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any law by which such mental effects are chiefly regulated ? this second mental effect, and that no other note produces the To these questions we answer, that many circumstances may samé effect, however you may quicken its rate of movement. modify the mental effect of a note, but that it is mainly pro- There is still, therefore, a law presiding even in this “duplicity" duced by the principle of key-relationship, in connection with of mental effect. This note LAH (sixth above or " minor third" rate of movement. We believe that every note of the scale below the key-note) is now proved to possess twin mental effects, (whatever may be the pitch of the key-note) has a peculiar the one showing the grave, the other the gay side of a certain
mission” of its own to the human mind—à proper mental emotion. So is it with every note of the scale. “Key-relation effect, which circumstances of pitch, quality of voice, rhythmical ship" gives it a certain acceptance with the mind, and "rate of arrangement, peculiarities of expression, etc., may modify, but movement" has a certain way of modifying that impression. To cannot efface. Let us take an example, and look at it in these prove, however, that the key-relation into which a note is thrown, various lights. It cannot be doubted that the last note in the by the sounds which have been heard before it, is the principal following phrase, from Dr. Calcott's well-known glee, produces producing cause of mental effect, we must try another experia mental effect peculiarly appropriate to the word to which it is ment. Take the same sound, as to absolute pitch, and vary its set. That note we call LAH. It is the sixth above or the key-relationship. Strike the “chord” and scale of B, for instance, “minor third " below the key-note. The question is, How and then the note B, at length, noticing its mental effect. Next comes that note to produce a sorrowful impression on the strike the chord and scale of A, followed by the same note B mind? What is the law, if there is one, by virtue of which the same in pitch), as a long note. Notice, now, its effect on that noto possesses its power ? Let the pupil sing the phrase :- the mind. How changed! Try, next, the chord and scale of
G, and observe the note, in the same way. How changed again! Try other keys, and you will find that every change of key-relationship makes a change in the ception which the mind gives to that particular sound of unaltered pitch. If you
wish to prove this to an incredulous friend, tell him that you :d d :r m :S 8.f:m,r
are about to play to him, on the flute or piano, a number of long For- 1 give, blest shade, the
tri - bu - ta - ry
tear. notes, and that, without looking at your playing, he is to tell Try first the various conditions of pitch. Take a higher you, as well as he can, what notes they are, and describe their sound, say G, for your key-note or doh, and sing the phrase mental effect. Then play to him the following phrases, and ask again. You will notice that the mental effect is modified, but it him, at the close, whether the notes were the same, or, if not, remains essentially the same. Again, while in the key of G, how they differed. Unless he takes care to keep singing the sing the phrase, taking the lower LAH, instead of the upper. note B all through (which would be a physical rather than a The effect on the mind is more gloomy, but it is still the same mental
test), he is sure to suppose the notes different. Of course effect. It is not the mere height in pitch, then, that gives to you must be acquainted with some instrument to perform this the lau its poculiar characteristic of sorrowfulness. The differ- experiment. The violin will give it most accurately. once between the same tune set in a low and in a high key is undoubtedly great, but the special effect of each individual note
KEY B. remains of the same kind. Next try the effect of what is called in French " timbre," or different qualities of sound, upon this note. Let the phrase be sung by a rough voice, a clear voice, a hard voice, a mellow voice, etc., or let it be played first on a flute, next on a trumpet, and again on a violin. Such changes
d.r:m.fs.d:t.l. m: Ir : Id=-1-:will cortainly modify the mental effect. One voice or instrument may be better than the other, but they will all agree in
KEY A. expressing, on the note LAH, the sorrowful sentiment, and, if they sound the note correctly, they cannot help doing so. This mental effect is therefore independent of the mere qualities of sound, and is governed by some other law. Let the next experiment be in relation to interval, for some persons might imagine
I d.r:m.fls.dit lil film: r:-1that the " distance in pitch” between RAY and LAH, called a fifth, produces the mental effect. Therefore sing the word “ tear," when you come to the close, thus :
t You will find that every change produces a modification of the idea, but the idea itself belonging to LAH remains still the same. Interval, therefore, is not the law which governs mental effoot. In a similar way you may try whether singing the same sound to different words or syllables, or with different modes of “expression” (as loud, soft, etc.), will produce any material changos. And when you have found that none of these various conditions of the noto can rob it of its own peculiarly emotional character, then try another and most important experiment. Vary the rate of movement. Instead of singing the phrase slowly, sing it as rapidly as though it were a jig. You will then understand why wo said that key-relationship, in connection with rate of movement, was the chief cause of mental effect. The note seems, now, to express an abandonment to gaiety, instead of sorrow. But notice that LAH, sung quickly, always produces
present, as a mental element, with every single note that follows. In a similar manner, the effect of a given colour—the artist will tell us—is modified by the surrounding ones, or those on which the eye has just rested. This is a deeply interesting subject,
and deserves to be well studied and further explored, especially Id'.r':m'.f' | s?.d":t.l r?: 1 d' : Jt:-|- in connection with harmonic combinations and effects.
