the wonders of that tiny “thing of life," but to Vulcan (?) 13,082,000(?)

12°10'(?) 20(?)

gratify his bump of destructiveness. Mercury : 8 35,392,600

70 0 88 24h. 5m. Now we are not going to write the history and adventures of Venus.

66,131,500 7,510 73° 32 3o 23 225 23h. 21m. that particular butterfly ; we are not certain that we ever saw The Earth

91,430,220 7,913 66° 32 000 365 23h. 56m. this particular insect again, but wish to make a few remarks Mars 8 139,312,200 4,920 61° 18 1° 51' 687 2th. 37m. on his relations and friends. In summer they are glancing hither Planetoids

and thither over meads and gardens, and we cannot let such Jupiter 21 475,693,100 88,390 | 86° 55' 1° 18 4,333

9h. 56m. beauties pass unnoticed. Saturn h 872,134,600 71,900 58° 41' 2° 29' 10,759 10h. 29m. Uranus H 1,753,851,000 33,000

0° 46' 30,687

It seems almost an insult to call such a brightly-robed creature

9h, 30m. Neptune * 2,746,271,200 36,600

1° 46' 60,127

an insect, but we must not flatter the proudest butterfly, merely

because he wears a fine coat. How vast seems the difference In the preceding table it will be observed that the new planets Aly! yet the latter cannot deny his distant relationship to that

between the abhorred cockroach and the splendid peacock butterare found in the space intermediate between Mars and Jupiter. creeping thing, hated by all housemaids : both are insects. A These planets were discovered in this space because they were long Greek name separates the princes of the insect world from sought for; and the origin of their search is curious. Kepler the less honoured orders. Lepidoptera (a term meaning scalehad discovered that the distance between Mars and Jupiter was anomalous as compared with the distances between the other winged) is the title of nobility applied by the great Swedish planets, that it was greater in proportion to their distances and moths. We must pass over the latter for the present, and

historian of the animal kingdom, Linnæus, to the butterflies from the sun, and he strove by some analogies of Nature to find confine our attention to their less numerous but more admired out the reason, but failed. Titius, & professor of Wittenberg,

relations. in Saxony, endeavoured to discover the law of progression in the

The term “butterfly" seems to be unsuitable for an insect distances of the planets, and to a great extent succeeded. This discovery was published by Bode, in 1772, in the Connaissance du which has a taste far too refined for butter. The name was, it Ciel Etoilé ; and hence it is usually called Bode's

law. It is the is thought, given to the insect by our Saxon ancestors, becanse it following :--Calling the earth's distance from the sun 10, it was

appeared in the butter-making season. Be it so; many a finer

name has had a lower origin. Has the butterfly a memory? If found that the distances of the other planets with that of the earth were very near to one another in the proportion of the fol. so, does the insect recollect the two previous states through lowing numbers :

which it has passed ? Perhaps not; but we must not forget the

former condition of our brilliant white admiral, or swallow-tail. Planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. Numbers, 4,

First a caterpillar; then cramped in bands and folds, which we 7, 10, 16, 52, 100.

call a chrysalis; and, lastly, a winged fairy of the air. Catch On further inquiry it was discovered that these numbers were that large “White Cabbage,” lady butterfly (Pontia Brassicu), related as follow :

and ask her a few questions about "auld lang syne," just to

illustrate what are called metamorphoses. 7 = 4 + 3.

On the 1st of May last year-we like to be particular in dates—her grandmother was a bandaged chrysalis, and about

the end of the month became a butterfly. Her elegantly-shaped 4 + 3 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2.

eggs were carefully laid on the under side of nicely-selected 4 + 3 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2.

cabbage leaves, without permission of the gardener. Mighty An inspection of the foregoing series will show that between was his rage when, in a few days, his choicest cabbages were 16 and 52 there should be another number, 4 +3 X 2 X 2 X 2,

sawn into the most intricate patterns by a thriving family or 28, to make its progression regular and complete, and this of ravenous caterpillars. To kill them all was out of the quesencouraged the belief, originated by Kepler, that there was a tion. Napoleon's artillery might have failed to accomplish that. planet revolving in an orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter Many did perish; the sparrows especially delighted in such that had not yet been discovered.

