Imágenes de páginas


2. In searching your heart should you find you intend

are in Latin used only when emphasis is required, or to express Some good to yourself or another to do,

a contrast; as, ego stultus sum, tu sapiens, I am foolish, thou To relieve the distress'd or yourself to amend,

art wise. The same is the case with the possessive pronouns. Oh! watch the bright time when the purpose shall glow; For happiness hangs on the moment I wot,


Absens, -tis, absent. Desiderium, -i, n., a do- Memor, -ris, mindful

Ango, 3, I torture. sire,an object of desire. (E. R. memory). 3. Whene'er by a smithy you happen to pass,

Benignus, -a, -um, be- Immémor, Pris, un- Mirus, - , -um, ton. And hear on the anvil the hammer's loud clang,

nignant, kind (E. R. mindful.

derful (E. R. admire). This truth in your mind do pot fail to rehearse,

Impotens, powerless Perfidus,

-um, That you heard from a blaoksmith as blithely he sang

Conservātrix, -icis, f., (E. R. impotent). treacherous (E. R. "IF GOOD BE YOUR AIM, BE WHATEVER YOUR LOT,

preservative (E. R. Industrius, -2, -um, perfidy). NEVER FAIL, SIR, TO STRIKE WHILE THE IRON IS HOT."



Potens, -tis, powerful In the "second part” of this tune notes FOI and Tu occur.

Cura, -, f., care (E. R. Insipiens (in and sa- (E. R. potent). These notes will be more fully and clearly explained hereafter,

a cure, curacy, cu piens), unwiso.

Teneo, 2, I hold (E. R.

rate). For is a note a little less than half a tone higher than fah. It

Ira, -æ, f., anger (E. R. tonet).

ire). always follows FAI, and seems to rise out of it. It is called a chromatic or colouring note. Tu is nearly the same sound in

EXERCISE 53.--LATIN-ENGLISH. pitch, being a little more than half a tone lower than son. It 1. Omnis natura est conservatrix sui. 2. Mirum desiderium urbis, holds the same relation to sou which Te holds to DOH. It is, meorum, et tui, tenet me (desire for, or after). 3, Pater vehementer tus in fact, the seventh note of a new key, but more of this here- sui memoriã (thy recollection of him) delectatar. 4. Ira est impotens after. It is enough for you to notice, now, that it does not sui (has no power over itself). 5. Sapiens semper potens sui est. 6. follow or rise out of FAH, and that it does not produce the same

Vestri cura (care for you) me angit. 7. Omnes homines benigni judices

sui sunt. “colouring ” effect with you. Observe that tu has the lower

8. Vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua9. Ami.

cus mei et tui est memor. 10. Pater absens magno desiderio tenetur octave mark on it.

11. Amici sunt nostri In singing the words, be careful to notice the italics and mei, et tui, mi frater, et vestri, O sorores,

12. Multi vestrum mihi placent. 13. Plurimi nostrum te SMALL CAPS which indicate expression. The little mark, like valde diligunt. two interlacing crosses, is called a sharp. It raises the note,

EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH LATIN. before which it stands, something less than half a tone. You 1. The unwise man (fool) has no power over himself (impotens sui). will remark that there is nothing, in the old notation, to distin. 2. The father has power over himself. 3. Virtue has power over itself. guish tu from for. Two different things are represented by 4. Vice has not power over itself. 5. Has anger power over itself? the same signs.

6. Nature is preservative of herself. 7. The nature of virtue is preIn the next lesson we shall commence an examination of the servative of itself. 8. No one of you has power over himself. 9. Very

10. A treacherous friend is different notés, with this point in view, and furnish illustrations many of us have power over ourselves. from the great masters. It is sufficient for us here to request 12. Thy recollection and desire of mo are very pleasant to me.

unmindful of me. 11. Faithful friends are not mindful of themselves.