These mental effects of notes in key have often been noticed KEY B.
in books of science. Dr. Calcott refers to them in his “Musical Grammar.” M. Jeu de Berneval, Professor to the Royal Academy of Music, in his “Music Simplified,” illustrates them very ingeniously and beautifully. Dr. Bryce introduces them into
his “ Rational Introduction.” It would seem surprising (did we | d.r:m.fs.d:t... | s, :lt, : Id :-:- not know how the old notation, with its attempted, but inaccu
rate, scale of fixed sounds, takes up the learner's time, and disWhy a note's standing at a particular interval from the key tracts attention from the real beauties of musical science) that note should give it a particular musical effect, we do not know. these interesting facts, so well calculated to aid the pupil, have We can only notice the fact, and make use of it in teaching. been so little used in elementary instruction. It is obvious that There must come to us, along with the actual sound itself, some the moment a pupil can recognise a certain musical property in mental association of the relationship of interval (indicated by any note, he will be able to produce the note with the greater preceding notes) which has been thrown around it. The memory accuracy and satisfaction. From extensive experience we have of notes just heard hovers around that which we now hear, and found that infants and persons with untrained voioes are able gives it its character. Quick succession approaches in effect to to appreciate these points, and derive constant pleasure and Co-existence, as is familiarly shown in reference to the eye by assistance from the knowledge of them. The teacher will the zoetrope and other optical toys. Thus when once the key is find himself well repaid by a most careful attention to this established by the opening notes of the tune, it is still felt to be subject.
2. In searching your heart should you find you intond
are in Latin used only when emphasis is required, or to express Some good to yourself or another to do,
a contrast; as, ego stultus sum, tu sapiens, I am foolish, thou To relieve the distress'd or yourself to amend,
art wise. The same is the case with the possessive pronouns. Oh! watch the bright time when the purpose shall glow; For happiness hangs on the moment I wot,
VOCABULARY. IF YOU PAIL NOT TO STRIKE WHEN THE IRON IS HOT.
Absens, -tis, absent. Desiderium, -i, n., a do- Memor, -óris, mindful 3. Whene'er by a smithy you happen to pass,
Ango, 3, I torture.
sire, an object of desire. (E. R. memory).
Benignus, -a, -um, be- Immémor, Oris, um. Mirus, -a, -um, von. And hear on the anvil the hammer's loud clang,
nignant, kind (E. R. mindful.
derful (E.R. admire). This truth in your mind do pot fail to relearse,
powerless Perfidus, beard from a blacksmith as blithely he sangThat you
Conservatrix, -icis, f., (E. R. impotent). treacherous (E. R. “IF GOOD BE YOUR AIM, BE WHATEVER YOUR LOT,
preservative (E. R. Industrius, -a, -um, perfidy). NEVER FAIL, SIR, TO STRIKE WHILE THE IRON IS HOT."
Potens, tis, powerful In the "second part” of this tune notes FOI and to occur.
