« AnteriorContinuar »
No butterflies came from these chrysalis forms as usual. They | touch. But what are these so-called feathers ? They are really must have died of starvation, as winter yields but little indeed scales, laid upon the wings much in the manner of slates or of the delicate food required by them. This second series of tiles upon a roof. Get a microscope, and examine those of the chrysalides were therefore commissioned to keep the undeveloped * Peacock" or "Red Admiral.” No unaided eye can discern the insects safely wrapped within their folds through the cold and minute wonders. The brilliant, numerous, and diversified tints storms of the winter. In the May of this year, each little cradlo of the scales are beyond all verbal description and all artistic gives ap its brilliant child to sport with the perfumed zephyrs. imitation. Few will talk of human skill in the combination of Thus, in the course of a twelvemonth, the large white butterfly colours when those fairy.liko tintings have once astonished the goes through a twofold round of most wonderful changes. cyo. Then consider the almost countless number of tinted scales
A question here will naturally ariso. How does the cabbage on one wing. A mosaic picture has been exhibited, containing batterfly know that she must deposit her eggs on the cabbage? 870 distinct pieces in one inch of work. The delicacy of such She does not feed on it, and can have no notion of the food mechanism might well excite admiration. What shall we say which her brood of caterpillars will require. Here is another when we find more than 100,000 living pictures and richly-dyed of the unanswerable questions which we are accustomed to hush scales on a square inch of a butterfly's wing ? by the reply, “Oh, it is all instinct.” Are we one whit the Let us now turn to the head of our butterfly. What do we wiser for such an answer? Well, what is to be said ? Nothing; sce there? The two “feelers," or antennæ, at once claim a or a plain confession, “We don't know why the butterfly always notice. By the form of these the butterflies are readily distin. selects the very plant which the caterpillars will need.”
guished from moths. Is the tip of the antennæ knobbed ? then Each butterfly may be said to have four epochs in its lifo-the the insect is most likely a butterfly; if not, it is a moth. What egg state, the caterpillar, the chrysalis, and the fly. We have is the use of these organs ? Here we ask a favour from our used the term chrysalis, what does it mean? Of course all readers : will they oblige us by putting that question to the readers know that it is the case or cradle in which the caterpillar most eminent philosopher of their acquaintance ? Should he be takes the butterfly form. The word is derived from a Greek able to answer decisively, will readers further oblige by commu. term, signifying golden, and was originally applied to the most nicating the replies with the proofs? We regret to say that richly-tinted envelopes of this insect. Sometimes the name these antennæ are tho teasers of naturalists. We know not aurelia (aurum, gold) is used to denote these bright forms. what to make of them. Whether the provoking insect feels, Chrysalis is properly applied to the butterflies only, the word sees, hears, or smells with them, no one knows. A pretty conpupa (a little thing) being the moro correct designation for the fession is this for men to make, who have weighed the earth, third state of other insects. Linnæus saw some resemblanco and tested the minerals in the sun. “How like a god is man, between the creature thus tightly packed up in its foldings, and says Shakespeare. It may be so; but we cannot forget that all babies bandaged up in close mommy-like wrappers. He there- our science is puzzled by the “feelers” of a butterfly. Some fore employed the term pupa to represent this stage of insect think the antennæ contain a sixth senso unknown to human life. Let the reader by all means look for some chrysalides, beings; but this is only an attempt to escape from a puzzle by and carefully examine them. He will sometimes see through a guess. The experiment which suggested this notion was, perthe fine covering, the body, legs, and wings of the insect, haps, the following :-A female of one of the day moths, called most marvellonsly packed up in its case. The antennæ, or the “ Kentish Glory," which had been bred from the chrysalis in feelers, as they are wrongly called, are placed in a line with a house, was enclosed in a box, and taken into a wood frequented the legs. The long tongue, too, strange as it may sound, is by her species. The box being laid on the ground, in a short placed straight between the legs; and the wings make a very time a number of the male moths settled on it. Yet a person might small but very distinct package. The various parts of the have frequented that locality for days without seeing one of the butterfly may often be seen even in the interior of the caterinsects. This experiment has been ofton made with success. pillar itself, which is thus but the living covering of the yet By what sense did these moths discover the presence of the undeveloped purple emperor or peacock.