13. Care the pupil to read with care, and put to the test, the following for the tortures me. 11. Most of you, my scholars, are industrious. remarks:

15. Wonderful is the love of self. The notes DOH, SOH, and ME give to the mind an idea of rest and power (in degrees corresponding with the order in which Certain pronouns in Latin bear the name of demonstrative, they are named), while TE, FAH, LAH, and BAY (in similar because they point out (in Latin, demonstro, I point out ; E. R. degrees), suggest the feelings of suspense and dependence. demonstrate) the person or persons that are intended. The de Thus, if after we have heard the principal notes of the key, the monstrative pronouns are is, ea, id; ille, illa, illud ; iste, ista, voice dwells on the sound TЕ, the mind is sensible of a desire approaches to our personal pronoun he, his, etc.; hic denotes

Of these, is signifies this or that, and for something more, but the moment Te is followed by DOH' a sense of satisfaction and repose is produced. In the same farther from the speaker ; iste, that person, particularly, when :

this person, that is, the nearer to the speaker ; ille, that person, manner the mind is satisfied when FAH resolves itself into ME, and Lan (though not so decidedly) into son. Ray also excites person is addressed, the second person. From is, ea, id, idem, a similar feeling of inconclusiveness and expectancy, which is the same, is formed by the addition of dem; thus, is-dem conresolved by ascending to me, or, more perfectly, by falling to tracted into idem (pronounced i'-dem), eň-dem, id-dem or dem DOH.

(pronounced id'-em). To these may be added, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, Notice the power and vigour given to the tunes GRIFFIN, he himself, that very person. In the following manner decline the LEYBURN, and BLACKSMITH, by the notes DOH, SOH, and ME.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Sing the tanes over for the purpose of forming an independent

Is, m.; ea, f.; id, n., he or that. judgment on this point. Then, to show the effect of the


Plural. “ leaning" notes, sing slowly as follows :

Cases. M.
N. Is


ii :dm: f: Im :dlm:slt:-101 : d'ls: m

G. ejus ejus


eorum earum eorum 11:- 18 : d' | s: mlr: -im :dm:slr:


iis (eis)

iis Ac. eum

Ab. eo

iis (eis) iis


Also the pronoun, idem, m.; eadem, f.; idem, n., the same.


N. idem eadem Idem

iidem eædem cădem THE personal pronouns which have an adjective force, are

G. ejusdem ejusdem ejusdem eorundem earundem eorundem formed from the genitive of the personal substantive pronouns. D. eidem eidem eidem iisdem (eisdem)iisdem iisdem Thoy are called possessive, because they denote an object as Ac. eundem eandem idem

eosdem easdem eadem the possession of the first, the second, or the third person. From Ab. eodem eadem eodem iisdem (eisdem)iisdem iisdem mei, of me, is formed meus, mea, meum, my; as appears in this

Iste, m.; ista, f.; istud, n., that person. table.


Mei makes meus, m.

mea, f.
meum, n.


N. iste my


iste istud



tuum thy thine
G. istius istius istius

istórum istarum istórum Sui

his own


istis istis istis Nostri noster nostra

Ac. istum nostrum

istam istud

istos istas ista Vestri vester vestra vestrum

istis Ab. isto


istis istis your your's To increase the force, pte is added to the ablative singular of

Ille, m.; illa, f.; illud, n., that person.

Plural. suus, as suapte manu, with his own hand; suopte gladio, with

N. ille
illa illud


illæ his own sword. Met, with the same view, is appended to the

illius illius illius illorum illárum illorun oblique cases of suus; as, suismet capitibus, to their own heads.


illis illis

illis All the cases except the nominative are called oblique.

Ac, illum illam illud illos illas I must here recall to your mind that the personal pronouns Ab. illo

illis illis






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Ipse, m.; ipsa, f.; ipsum, n., that very person.



1. Multi homines de iisdem rebus eodem die non eadem sentiunt. 2. Cases, X.



Insipiens eidem sententiæ modo fidit, modo diffidit.