Cura, -, f., care (E. R. Insipiens (in and sa- (E. R. potent). These notes will be more fully and clearly explained hereafter,
a cure, curacy, che piens), unwiso. Teneo, 2, I hold (E. R. Foi is a note a little less than half a tone higher than fah, It
Ira, -æ, f., anger (E. R. tenet).
ire). always follows FAI, and seems to rise out of it. It is called a chromatic or colouring note. Tu is nearly the same sound in
EXERCISE 53.-LATIN-ENGLISH. pitch, being a little more than half a tone lower than soh. It 1. Omnis natura est conservatrix sui. 2. Mirum desiderium urbis, holds the same relation to sou which te holds to DOH. It is, meorum, et tui, tenet me (desire for, or after). 3. Pater vehementer tus in fact, the seventh note of a new key, but more of this here- sui memoriā (thy recollection of him) delectatar. 4. Ira est impotens after. It is enough for you to notice, now, that it does not sui (has no power over itself). 5. Sapiens semper potens sui est. 6. follow or rise out of far, and that it does not produce the same
Vestri cura (care for you) me angit. 7. Omnes homines benigni judices
sui sunt. “colouring effect with for. Observe that tu has the lower
8. Vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua, 9. Ami.
cus mei et tui est memor. 10. Pater absens magno desiderio tenetur octave mark on it.
11. Amici sunt nostri In singing the words, be careful to notice the italics and mei, et tui, mi frater, et vestri, O sorores.
12. Multi vestrum mihi placent. 13. Plurimi nostrum te SMALL CAPS which indicate expression. The little mark, like valde diligunt. two interlacing crossos, is called a sharp. It raises the note,
EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH LATIN. before which it stands, something less than half a tone. You 1. The unwise man (fool) has no power over himself (impotens sui). will remark that there is nothing, in the old notation, to distin. 2. The father has power over himself. 3. Virtue has power over itself. guish tu from for. Two different things are represented by 4. Vice has not power over itself. 5. Has anger power over itself? the same signs.
6. Nature is preservative of herself. 7. The nature of virtue is preIn the next lesson we shall commence an examination of the servative of itself. 8. No one of you has
power over himself.
9. Very different notés, with this point in view, and furnish illustrations many of us have power over ourselves. 10. A treacherous friend is from the great masters. It is sufficient for us here to request 12. Thy recollection and desire of me are very pleasant to me.
unmindful of me. 11. Faithful friends are not mindful of themselves.
13. Care the pupil to read with care, and put to the test, the following for thee tortures me. 14. Most of you, my scholars, are industrious. remarks :
15. Wonderful is the love of self, The notes DOH, SOH, and ME give to the mind an idea of rest and power (in degrees corresponding with the order in which
Certain pronouns in Latin bear the name of demonstrative, they are named), while TE, FAH, LAH, and RAY in similar because they point out (in Latin, demonstro, I point out ; E. R.
The de degrees), suggest the feelings of suspense and dependence. demonstrate) the person or persons that are intended. Thus, if after we have heard the principal notes of the key, the monstrative pronouns are is, ea, id; ille, illa, illud ; iste, ista, voice dwells on the sound TЕ, the mind is sensible of a desire istud; hic, hæc, hoc. Of these, is signifies this or that, and for something more, but the moment te is followed by DOH' a
approaches to our personal pronoun he, his, etc.; hic denotes sense of satisfaction and repose is produced. In the same
this person, that is, the nearer to the speaker ; ille, that person, manner the mind is satisfied when FAH resolves itself into ME,
farther from the speaker; iste, that person, particularly when a and Lay (though not so decidedly) into soh. RAY also excites person is addressed, the second person. From is, ea, id, idem, a similar feeling of inconclusiveness and sxpectancy, which is the same, is formed by the addition of dem; thus, is-dem conresolved by ascending to me, or, more perfectly, by falling to tracted into idem (pronounced -dem), eň-dem, id-dem or idem DOH.
(pronounced id'-em). To these may be added, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, Notice the power and vigour given to the tunes GRIFFIN, he himself, that very person. In the following manner decline the LEYBURN, and BLACKSMITH, by the notes DOH, SOH, and ME.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Sing the tunes over for the purpose of forming an independent
Is, m.; ea, f.; id, n., he or that. judgment on this point. Then, to show the effect of the
Plural. “leaning” notes, sing slowly as follows :
ii :dm:8|f: -1m :dm: 81t:- | di
: d' /s: m
G. ejus 11:18
earum eorum : d' | s: mr: | m im:slr:
iis Ac. eum
iis LESSONS IN LATIN.—XV.