lady? Not by sight-she was hidden; not by hearing-she Has the reader ever seen a butterfly " coming out” into the uttered no cry. It is no marvel if some ascribe this strange world? Let him take the first opportunity, then, of witnessing power to a mysterious sense lodged in the antennæ. Does any the operation. How is it effected? The cradle cracks, the one ask why the term antennæ was applied to these organs? The wrappers are torn, and the fly extricates itself, standing like a word denoted among the ancients the yard or mast of a ship, thing most forlorn. No mother is near to "introduce" the and was subsequently given to these "feelers” from a fancied stranger ; not a single friend to give help--the young butterfly resemblance to the projecting spars of a vessel. We have not is indeed coldly received by the world. Her very wings are done with the head of the butterfly yet. Look next at the eyes. puny things, and her limbs look as if rheumatic. But she has Of course every one, in the year 1868, knows that the eyes a cheerful heart, soon gets over her first amazement, and one of of all insects are compound; in other words, that what seems her earliest operations is to attend to her beauty. Suppose one eyo only consists of many thousands. The reader would be the wings should not open " nicely;" what if there should be a puzzled to count these butterfly eyes, even by the aid of a powercrease in that important part of her wardrobe! her life would ful microscope. But the calculation has been made by men who be wretched then; the gentlemen would not look at her, and have devoted years to the study of insect structure. The eye of no female of her race would condescend to sip from the same a butterfly contains, in reality, about 17,000 eyelets, giving to flower. In about an hour, however, all is generally right; the our gaudy insect 34,000 in all. Each little eye is a perfect gorgeous wings become fully expanded by the sun's heat, and organ in itself, six-sided, or hexagonal, in shape, so that the the beauty sails exulting in the full luxury of life.
whole collection resembles the cells in a honey-comb--17,000 eyes Have our friends ever seen a butterfly in the winter ? The all arranged in that small space! Yes, it is so. Some speculative very question may seem absurd. How can the symbol of flowery readers may inquire why this creature has been endowed with summer live amid the snows of December? The surprise is eyelets in thousands. We must beg to be excused from answer. natural; but some butterflies do live through the season of frost ing so profound a question. Of course no one will suppose that and tempest; in other words, they hybernate ; sleep comes on when a butterfly looks on a female of his species he sees 34,000 them in some sheltered nook as winter approaches, and lasts, fluttering beauties before him. As the two human eyes do not with a few breaks, till the return of spring. Sometimes a mild double objects, so the numerous lenses of the “Purple Emperor" day, even in January, will rouse the sleepers, and they come out may combine to form but one image. But some these insects for a short airing, to the astonishment of the schoolboy or the have also two simple eyes on the top of the head, so that we young lady out for a walk. One of these hybernators is the must confess ourselves to be altogether inferior in the matter of brimstone batterfly, common in parts of Devonshire, Suffolk, eyes to the “Swallow-tail” or the “Peacock.” and Essex. The small tortoiseshell butterfly is another species, We must now take a look, with his permission, at the butterBometimes seen on warm days in winter sailing merrily along fly's mouth. The insect luxuriates in such refined food that under the shelter of some friendly hedge.
teeth are needless, and strong jaws not wanted. What does the Now let us panse a minute to examine the wings of our butter observer see in the mouth ? He finds a long tube, like a trunk, fty, Touch them not; the friction of the softest finger will act and also notes that the organ can be folded ap, like a watchlike a rough file on the richly-tinted mosaic work of those wings. spring, out of harm's way, when the animal is not making its We all know how “the feathers” are rubbed off by the slightest breakfast on the delicious nectar of a summer flower. A closer
A whole paper
inspection shows a remarkable bit of living mechanism. The we allude rather to the whole nervous mass than to one organ, trunk is found to consist of three sucker-like tubes, secured in like that found in the larger animals. The brains of insects an elegant case, the whole protected from injury by horny may in truth be called many. If we insist upon finding one defences and supports. This complex tube is not thicker than brain, the first knot, or ganglion as it is called, in the spinal a hair, and through this all the food of the butterfly must be marrow, may be so regarded. The same remark must be made conveyed. Does not so fine a tube get clogged up sometimes respecting the hoart, which is not one organ, but consists of from the thick flowery juices in which the winged beauty de numerous circulating vessels. A butterfy may be as truly said lights? Yes, there is a liability to this ; for, though a butterfly to have many hearts as one. cannot have toothache, he is not quite free from all accidents. The nine air-holes on each side, eighteen in all, may be reWhat does the inseot do then ? Clears out his trunk, of garded as so many nostrils by which the air enters. Naturalists course, the mechanism of the central tube allowing it to be opened call them spiracles. for this purpose. Is not this a beautiful provision, enabling the How many species of these insects are found in Britain ? butterfly to be
About 70; its own
but some are
only met with dangerous
in limited discrisis? “Doth
tricts, and few God care for
persons have oxen ?” is a
seen them all question put
in their native in an ancient
haunts. The book. It is
total number also clear that
of known spethe wants of a
cies is about butterfly have
3,000. been wonder.