3. Ipsi imperaipsa N. ipse ipsum

5. Virtus ipsi ipsa

tori seditiosi milites resistunt. ipsa

4. Animus ipse se movet. G. ipsius ipsius ipsius ipsòrum ipsarum ipsorum

est per se ipsa laudabilis. 6. Sæpe nihil est homini inimicius quam D. ipsi ipsi ipsi

ipsis ipsis ipsis

sibi ipse (himself to himself; than he is to himself). 7. Omne animal Ac. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsas ipsa

se ipsum diligit. 8. Carior nobis esse debet patria quam nosmet ipsi Ab. ipso ipsi ipso ipsis ipsis ipsis

(we ourselves). 9. Præclarum est illad præceptum oraculi Delphici,

Nosce (know, imp.) te ipsum.
Hic, m.; hæc, f.; hoc, n., this person.

Cases. Singular.


1. The enemies besiege the city, and endeavour to take it by storm. X. hic hæc hoc



2. The deed of that great man is praised by all writers. 3. Cæsar and G. hujus hujus hujus horum hârum hörum

Pompey are very illustrious Roman generals. 4. To that (one) fortune D. huic huic huic


is more favourable than to this (one). 5. The bravery of that (one) Ac, hunc hanc hoc

has hæc

and this (one) is wonderful. 6. The king himself is the general of the Ab, hoc hac hoc


army. 7. Not always dost thou think the same concerning the same EXAMPLES.-After these models decline

things. 8. The father and the son pursue the same learning (litera).

9. Virtues are lovely in (by) themselves. 10. All men love themselves, Eadem rana, the same Idem equus, the same | Illud cornu, that horn,

11. Thy native country ought to be dearer to thee than thyself. 12. frog. horse.

Ista femina, that woman Know yourselves, young men. 13. A liar often distrusts himself. Hæc puella, this girl. Idem vitium, the same Iste vir, that man, Hic puer, this boy.



that Hoc præceptum, this Illa res, that thing.


Ille sensus, that sense.


1. The soldiers fight bravely. 2. Do the soldiers fight bravely ? Addictus, A, -um, Fidus, -a, -um, faith- Sallustius, -i, Sallust, 3. Do not the soldiers fight bravely? 4. The Romans fight more bravely

than their enemies. 5. Of Greece I think more and more. giren to, attached to. ful.

6. Dost the name of a Roman

thou not think much on thy father ? 7. We every day more and more Auctoritas, -ätis, f., Firmo, 1, I strongchen historian.

(E. R. firm). an authority.

Schola, -æ, f., a school.

expect a letter. 8. Most desiringly thou lookest for the coming of Carmen,-Inis,., a poem. Heběto, 1, I grow dull. Scriptor, -ōris, m., a

thy mother. 9. The country pleases (my) father every day more and

more. 10. Thou art building a house well. 11. Does he build a house Credo, 3, I believe (E.R. Ignavia, -æ, f., idleness. writer. creed). Iners, -rtis, inactive, Sententia,

very well ? 12. The letter is very badly written.


13. Thy words sound Diligentia, -e, f., dili- sluggish.

an opinion (E. E. badly. 14. Slaves think very ill concerning their master. 15. Girls gence. Memorin,-, f., memory.

labour more patiently than boys. 16. Very hidden dangers are avoided sentence).

with very groat difficulty. 17. It is difficult to overcome the Greeks, Displiceo, 2, I displease. | Mendax, -ācis, lying Tarditas, -ātis, f., slowElegans, -ntis, elegant. (E. R. mendacity).