delicious morsels. One, however, escaped, in consequence of her That there were good grounds for entertaining this idea was exceeding cleverness in feeding on leaves concealed from the further shown by the discovery of Uranus, when it was found birds' eyes. Having formed a chrysalis, she socured the cradle that its distance from the sun represented by 191.93, snpposing like bit of work to a sunny wall by a strong but elegant silken the earth's distance be 10, agreed closely with the distance at band. which it should be according to Bode's law, namely, 4 + 3 x 2

From this came a butterfly about August, the mother of the one X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2, or 4 + 3 x 64 = 196. Astronomers which is supposed to have been just caught by the reader. From in all parts of Europe anxiously searched the field of the heavens her eggs sprang another succession of caterpillars, which changed for the planet that was supposed to be whirling through to chrysalides in September last. Now mark what followed. illimitable space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and the supposition was shown at last to be true by the discovery

* The term Papilio is applied to a large butterfly family; Machoon is of Ceres, the first of the long list of minor planets, by the for the name of a famous physician present at the siege of Troy, and desigtunate Italian Piazzi.

nates this particular species.

10 16 52

4 + 3 X 2.
4 + 3 X 2 X 2.

100 =

1

No butterflies came from these chrysalis forms as usual. They touch. But what are these so-called feathers ? They are really must have died of starvation, as winter yields but little indeed scales, laid upon the wings much in the manner of slates or of the delicate food required by them. This second series of tiles upon a roof. Get a microscope, and examine those of the chrysalides were therefore commissioned to keep the undeveloped “Peacock" or "Red Admiral." No unaided eye can discern the insects safely wrapped within their folds through the cold and minute wonders. The brilliant, numerous, and diversified tints storms of the winter. In the May of this year, each little cradle of the scales are beyond all verbal description and all artistic gives up its brilliant child to sport with the perfumed zephyrs. imitation. Few will talk of human skill in the combination of Thus, in the course of a twelvemonth, the large white butterfly colours when those fairy-liko tintings have once astonished the goes through a twofold round of most wonderful changes. cye. Then consider the almost countless number of tinted scales

A question here will naturally arise. How does the cabbage on one wing. A mosaic picture has been exhibited, containing butterfly know that she must deposit her eggs on the cabbage ? 870 distinct pieces in one inch of work. The delicacy of such She does not feed on it, and can have no notion of the food mechanism might well excite admiration. What shall we say which her brood of caterpillars will require. Here is another when we find more than 100,000 living pictures and richly-dyed of the unanswerable questions which we are accustomed to hush scales on a square inch of a butterfly's wing ? by the reply," Oh, it is all instinct.” Are we one whit the Let us now turn to the head of our butterfly. What do we wiser for such an answer? Well, what is to be said ? Nothing; see there? The two “feelers," or antennæ, at once claim a or a plain confession, "We don't know why the butterfly always notice. By the form of these the butterflies are readily distin. selects the very plant which the caterpillars will need."

guished from moths. Is the tip of the antennæ knobbed ? then Each butterfly may be said to have four epochs in its life—the the insect is most likely a butterfly; if not, it is a moth. What egg state, the caterpillar, the chrysalis, and the fly. We have is the use of these organs ? Here we ask a favour from our used the term chrysalis, what does it mean? Of course all readers : will they oblige us by putting that question to the readers know that it is the case or cradle in which the caterpillar most eminent philosopher of their acquaintance ? Should he be takes the butterfly form. The word is derived from a Greek able to answer decisively, will readers further oblige by commuterm, signifying golden, and was originally applied to the most nicating the replies with the proofs? We regret to say that richly-tinted envelopes of this insect. Sometimes the name these antennæ are the teasers of naturalists. We know not qurelia (aurum, gold) is used to denote these bright forms. what to make of them. Whether the provoking insect feels, Chrysalis is properly applied to the butterflies only, the word sees, hears, or smells with them, no one knows. A pretty conpupa (a little thing) being the moro correct designation for the fession is this for men to make, who have weighed the earth, third state of other insects. Linnæus saw some resemblanco and tested the minerals in the sun. “How like a god is man, between the creature thus tightly packed up in its foldings, and says Shakespeare. It may be so; but we cannot forget that all babies bandaged up in close mummy-like wrappers. He there our science is puzzled by the “feelers” of a butterfly. Some fore employed the term pupa to represent this stage of insect think the antennæ contain a sixth senso unknown to human life. Let the reader by all means look for some chrysalides, beings; but this is only an attempt to escape from a puzzle by and carefully examine them. He will sometimes see through a guess. The experiment which suggested this notion was, perthe fine covering, the body, legs, and wings of the insect, haps, the following :-A female of one of the day moths, called most marvellously packed up in its case. The antennæ, or the "Kentish Glory," which had been bred from the chrysalis in feelers, as they are wrongly called, are placed in a line with a house, was enclosed in a box, and taken into a wood frequented the legs. The long tongue, too, strange as it may sound, is by her species. The box being laid on the ground, in a short placed straight between the legs; and the wings make a very time a number of the male moths settled on it. Yet a person might small but very distinct package. The various parts of the have frequented that locality for days without seeing one of the butterfly may often be seen even in the interior of the cater- insects. This experiment has been often made with success. pillar itself, which is thus but the living covering of the yet By what sense did these moths discover the presence of the undeveloped purple emperor or peacock.