Readers who fully cared for
wish to make by the Creator.
should endeamight be filled
vour to obtain with the de
the caterpillar, scription of
chrysalis, and the sucker
butterfly of or trunk of
each species; the butterfly.
5 We can only
they will then
possess a spestate here that
cimen of each it seems to be
form of life formed of a
through which countless
the insect number of fine
passes. No elastic rings,
one will, of moved by a
course, run a multitude of
pin through a muscles. Some
butterfly to naturalists
secure it, behave supposed
fore either the muscles in
killing or be this small and
numbing the delicate organ 3
creature, by to exceed in
placing it in number those
a vessel, into in the ele
which some phant's trunk:
chloroformhas these are es
been dropped timated at
The captive 70,000. Space
may also be does not ad.
killed by a mit of our say.
“nip,” ing more about
pinch between the marvels to 1. SWALLOW-TAIL BUTTERFLY (PAPILIO MACHAON). 2. FIDONIA PLUMISTARIA. 3. MARBLED WHITE BUTTER
the wings. be seen on the
FLY (PAPILIO GALATHEA). 4. EGGS OF BUTTERFLIES. 5. CATERPILLAR. 6. CHRYSALIS. 7. SCALES OF The “hug" is head of a but. BUTTERFLIES' WINGS.
fatal to the terfly.
whole family. We have but a few lines to remark that the nerves and Poets, philosophers, and theologians have used the butterfly digestive system of the butterfly have been closely examined by to illustrate their sentiments. The ancients regarded the bright naturalists, and would require a volume to describe them fully. ethereal creature as a symbol of the human soul, searching " As giddy as a butterfly” is a remark applied to some pretty after a higher home and a more perfect life. A noble being, bipeds ; but the insect's so-called giddiness is really its work, by called Psyche (the soul), was described as falling in love with which it gets its living, speeding from flower to flower for food. visible beauty, then losing through her folly the bright possesA “Purple Emperor's” brain may be as much taxed by these sion, and after a sorrowful search, finding again the long-lost labours, as that of the said biped's, by reading three sets of and glorious prize. This Psyche was represented under the form novels in one week. The nervous system of the butterfly is of a butterfly, and such marbles may be seen in the Townley near the stomach, so that “weak nerves" must tell upon the Collection in the British Museum. We all know that Christians digestion of a “Blue Argus “White Admiral.” It will have long deemed the uprising of so bright a form, from the eye and wonderful trunk of a butterfly must form an elaborate a butterfly, sculptured on a tomb, may suggest a volume of riah easily be imagined that the nerves connected with the complex chrysalis-like grave, as a type of the resurrection. Thus, eren microscopical system. When speaking of a butterfly's brain, and ennobling thoughts.
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY-XV.
intersect cd in F. The point F is the centre from which the
arc A C B has been described. PROBLEM XXXV.--To find the centre of any given circle, or of Now let A E B in Fig. 53 be the arc of which it is required to any given arc of a circle.