Also the pronoun, idem, m.; eadem, f.; idem, n., the same.
cădem The personal pronouns which have an adjective force, are
G. ejusdem ejusdem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem formed from the genitive of the personal substantive pronouns. D. eidem eidem eidem iisdem (eisdem)iisdem iisdein Thoy are called possessive, because they denote an object as Ac. eundem eandem idem
eosdem easdem eadem the possession of the first, the second, or the third person. From Ab. eodem eadem eodem iisdem (eisdem)iisdem iisdem mei, of me, is formed meus, mea, meum, my; as appears in this
Iste, m.; ista, f.; istud, n., that person table.
iste ista Tui tuus
istórum istarum istórum Sui
istis Nostri noster nostra nostrum
Ac, istum istam istud
istos istas ista vester vestra vestrum
Ab. isto your
istis To increase the force, pte is added to the ablative singular of
Ille, m.; illa, f.; illud, n., that person.
Plural. suus, as suapte manu, with his own hand; suopto gladio, with
illi his own sword. Met, with the same view, is appended to the
illa G. illius illius illius
illorum illärum illorum oblique cases of suus; as, suismet capitibus, to their own heads.
Illis All the cases except the nominative are called oblique.
Ac. illurn illam illud
illos illag illa I must here recall to your mind that the personal pronouns Ab. illo
Ipse, m.; ipsa, f.; ipsum, n., that very person.
3. Ipsi imperaCasas, X.
Insipiens eidem sententiæ modo fidit, modo diffidit.
F. N. ipse
tori seditiosi milites resistunt.
5. Virtus ipsum ipsi ipsa ipsa
4. Animus ipse se movet. G. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsòrum ipsărum ipsorum
est per se ipsa laudabilis. 6. Sæpe nihil est homini inimicius quam D. ipsi ipsi ipsi
ipsis ipsis ipsis sibi ipse (hinself to himself; than ho is to himself). 7. Omne animal Ac. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsas ipsa
se ipsum diligit. 8. Carior nobis esse debet patria quam nosmet ipsi Ab, ipso ipsa ipsu
ipsis ipsis ipsis
(we ourselves). 9. Præclarum est illad præceptum oraculi Delphici,
Nosce (know, imp.) te ipsum.
1. The enemies besiege the city, and endeavour to take it by storm. X. hic
2. The deed of that great man is praised by all writers. 3. Cæsar and G. hujus hujus hujus horum harum horum
Pompey are very illustrious Roman generals. 4. To that (one) fortune D. buio huic huic
is more favourable than to this (one). 5. The bravery of that (one) Ac, hunc hanc hoc
and this (one) is wonderful. 6. The king himself is the general of the Ab. hoc hac hoc
army. 7. Not always dost thou think the same concerning the same
things. 8. The father and the son pursue the same learning (literw). EXAMPLES. After these models decline
9. Virtues are lovely in (by) themselves. 10. All men love themselves. Eadem rana, the same Idem equus, the same mud cornu, that horn,
11. Thy native country ought to be dearer to thee than thyself. 12. frog.
Ista femina, that woman Know yourselves, young men. 13. A liar often distrusts himself, Hæc puella, this girl, Idem vitium, the same Iste vir, that man. Hic puer, this boy.
nomen, that Hoc præceptum, this Ila res, that thing.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.--XIV. conimand. Ille sensus, that sense.
1. The soldiers fight bravely. 2. Do the soldiers fight bravely ? Addictus, -um, | Fidus, -., -am, faith. Sallustius, -i, Sallust, 3. Do not the soldiers fight bravely! 4. The Romans fight more bravely
than their enemies. 5. Of Greece I think more and more. 6. Dogt giren to, attached to. ful.
tho name of a Roman
thou not think much on thy father? 7. We every day more and more Auctoritas, -átis, f., Firmo, 1, I strongchen historian.
8. Most desiringly thou lookest for the coming of an authority. (E. R. firm).
expect a letter. Schola, -e, f., a school.
thy mother. 9. The country pleases (my) father every day more and Carmen, -Inis,n., a poem. Heběto, 1, I grow dull. Scriptor, -ōris, m.,
more. 10. Thou art building a house well. 11. Does he build a house Credo, 3, I believe (E.R. Ignavia, -æ, f., idleness. writer.
very well ?