18. The Greeks fight very bravely. 19. Sedition is put down more ness (E. R. tardy).

easily than war. Expete (imp. mood Placeo, 2, I pleaso. Vita (imp. mood of

20. The state is excellently administered. 21. Ho

boldly denies (it). 22. The citizens inhabit the city in happiness. of expeto), seek for. Sevus, -a, -um, cruel. vito), avoid,


1. Facile ne bellum sedatur? 2. Difficillime bellum sedatur. 31. Sallustius est elegantissimus scriptor. 2. Ejus (his) libros libenter Pugnat fortiter. 4, Fortius pugnant. 5. Fortissime pugnant Græci. lego. 3. Amicum fidum habeo. 4. Ei addictissimus sum. 5. Fratris 6. Magnopere expectas veris adventum. 7. A pueris puellisque omnibus carmen valde mihi placet, id legere debes. 6. Ignavia corpus hebetat, cupidissime expectatur adventus veris. 8. Epistolam tuam in dies labor firmat. 7. Iam vita, hunc expete. 8. Hæ literæ graviter me plus plusque expectant. 9. Male mala verba sonant. 10. Milites movent. 9. Hæc carmiva suavissima sunt. 10. Isti homini mendaci magis atque magis dimicant. 11. Occulta non facile evitantur. 12. non credo. u. Huic duci milites libenter parent. 12. Illi viro omnes

Matres patientius quam filiæ laborant. 13. Seditio feliciter gedatur. favent. '13. Præclarum est istud tuum præceptum. 14. Hæc sententia 14. Pulchre literas scribit. 15. Romani fortius quam Græci pugnant. mihi placet, illa displicet. 15. Hoc bellum est sævissimum. 16. Hic 16. Rus animum meum maxime delectat. 17. Multum animus ne tuus puer industrius est, ille iners. 17. Memoria teneo præclarum illud delectatur & rure ? 18. Maxime cogito de domo mea, de fratribus, et præceptum. 18. Iste tuus amicus est vir optimus. 19. Ista vestra de sororibus. 19. Pessime administratur civitas a Romanis. auctoritas est maxima. 20. Hujus discipuli diligentiam laudo, illius tarditatem vitupero. 21. Illi schola est gratissima, huic molestissima.


1. I sing. 2. Thou shoutest. 3. The friend calls. 4. We narrate. EXERCISE 56.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

5. You dance. 6. Brothers labour. 7. I weep. 8. Thou laughest. 9. 1. Sallust is an elegant writer, Livy a more elegant (writer), and Brother grieves. 10. We teachers, teach, you scholars learn. 11. I Cicero the most elegant. 2. I gladly read their books. 3. His ejus) play. 12. Thou learnest. 13. Sister paints with the needle (that is, brother and friend are dear to me. 4. Thou hast a faithful friend, embroiders). 14. We write. 15. You read. 16, Brothers paint. 17. and art attached to him. 5. My sons have faithful wives and love I leap. 18. Thou strikest. 19. The boy sleeps. 20. We masters inthem much. 6. I am greatly moved by that letter. 7. Thou dost not struct you, O pupils. 21. You, O good pupils, attentively hear our believe a lying woman (dative). 8. This boy pleases, that boy dis- precepts. 22. Virtues are equal among themselves (one to another). pleases me.

9. This poem is very elegant, that more elegant. 10. 23. To command one's self is the greatest command. 24. An angry This thy soldier is brave. 11. The diligence of this scholar is praised man is not his own master. 25. The pursuit (handling) of letters is by me the teacher. 12. In this school (there) are more diligent scholars salutary to us. 28. Truth is always pleasant to me.


1. Ego narro. 2. Tu saltas. 3. Frater laborat. 4. Nos cantāmus. Admirabilis, -e, admir- | Imperātor, -öris, m., Pompeius, -i, m., Pom- 5. Vos laborātis. 6. Amici saltant. 7. Ego, præceptor, doceo; vos, O

a commander (E. R. pey, the name of a discipuli, discitis. 8. Nos dolemus. 9. Tu pingis. 10. Juvenes Agnosco, 3, I recognise, emperor).

Roman general. feriunt. 11. Nos præceptores non tentamus docere vos, O irati pueri. lavou.

Inimicus, -a, -um, un- Pro (prep.), for (with 12. Boni discipuli debent sibi imperare. 13. Imperare sibi est virtus.

Corsar, friendly (B. R. en. the ablative). 14. Difficile est irato sibi imperare. 15. Irati non sunt apud se. 16. the name of a Roman mity).