find the centre. Join A B as before; bisect AB in D. Draw Let A B C (Fig. 53) be the given circle of which it is required D E perpendicular to A B, and join A E. Produce ed indefinitely to find the centre. First, draw any straight line, A B, dividing towards c, and at the point A in the straight line E A, make the the circle into two unequal segments. Bisect A B in D, and angle E A F equal to the angle A E F, producing the leg A F of through the point D draw the straight line E c at right angles the angle E AF, if necessary, far enough to intersect E D proto AB. Bisect E c in F. The point F is the centre of the circle duced in the point F. This point, as before, is the centre from
which the arc A E B has been described. There are other methods by which the centre of the circle In the first of these two cases it will be noticed that the aro ABC may be found, although the one that has just been described of which the centre is required is greater than half the circumis perhaps the most simple. For instance, we might have drawn ference of the circle of which it is an arc, but in the second it is the straight lines G H, KL as tangents to the circle A B C, through less than half the circumference. If the arc were half the
the points A and B, and at circumference, it is plain that to find its centre all we have to
circle be drawn through line m E, and produce it to cut the circumference of the circle Kthese points, the straight in c. Bisect c E in F. The point F, as before, is the centre of
lines drawn at right angles the circle A B C.
sect each other, if produced straight line.
far enough, in the centre of Let A, B, C(Fig.55), be the three given
points through which it is required
Fig. 55. with any radius greater than the radius of the given circle, EG, is the centre from which a circle describe two arcs intersecting each other in the point q. Join may be described with a radius, H , that shall pass through AN, E Q. The point F in which these lines intersect each other the other two given points, A, B, and c. The same result would is the centre of the circle A BC.
be obtained by joining the straight lines A B, BC, or AC, C B, Our figures, as we have said before, sometimes appear compli- bisecting them, and drawing perpendiculars through the points cated from the necessity that there is of saving as much space of bisection as shown in the figure.
as we can by making one diagram serve as an PROBLEM XXXVII.—To draw a tangent to a given circle
illustration either to many methods of doing the through any given point either in the circumference of the circle & same thing, or to sequences that may arise out or without it.
of the consideration of the problem in question. The case in which the given point is in the circumference of Our readers are therefore in all cases when it is
the circle needs no illus. necessary recommended to study our problems
tration and very little with a piece of paper, a pair of compasses, and
R explanation, for it is a parallel ruler at hand, that they may construct
manifest that nothing Fig. 54. for themselves just so much of our diagram as
more is required than to is necessary for an illustration of the process in
o draw a straight line join. course of description, disentangling it as it were from the
ing the centre of the figare that we have given as a means of explaining our direc
circle and the given point, tions. As an example of this, we give in Fig. 54, on a reduced s
and then through the scale, just so much as is absolutely necessary of Fig. 53 to
given point to draw a enable a reader to understand the first method that we have
straight line at right given of finding the centre of any given circle.
angles to the radius of Some of the methods that have been described for finding the
the circle thus obtained. centre of a given circle apply equally well, as it may have been The straight line drawn through the given point at right angles seen, to finding the centre from which any given arc of a circle to the radius will be a tangent to the given circle. has been described ; but there is another method of finding the In the case in which the given point lies without the circam. centre of any given arc that we will now proceed to bring under ference of the circle, let A B C (Fig. 56) represent the given circle, the reader's notice.
and p the given point without it. Find E, the centre of the First, let A C B in Fig. 53 be the arc of which it is required to circle A B C, and join D E. Bisect DE in F, and from the point find the centre. Join A B; bisect AB in D; draw DC at right F as centre, at the distance FE or FD as radius, describe the angles to A B, and join a c. Then at the point a in the straight circle DGH, cutting the circumference of the circle a b c in the line ca make the angle car equal to the angle A C F, and pro- points G, H. Join D G, D H, and produce them indefinitely ance the leg a F of the angle c A F, if necessary, far enough to towards x and L respectively. The straight lines D K, D L are
tangents to the circle A B C, and they are drawn from the given mysteries of devotion ; let me forget the world, and by the world be point D, without the circumference of the circle A BC, as forgotten, till the moment arrives in which the veil of eternity shall required.
fall, and I shall be found at the bar of the Almighty, From this problem we learn that from any point without a
Religion will grow up with you in youth, and grow old with you in circle two straight lines can be drawn which are tangents to poor, or the chamber of the sick; it will retire with you to your
àge; it will attend you, with peculiar pleasure, to the hovels of the that circle, and that the angle formed by any pair of tangents closet, and watch by your béd, or walk with you, in gladsome union, drawn to a circle from a point without it is bisected by the to the house of God; it will follow you beyond the confines of the straight line which joins that point and the centre of the given world, and dwell with you for ever in heaven, as its native residence, circle.