12. The letter is very badly written. creed).
13. Thy words sound Iners, -rtis, inactive, Sententia,
-2, Diligentia, -, f., dili- sluggish.
badly. 14. Slaves think very ill concerning their master, 15. Girls
an opinion (E. R. gence. Memorin, -æ,f.,memory. sentence).
labour more patiently than boys. 16. Very hidden dangers are avoided
with very great difficulty. 17. It is difficult to overcome the Greeks, Displiceo, 2, I displease. Mendax, -ācis, lying Tarditas, -ātis, f., slowElegans, -ntis, elegant. (E. R. mendacity).
18. The Greeks fight very bravely. 19. Sedition is put down moro 11€88 (E. R. tardy).
easily than war. Expete (imp. mood Placeo, 2, I please.
21. Ho 20. The state is excellently administered. Vita (imp. mood of
boldly denies (it). 22. The citizens inhabit the city in happiness. of expeto), seek for. Sævus, -a, -um, cruel. vito), avoid.
EXERCISE 48.- ENGLISH-LATIN.
1. Facile no bellum sedatur? 2. Difficillime bellum sedatur. 3 1. Sallastius est elegantissimus scriptor. 2. Ejus (his) libros libenter Pugnat fortiter. 4. Fortius pugnant. 5. Fortissime pugnant Græci. lego. 3. Amicum fidum habeo. 4. Ei addictissimus sum. 5. Fratris 6. Mignopere expectas veris adventum. 7. A pueris puellisque omnibus carnen valde mihi placet, id legere debes. 6. Ignavia corpus hebetat, cupidissime expectatur adventus veris. 8. Epistolam tuam in dies labor firmat. 7. Illam vita, hunc expete. 8. Hæ literæ graviter me plus plusque expectant. 9. Male mala verba sonant. 10. Milites movent. 9. Hæc carmiva suavissima sunt. 10. Isti homini mendaci magis atque magis dimicant. 11. Occulta non facile evitantur. 12. non credo. 11. Huic duci milites libenter parent. 12. Illi viro omnes Matres patientius quam filiæ laborant. 13. Seditio feliciter gedatur. favent. 13. Præclarum est istud tuum præceptum. 14. Hæc sententia 14. Pulchre literas scribit. 15. Romani fortius quam Græci pugnant. mihi placet, illa dispiicot. 15. Hoc bellum est sævissimum. 16. Hic
16. Rus animum meum maxime delectat. 17. Multum animus ne tuus puer industrius est. ille iners. 17. Memoria teneo præclarum illud delectatur a rure ? 18. Maxime cogito de domo mea, de fratribus, et præceptum. 18. Iste tuus amicus est vir optimu 19. Ista vestra de sororibus. 19. Pessime administratur civitas a Romanis. auctoritas est maxima. 20. Hujus discipuli diligentiam laudo, illius tarditatem vitupero. 21. Illi schola est gratissima, huic molestissima.
1. I sing. 2. Thou shoutest. 3. The friend calls. 4. We narrate. EXERCISE 56.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
5. You dance. 6. Brothers labour. 7. I weep. 8. Thou laughest. 9. 1. Sallust is an elegant writer, Livy a more elegant (writer), and Brother grieves. 10. We teachers, teach, you scholars learn. 11. I Cicero the most elegant. 2. I gladly read their books. 3. His (ejus) | play. 12. Thou learnest. 13. Sister paints with the needle (that is, brother and friend are dear to me. 4. Thou hast a faithful friend, embroiders). 14. We write. 15. You read. 16. Brothers paint. 17. and art attached to him. 5. My sons have faithful wives and love I leap. 18. Thou strikest. 19. The boy sleeps. 20. We masters inthern much. 6. I am greatly moved by that letter. 7. Thou dost not struct you, O pupils. 21. You, O good pupils, attentively hear our believe a lying woman (dative). 8. This boy pleases, that boy dis precepts. 22. Virtues are equal among themselves (one to another). pleases me. 9. This poem is very elegant, that more elegant. 10. 23. To command one's self is the greatest command. 24. An angry This thy soldier is brave. 11. The diligence of this scholar is praised man is not his own master. 25. The pursuit (handling) of letters is by me the teacher. 12. In this school (there) are more diligent scholars salutary to us. 36. Truth is always pleasant to me. than in yours.