Quia (conj.), because.

Imperium semper est tibi gratum. 17. Nonne gratum nobis est imgeneral.

Laudabilis, -e, laudable. Resisto, 3, I stand perium ? 18. Tibi baud mihi grata est veritas. 19. Veritas est salutaris us. praiseworthy.

against, resist (with tibi, mihi, nobis, omnibus. Meritum, -i, D., dative). Delphicas, -2, -um,


Seditiosus, -a, - um, Delphion, belonging Modo- modo, now- seditious.

1. Vices creep on us under the name of virtues.

2. We favour you, to the oracle at Delphi, now, at one time-at Sentio, 4, I feel, think you do not favour us. 3. Thou lovest me, I love thee. 4. My lifo is in Northern Greece. another.

(E. R. sentient). dear to me, thine (is dear) to thee. 5. Virtue always shines of itself Diffido, 3, 1 distrust Nosco, 3, I become ac- Stadeo, 2, I strive afler, (by its own light). 6. The song delights us. 7. Our parents are loved (E. R. difident). quainted with.

endeavour (E. R. sta- by us. 8. O my son, thou never obeyest me! 9. Our brother loves Expugno, i, I take by Obsideo, 2, I besiege. dent).

me and thee. 10. I am nearest to myself. 11. Thou well commandest storm.

Opus, operis, n., a work | Tracto, 1, I treat, pur thyself. 12. Virtue is cultivated on its own account (for itself). 13. Factum, -í, n., a deed. (E. R. operativo).

Virtue is sought for, for its own nature (for its own qualities). 14. Fido, 3, I trust. Oraculum, -i, D., an Virtus,-tūtis,f.,bravery. The citizens fight for their own heads (lives). 15. The sage carries Fortuna, -æ, f., fortune. oracle,

with him all his property. 16. We rejoice with you on the return of

than in yours.


Cæsar, -Iris, m.,

Clarus, -a, -um,



(our) father. 17. Thou well contendest with thyself. 18. God is with | Anson's crew had been provided with fresh vegetables to eat, thee. 19. Often the mind is in discord (disagrees with itself). 20. their scurvy would have been cured; and they knew it How The enemies fight earnestly with us. 21. Thy speech is not in unison great, then, must have been the fear of the surgeon, and how with thyself.

valuable is the knowledge of Botany! EXERCISE 52.- ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. Omnia mea mecum porto. 2. Secumne omnia sua portant sa- which oruciferous plants may be known, we shall merely call

Returning to our investigation of the distinctive signs by pientes? 3. Tu me amas, ego te amo. 4. Vita tua mihi est cara, attention to the fact that each flower has six stamens, of mea tibi. 5. Mali semper secum discordant. 6. Tractatio literarum which two are more spreading and shorter than the others ; gratissima est nobis. 7. Amant sese homines. mulieres ? 9. Pessime amant sese mali. 10. Per se pulchra est virtus. hence the denomination Tetradyna11. Propter te ipsum te amo. 12. Mea patria gratior est mihi quam mia (or four-powered) in the Lin. 2a tibi.

næan or artificial classification, and

this is another essential character. LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XV.

istic of cruciferous plants. The

other characteristic signs being for GECTION XXVII.-CRUCIFERÆ OR BRASSICACEÆ, THE the most part microscopic, we pass

CRUCIFEROUS (CROSS-BEARING) OR CABBAGE TRIBE. them over without notice. ALREADY, in an early lesson, we have had occasion to make a The Cruciferæ are dispersed all statement respecting the cross-bearing flowers that we hope the over the surface of the globe; the reader has not forgotten. We mentioned that a strange plant greater number, however, inhabit being referred to this natural order might at once be con- the northern temperate zone, more sidered harmless, and probably very good to eat.