lady? Not by sight—she was hidden; not by hearing-she Has the reader ever seen a butterfly " coming out” into the attered no cry. It is no marvel if some ascribe this strange world? Let him take the first opportunity, then, of witnessing power to a mysterious sense lodged in the antennæ. Does any the operation. How is it effected ? The cradle cracks, the one ask why the term antenne was applied to these organs? The wrappers are torn, and the fly extricates itself, standing like a word denoted among the ancients the yard or mast of a ship, thing most forlorn. No mother is near to "introduce” the and was subsequently given to these "feelers” from a fancied stranger ; not a single friend to give help—the young butterfly resemblance to the projecting spars of a vessel. We have not is indeed coldly received by the world. Her very wings are done with the head of the butterfly yet. Look next at the eyes. pany things, and her limbs look as if rheumatic. But she has Of course every one, in the year 1868, knows that the eyes a cheerful heart, soon gets over her first amazement, and one of of all insects are compound; in other words, that what seems her earliest operations is to attend to her beauty. Suppose one eye only consists of many thousands. The reader would be the wings shonld not open " nicely;" what if there should be a puzzled to count these butterfly eyes, even by the aid of a powercrease in that important part of her wardrobe! her life would ful microscope. But the calculation has been made by men who be wretched then; the gentlemen would not look at her, and have devoted years to the study of insect structure. The eye of no female of her race would condescend to sip from the same a butterfly contains, in reality, about 17,000 eyelets, giving to flower. In about an hour, however, all is generally right; the our gaudy insect 34,000 in all. Each little eye is a perfect gorgeous wings become fully expanded by the sun's heat, and organ in itself, six-sided, or hexagonal, in shape, so that the the beauty sails exulting in the full luxury of life.

whole collection resembles the cells in a honey-comb-17,000 eyes Have our friends ever seen a butterfly in the winter ? The all arranged in that small space! Yes, it is so. Some speculative very question may seem absurd. How can the symbol of flowery readers may inquire why this creature has been endowed with summer live amid the snows of December? The surprise is eyelets in thousands. We must beg to be excused from answer. natural; but some butterflies do live through the season of frost ing so profound a question. Of course no one will suppose that and tempest; in other words, they hybernate; sleep comes on when a butterfly looks on a female of his species he sees 34,000 them in some sheltered nook as winter approaches, and lasts, fluttering beauties before him. As the two human eyes do not with a few breaks, till the return of spring. Sometimes a mild double objects, so the numerous lenses of the “ Parple Emperor" day, even in January, will rouse the sleepers, and they come out may combine to form but one image. But some of these insects for a short airing, to the astonishment of the schoolboy or the have also two simple eyes on the top of the head, so that we young lady out for a walk. One of these hybernators is the must confess ourselves to be altogether inferior in the matter of brimstone batterily, common in parts of Devonshire, Suffolk, eyes to the “Swallow-tail” or the “Peacock.” and Essex. The small tortoiseshell butterfly is another species, We must now take a look, with his permission, at the buttersometimes seen on warm days in winter sailing merrily along fly's mouth. The insect luxuriates in such refined food that under the shelter of some friendly hedge.