1. Ego narro. 2. Tu saltas. 3. Frater laborat. 4. Nog cantāmus. Adipirabilis, -e, admir- | Imperator, oris, m., Pompeius, -i, m., Pom- 5. Vos laborātis. 6. Amici saltant. 7. Ego, præceptor, doceo; vos, O able.
a commander (E. R. pey, the name of a discipuli, discitis. 8. Nos dolemus. 9. Tu pingis. 10. Juvenes Agnosco, 3, I recognise, emperor).
Roman general. feriunt. 11. Nos præceptores non tentamus docere vos, O irati pueri. konone.
Inimicus, -a, -um, un- Pro (prep.), for (with 12. Boni discipuli debent sibi imperare. 13. Imperare sibi est virtus. Cæsar, -Iris, m., Cossar, friendly (B. R. en. the ablative).
14. Difficile est irato sibi imperare. 15. Irati non sunt apud se. 16. the name of a Roman
Imperium semper est tibi gratum. 17. Nonne gratum nobis est im- : general.
Laudabilis, -e, laudable. Resisto, 3, I stand perium ? 18. Tibi haud mihi grata est veritas. 19. Veritas est salutaris Clarus, -a, -um, illus. praiseworthy.
against, resist (with tibi, mihi, nobis, omnibus. trious,
Meritum, -i, D., dative).
-um, Delphian, belonging Modo- modo, now- seditious,
1. Vices creep on us under the name of virtues. 2. We favour you, to the oracle at Delphi, now, at one timeat Sentio, 4, I feel, think you do not favour us. 3. Thou lovest me, I love thee. 4. My life is in Northern Greece. another.
(E. R. sentient). dear to me, thine (is dear) to thee. 5. Virtue always shines of itself Diffido, 3, 1 distrust Nosco, 3, I become ac. Studeo, 2, I strive afler, (by its own light). 6. The song delights us. 7. Our parents aro loved (E. R. diffident). quainted with.
endeavour (E. R. stu- by us. 8. O my son, thou never obeyest me! 9. Our brother loves Espugno, 1, I tako by Obsideo, 2, I besiege. dent).
me and thee. 10. I am nearest to myself. 11. Thou well commandest storm.
Opus, operis, n., a work Tracto, 1, I treat, pur. thyself. 12. Virtue is cultivated on its own account (for itself). 13. Factum, -i, n., a deed. (E. R. operative).
Virtue is sought for, for its own nature (for its own qualities). 14. Fido, 3, I trust.
Oraculum, -i, D., an Virtus, tūtis,f.,bravery. The citizens fight for their own heads (lives). 15. The sage carries Fortuna, -e, f., fortune. oracle,
with him all his property. 16. We rejoice with you on the return of
(our) father. 17. Thou well contendest with thyself. 18. God is with Anson's crew had been provided with fresh vegetables to eat, thee. 19. Often the mind is in discord (disagrees with itself). 20. their scurvy would have been cured; and they knew it How The enemies fight earnestly with us. 21. Thy speech is not in unison great, then, must have been the fear of the surgeon, and how with thyself.
valuable is the knowledge of Botany! EXERCISE 52.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Returning to our investigation of the distinctive signs by 1. Omnia mea mecum porto. 2. Secumne omnia sua portant sa- which cruciferous plants may be known, we shall merely call pientes? 3. Tu me amas, ego te amo. 4. Vita tua mihi est cara, attention to the fact that each flower has six stamens, of mea tibi. 5. Mali semper secum discordant. 6. Tractatio literarum which two are more spreading and shorter than the others ; gratissima est nobis. 7. Amant sese homines. 8. Amantne sese mulieres ? 9. Pessime amant sese mali. 10. Per se pulchra est virtus. hence the denomination Tetradyna11. Propter te ipsum te amo. 12. Mea patria gratior est mihi quam mia (or four-powered) in the Linza tibi.
næan or artificial classification, and
this is another essential character. LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XV.