2.“ We also learn from this problem how, with a given radius, to
Emphatic series.” draw a circle touching two given straight lines. In Fig. 56, let
Assemble in your parishes, villages, and hamlets. Resolve, peti. L M, KN represent the two given straight lines, and x the
tion, address. given radius of the circle that is required to be drawn, touching This monument will speak of patriotism and courage ; of civil and the given straight lines L M, K N. If necessary, produce the religious liberty; of free government; of the moral improvement and straight lines 1 M, KN in the direction of m and n, and let elevation of mankind; and of the immortal memory of those who, with them meet in D. Bisect the angle L D K by the straight line heroic devotion, bave sacrificed their lives for their country. Do, and at any point, P, in the straight line D K draw PQ
I have roamed through the world, to find hearts nowhere warmer perpendicular to Dk, ani equal to the given radius x. Then
than those of New England, soldiers nowhere bråver, patriots nowhere through the point q draw the straight line Rs of indefinite length, parer, wives and mothers nowhere trùer, maidens nowhere lovelier
, parallel to D K, and intersecting the straight line do in the not be silent, when I hear her patriotism or her truth questioned with
green Valleys and bright rivers nowhere greener or brighter; and I will point E. From the point E as centre, with a radius equal to so much as a whisper of detraction. the given radius x, describe the circle A H G. This circle touches the given straight lines L M, k n, in the points I and G.
What is the most odious species of tyranny ? That a handful of men, free themselves, should execute the most base and abominable despotism over millions of their fellow.créatures ; that innocence
should be the victim of oppression; that industry should toil for READING AND ELOCUTION.-XV. ràpine; that the harmless labourer should sweat, not for his own ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued).
benefit, but for the luxury and rapacity of tyrannic depredation ;-in a
word, that thirty millions of men, gifted by Providence with the [NOTE.—Those examples, in this and a former lesson, in which ordinary endowments of humanity, should gronn under a system of the accents are purposely omitted, are intended as exercises for despotism, unmatched in all the histories of the world, the student.]
3. “Poetic series.”
He looks in boundless majesty abrond,
And sheds the shining day, that burnished plays It is a subject interesting alike to the old and to the young.
On rocks, and hills, and towers, and wandering streams, Nature, by the very disposition of her elements, has commanded,
High-gleaming from afàr. as it were, and imposed upon men, at moderate intervals, a general
Round thy beaming car, intermission of their toils, their occupátions, and their pursuits.
High-seen, the Seasons lead, in sprightly dance The influence of true religion is mild, and soft, and noiseless, and
Harmonious knit, the rosy-fingered Hours, constant, as the descent of the evening dew on the tender herbage,
The Zephyrs floating loose, the timely Rains, nourishing and refreshing all the amiable and social virtues; but
Of bloom ethereal, the light-footed Déws, enthusiasm is violent, sudden, rattling as a summer shower, rooting
And, softened into joy, the surly Storms,
Hear him compare his happier lot, with his
Who bends his way across the wintry wolds,
A poor night-traveller, while the dismal snow The winter of the good man's age is cheered with pleasing reflec
Beats in his face, and dubious of his paths, tions of the past, and bright hopes of the future. It was a moment replete with joy, amazement, and anxiety.
He stops and thinks, in every lengthening blast, Nothing would tend more to remove apologies for inattention to
He hears some village mastiff's distant howl, religion than a fair, impartial, and full account of the education, the
And sees, far streaming, some lone cottage light; characters, the intellectual processes, and the dying moments of those
Then, undeceived, upturns his streaming eyes, who offer them.
And clasps his shivering hands, or, overpowered, Then it would be seen that they had gained by their scepticism no
Sinks on the frozen ground, weighed down with sleep, now pleasures, no tranquillity of mind, no peace of conscience during
From which the hapless wretch shall never wake. life, and no consolation in the hour of death,
There was neither tree, nor shrüb, nor field, nor böuse, nor lirieg Well-doing is the cause of a just sense of elevation of character; it créatures, nor visible remnant of what human hands had reared. clears and strengthens the spirits; it gives higher riches of thought; I am charged with pride and ambition. The charge is true, and I it widens our benévolence, and makes the current of our peculiar affec- glory in its truth. Who ever achiered anything great in letters, art, tions swift and deep.