teeth are needless, and strong jaws not wanted. What does the Now let us pause a minute to examine the wings of our butter- observer see in the mouth ? He finds a long tube, like a trunk, fly. Toach them not; the friction of the softest finger will act and also notes that the organ can be folded ap, like a watchlike a rough file on the richly-tinted mosaic work of those wings. spring, out of harm's way, when the animal is not making its We all know how "the feathers” are rubbed off by the slightest breakfast on the delicious nectar of a summer flower. A closer

inspection shows a remarkable bit of living mechanism. The we allude rather to the whole nervous mass than to one organ, trunk is found to consist of three sucker-like tubes, secured in like that found in the larger animals. The brains of insects an elegant case, the whole protected from injury by horny may in truth be called many. If we insist upon finding one defences and supports. This complex tube is not thicker than brain, the first knot, or ganglion as it is called, in the spinal a hair, and through this all the food of the butterfly must be marrow, may be so regarded. The same remark must be made conveyed. Does not so fine a tube get clogged up sometimes respecting the heart, which is not one organ, but consists of from the thick flowery juices in which the winged beauty de numerous circulating vessels. A butterfly may be as truly said lights? Yes, there is a liability to this; for, though a butterfly to have many hearts as one. cannot have toothache, he is not quite free from all accidents. The nine air-holes on each side, eighteen in all, may be reWhat does the insect do then ? Clears out his trunk, of garded as so many nostrils by which the air enters. Naturalists course, the mechanism of the central tube allowing it to be opened call them spiracles. for this purpose. Is not this a beautiful provision, enabling the How many species of these insects are found in Britain? butterfly to be

About 70; its own sur

but some are geon in 80

only met with dangerous

2

in limited discrisis? "Doth

tricts, and few God care for

persons have oxen ?” is a

seen them all question put

in their native in an ancient

haunts. The book. It is

total number also clear that

of known spethe wants of a

cies is about butterfly have

3,000. been wonder

Readers who fully cared for

wish to make by the Creator.

collection A whole paper

should endeamight be filled

vour to obtain with the de

the caterpillar, scription of

chrysalis, and the sucker

butterfly of or trunk of

each species; the butterfly.

they will then 5 We can only

possess a spestate here that

cimen of each it seems to be

form of life formed of a

through which countless

the insect number of fine

passes. No elastic rings,

one will, of moved by a

course, run & multitude of

pin through a muscles. Some

butterfly to naturalists

secure it, be have supposed

fore either the muscles in

killing or be this small and

numbing the 3

creature, by to exceed in

placing it in number those

a vessel, into in the ele

which some phant's trunk:

chloroformhas these are es

been dropped timated at

The captive 70,000. Space does not ad.

killed by a mit of our say.

“nip," or ing more about

pinch between the marvels to 1. SWALLOW-TAIL BUTTERFLY (PAPILIO MACHAON). 2. FIDONIA PLUMISTARIA, 3. MARBLED WHITE BUTTER

the wings. be seen on the FLY (PAPILIO GALATHEA). 4. EGGS

5. CATERPILLAR. 6. CHRYSALIS. 7. SCALES or The “hug" is head of a but. BUTTERFLIES' WINGS,

fatal to the terfly.

whole family. We have but a few lines to remark that the nerves and Poets, philosophers, and theologians have used the butterfly digestive system of the butterfly have been closely examined by to illustrate their sentiments. The ancients regarded the bright naturalists, and would require a volume to describe them fully. ethereal creature as a symbol of the human soul, searching “ As giddy as a butterfly” is a remark applied to some pretty after a higher home and a more perfect life. A noble being, bipeds ; but the insect's so-called giddiness is really its work, by called Psyche (the soul), was described as falling in love with which it gets its living, speeding from flower to flower for food. visible beauty, then losing through her folly the bright posses: A “Purple Emperor's” brain may be as much taxed by these sion, and after a sorrowful search, finding again the long-lost labours, as that of the said biped's, by reading three sets of and glorious prize. This Psyche was represented under the form novels in one week. The nervous system of the butterfly is of a butterfly, and such marbles may be seen in the Townley near the stomach, so that “weak nerves" must tell upon the Collection in the British Museum. We all know that Christians digestion of a “Blue Argus" or "White Admiral.” It will have long deemed the uprising of so bright a form, from the easily be imagined that the nerves connected with the complex chrysalis-like grave, as a type of the resurrection. Thus, even eye and wonderful trunk of a butterfly must form an elaborate a butterfly, sculptured on a tomb, may suggest a rolume of rian microscopical system. When speaking of a butterfly's brain, and ennobling thoughts.

[graphic]

may also be

OF BUTTERFLIES.

[graphic]
[graphic]
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