istic of cruciferous plants. The
other characteristio signs being for SECTION XXVII.-CRUCIFERÆ OR BRASSICACEÆ, THE the most part microscopic, we pass
CRUCIFEROUS (CROSS-BEARING) OR CABBAGE TRIBE. them over without notice. ALREADY, in an early lesson, we have had occasion to make a The Cruciferæ are dispersed all statement respecting the cross-bearing flowers that we hope the over the surface of the globe; the reader has not forgotten. We mentioned that a strange plant greater number, however, inhabit being referred to this natural order might at once be con- the northern temperate zone, more sidered harmless, and probably very good to eat.
especially of the Old World; beLet us now go a little more minutely into the characteristics tween the tropice they are rare, and of these cross-bearers. They are these : Sepals, four, free; when they exist, are found on moun. petals, hypogynous, four, free, cruciform; stamens, six, tetra- tain elevations ; beyond the Tropic dynamous ;
; ovary, bilocular, placenta parietal ; fruit, ordinarily a of Capricorn they become less fre. 147. FLOWER OF THE SHIP. pod; seed, dicotyledonous.
quent, even more so than beyond
HERD'S PURSE, ENLARGED. Let us now proceed to the application of such of the pre- the Tropic of Cancer. ceding characters as may be necessary. Firstly, the propriety When we mention that cabbages, sea-kale, mustard, cresa, of the term cruciferous will be rendered evident from an exami. and radishes belong to this order, we shall have stated enough nation of the representation of the flower of a plant termed to demonstrate the utility of its species. When we state again Shepherd's Purse, one of the cruciferous family (Fig. 147).
that wall-flowers (Fig. 149) and stocks are cruciferous plants, This same individual, the Shepherd's Purse, shall also serve
the reader will see that utility is not the only claim which to teach us yet something more regarding the peculiarities of the Cruciferæ present to our notice. the natural order Cruciferæ.
The Cruciferæ are imbued with an acrid volatile principle disLet us now examine a branch of the plant (Fig. 146). persed throughout all their parts, and frequently allied with
Directing our attention at first to the flowers, we find them sulphur. To this volatile principle cruciferous plants owe their to be arranged after the manner of a raceme, and totally devoid piquancy and their peculiar odour, which, after putrefaction, is of bracts. This absence of bracts pervades the whole natural ammoniacal ; thus proving the Cruciferæ to contain the simple order Crucifero, which is the only natural order in which the body, nitrogen, ammonia being a compound of nitrogen with bracts are uniformly absent. Hence by this sign a cruciferous hydrogen. In many species of Cruciferæ there exists in convegetable may be as readily known as by the structure of the nection with the odorous principle also a bitter material and a flower ; indeed, the sign of absence of bracts has a wider sphere fixed oil; the latter is chiefly developed in the seed. The active of application. The Aowers of the Cruciferæ are at the best principles of annuals belonging to this order reside in the very small, but perhaps they might not yet have fully developed leaves, those of perennials in the root. Certain species, the themselves at the period of observation. Consequently, if the leaves of which are inoperative, produce very aorid seeds. Many cruciferous shape of flowers were the only guide, the student Cruciferæ grow mild by cultivation, which angments their might not be able to wait for the sign of discrimination; amount of sugar and mucilage. The anti-scorbatio properties whereas by noticing the absence of bracts, he would know thé of many Cruciferæ have been known from times of grest
plant under consideration to be antiquity; the species which possesses the greatest fame in this
withstanding the scurvy was mak. recognise. 146. SHEPHERD'S PURSE, ing great ravages amongst them. Characteristics : Calyx tubular, urceolate (like a pitcher, fros
Now the reader must be informed, the Latin urceus, a pitcher) five-parted, ordinarily furnished at if he does not already know, that the scurvy is a disease its throat with one or more series of filaments. Corolla of fire almost entirely dependent upon too exclusive a diet of salt meat, petals. Stamens five, hypogynous, adherent to the support a without accompaniment of vegetables, more especially vegetables the ovary. Ovary stipulate superior, one-celled; three or fire of succulent character. Formerly the scurvy made great ravages placentæ; three or four styles terminated by club-like stigmas; in our navy; at present it is scarcely known, having been ovules reflexed ; fruit, a berry, indehiscent (not splitting), or banished, partly by the administration of fresh preserved pro- capsular, three or five valved; seed, dicotyledonous; embryo visions, but chiefly by the administration of lime-juice, which straight, central. now constitutes a portion of the rations of every sailor. If We shall be able to individualise the Passion-flower order