or arms, who was not ambitious ? Cæsar was not more ambitions A distant sail, gliding along the edge of the ocean, was sometimes than Cicero. It was but in another way. All greatness is born of a theme of speculation. How interesting this fragment of a world, ambition. Let the ambition be a noble one, and who shall blame it! hastening to rejoin the great mass of existence! What a glorious I confess I did onco aspire to be queen, not only of Palmyra, but of monument of human invention, that has thus triumphed over wind the East, That I am. I now aspire to remain so. Is it not an and wave ; has brought the ends of the carth in communion ; has
honourable ambition ? Does it not become a descendant of the established an interchange of blessings, pouring into the sterile regions have already done. You would not it should have been less,
Ptolemies and of Cleopatra ? I am applauded by you all for what I of the north all the luxuries of the south ;* diffused the light of know. ledge, and the charities of cultivated life; and has thus bound together more criminal? Is it fixed in nature that the limits of this empir
But why pause here? Is so much ambition praiseworthy, and those scattered portions of the human race, between which nature should be Egypt on the one hand, the Hellespont and the Euxine on seems to have thrown an insurmountable barrier!
the other ? Were not Suez and Armenia more natural limits? Or 1. “Disconnected series."
hath empire no natural limit, but is broad as the genius that can Youth, in the fulness of its spirits, defers religion to the sobriety Palmyra possess the East.
devise, and the power that can win ? Rome has the West. Let of manhood; manhood, encumbered with cares, defers it to the leisure
Not that nature subscribes this and Do of old age ; old age, weak and hesitating, is unable to enter on an
The gods prospering, and I swear not that the Mediterraness untried mode of life.
shall hem me in upon the west, or Persia on the east. Longinus is
right: I would that the world were mine. I feel, within, the will and Let me preparo for the approach of eternity ; let me give up my the power to bless it, were it so. soul to meditation ; let solitude and silence aoquaint me with the Are not my people happy? I look upon the past and the present
upon my nearer and remoter subjects, and ask nor fear the answer. • Accidental "falling" inflection, for contrast.
Whom have I wronged p—what province have I oppressed -*hat city
pillaged 2-what region drained with taxes ?-whose life have I unjustly
Still, still, for ever aken, or estates coveted or robbed ?-whose honour have I wantonly
Better, though each man's life-blood were a river, assailed ?—whose rights, though of the weakest and poorest, have I
That it should flow, and overflow, than creep trenched upon ? I dwell, where I would ever dwell, in the hearts of
Through thousand lazy channels in our veins, my people. It is written in your faces, that I reign not more over you
Dammed, like the dull canal, with locks and cháins, than within you. The foundation of my throne is not more power
And moving, as a sick man in his sleep, than love.
Three paces, and then faltering ; better be
Where the extinguished Spartans still are free,
In their proud charnel of Thermopylæ,
Than stagnant in our marsh.'
I'll keep them all;
He shall not have a Scot of them;
Nò, if a Scot would save his soul, he shall not.
Do not descend to your graves with the disgracetul censure, that
you suffered the liberties of your country to be taken away, and that That heart whose fondest throbs to me were given ?
you were mutes as well as cowards. Come forward, like mèn; protènt My name on earth was ever in thy prayer,
against this atrocious attempt. Shall it be banished froin thy tongue in heaven?
I am not sounding the trumpet of war. There is no man who
more sincerely deprecatos its calamities than I do. In meadows fanned by heaven's life-breathing wind,
Rest assurod that, in any case, we shall not be willing to rank list In the resplendence of that glorious sphere,
in this generous contest. And larger movements of the unfettered mind,
You may depend on us for whatever beart
or hand can do, in so poble a cause. Wilt thou forget the love that joined us here?
I will cheerfully concede every reasonable demand, for the sake of
péace. But I will not submit to dictation.
Rule 2.-" Question and answer."
Do you think these yells of hostility will be forgotten! Do you
suppose their echo will not reach the plains of my injured and insulted Await thee there; for thou hast bowed thy will
cóuntry, that they will not be whispered in her green valleys, and In cheerful homage to the rule of right,
heard trom her lofty hills ? Oh! they will be heard there; yès, and And lovedst all, and renderedst good for ill.
they will not be forgotten.
I will say, what have any classes of you, in Ireland, to hope from For me, the sordid cares in which I dwell,
the French? Is it your property you wish to preserve |--Look to the Shrink and consume the heart, as heat the scroll ;
oxample of Holland; and see how that nation has preserved its property And wrath hath left its scar,-the fire of hell
by an alliance with the French ! Is it independence you court Has left its frightful scar upon my soul.
Look to the example of unhappy Switzerland : see to what a stato of Yet, though thou wear'st the glory of the sky,
bervile abasement that once manly territory has fallen, under France ! Wilt thou not keep the same beloved name,
Is it to the establishment of Catholícity that your hopes are directed P The same fair thoughtful brow, and gentle eye,
The conduct of the First Consul, in subverting the power and autho Lovelier in heaven's sweet climate, yet the same ?
rity of the Pope, and cultivating the friendship of the Mussulman in Egypt, under a boast of that subversion, proves the fallacy of such a
a Shalt thou not teach me, in that calmer home,
reliance. Is it civil liberty you require? Look to France Itedll, The wisdom that I learned so ill in this,
crouching under despotism, and groaning beneath a system of slavery, The wisdom which is love,-till I become
unparalleled by whatever has disgraced or insulted any nation.
Shall I be left forgotten, in the dust,
When Fate, relenting, lets the flower revive ?
Shall Nature's voice,-to man alone unjust, -. Rule 1.4" Negation opposed to affirmation.”
Bid him, though doomed to perish, hope to live ?
Is it for this fair Virtue oft must strive It is not a parchment of pedigree,-it is not a name derived from
With disappointment, pénury, and páin? the ashes of dead men, that make the only charter of a king. Englishmen were but slåves, if, in giving crown and sceptre to a mortal like
No: Heaven's immortal spring shall yet arrive,
And man's majestic beauty bloom again, ourselves, we ask not, in return, the kingly virtues.
Bright through the eternal year of Love's triumphant rèign. The true enjoyments of a reasonable being do not consist in unbounded indulgence,* or luxurious éase, in the tumult of passions, Rule 3.—" Disjunctive Or.'” the languor of indolence, or the futter of light amúsements. Yielding Will you rise like men, and firmly assert your rights, or will you to immoral pleasures corrupts the mind; living to animal and trifling tamely submit to be tràmpled on ? ones, de bases it; both, in their degree, disqualify it for genuine good, and consign it over to wròtchedness.
Did the Romans, in their boasted introduction of civilisation, act
from a principle of humane interest in the welfare of the world ? Or What constitutes a state ?
did they not rather proceed on the greedy and selfish policy of aggradNot high-raised battlements, or laboured móund,
dising their own nation, and extending its dominion ? Thick wall, or moated gáte ;
Do virtuous hábits, a high standard of morálity, proficiency in the Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned,
arts and embellishments of life, depend upon physical formátion, or Not bays and broad-armed ports,
the látitude in which we are placed ?. Do they not depend upon the Where, laughing at the storm, proud návies ride;
civil and religious institutions which distinguish the country? Not starred and spangled courts, Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride!
The remaining rules on “inflection,” as they are of less No!-man,-high-minded MÈN,
frequent application, are thought to be sufficiently illustrated Men who their duties know,
by the examples appended to each rule. A repetition of these, But know their rights, and, knowing, dare maintain.
however, may be useful to the student as an exercise in review. Note.-—"Concession and unequal antithesis.” The clouds of adversity may darken over the Christian's páth; but he
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-VIII. can look up with filial trust to the guardian care of a beneficent Father. I admit the the Greeks excelled in acuteness and versatility of
MENTAL EFFECT OF NOTES. mind. But, in the firm and manly traits of the Roman character, I We have now to treat of a most important subject, and one noe something more noble, more worthy of admiration,
which should be thoroughly well anderstood by every pupil. We war against the leaders of evil-not against the helpless tóols:' We refer to the mental effect of notes. Let us put the topic in we war against our oppressors,-not against our misguided bréthron. the form of a question. What is the principal source of a note's
power to affect the mind ? . We observe, for instance, in one of The penultimate inflection falls, when a sentence ends with the Handel's songs, that a certain note produces a certain effect rising alide.
upon our minds. Why does it produce that offeet? Is there