especially of the Old World; beLet us now go a little more minutely into the characteristics tween the tropics they are rare, and of these cross-bearers. They are these : Sepals, four, free; when they exist, are found on moun. petals, hypogynous, four, free, cruciform; stamens, six, tetra- tain elevations; beyond the Tropic dynamous ; ovary, bilocular, placenta parietal ; fruit, ordinarily a of Capricorn they become less fre- 147. FLOWER OF THE SHEY. pod; seed, dicotyledonous.

quent, even more so than beyond

HERD'S PURSE, ENLARGED. Let us now proceed to the application of such of the pre- the Tropic of Cancer. ceding characters as may be necessary. Firstly, the propriety

When we mention that cabbages, sea-kale, mustard, crese, of the term cruciferous will be rendered evident from an exami- and radishes belong to this order, we shall have stated enough nation of the representation of the flower of a plant termed to demonstrate the utility of its species. When we state again Shepherd's Purse, one of the cruciferons family (Fig. 147).

that wall-flowers (Fig. 149) and stocks are cruciferous plants, This same individual, the Shepherd's Purse, shall also serve the reader will see that utility is not the only claim which to teach us yet something more regarding the peculiarities of the Cruciferæ present to our notice. the natural order Cruciferæ.

The Cruciferæ are imbued with an acrid volatile principle disLet us now examine a branch of the plant (Fig. 146). persed throughout all their parts, and frequently allied with

Directing our attention at first to the flowers, we find them sulphur. To this volatile principle cruciferous plants owe their to be arranged after the manner of a raceme, and totally devoid piquancy and their peculiar odour, which, after putrefaction, is of bracts. This absence of bracts pervades the whole natural ammoniacal; thus proving the Cruciferæ to contain the simple order Crucifero, which is the only natural order in which the body, nitrogen, ammonia being a compound of nitrogen with bracts are uniformly absent. Hence by this sign a cruciferous hydrogen. In many species of Cruciferce there exists in convegetable may be as readily known as by the structure of the nection with the odorous principle also a bitter material and a flower ; indeed, the sign of absence of bracts has a wider sphere fixed oil; the latter is chiefly developed in the seed. The active of application. The flowers of the Cruciferæ are at the best principles of annuals belonging to this order reside in the very small, but perhaps they might not yet have fully developed leaves, those of perennials in the root. Certain species, the themselves at the period of observation. Consequently, if the leaves of which are inoperative, produce very aorid seeds. Many cruciferous shape of flowers were the only guide, the student Cruciferæ grow mild by cultivation, which angments their might not be able to wait for the sign of discrimination; amount of sugar and mucilage. The anti-scorbutic properties whereas by noticing the absence of bracts, he would know thé of many Cruciferæ have been known from times of great

plant under consideration to be antiquity; the species which possesses the greatest fame in this
cruciferous, and knowing this, respect being the Sourvy Grass (Cochlearia Officinalis), a draw
he would be assured of its harming of which is given in Fig. 148.
lessness at least. Most probably
it would be good to eat, either SECTION XXVIII.-PASSIFLORACEÆ, OR THE PASSION.
in the form of salad or cooked.

The advantages of being thus
able to refer an unknown plant The beautiful Passion-flower, now so common in English
to a harmless and useful order gardens, is a native of the forests of Central America, where
we need not specially indicate. it grows on large stems which hang like festoons from the bouglas
They will be self-apparent. Let of forest trees, interweaving them with a network of gorgeot
the reader consider the bearing leaves and flowers. The term Passion-flower was applied by
of this anecdote. It is related the Spaniards, owing to the supposed resemblance presented in
that, when during Anson's voy- various parts of the Aoral whorls to the accessories of Christ's
ages his crews disembarked in crucifixion. The conspicuous ray-like appendages, sprinkle
unknown places, the surgeon, with blood-like spots, were compared to the crown of thorns ;
fearful of poisons, would not the stigma is cruciform ; nor were the ardent Spaniards slot
suffer them to partake of any to discover other fancied resemblances, which eyes less pre
vegetables except grasses, not judiced than their own in favour of a dominant idea can scarcely

withstanding the scurvy was mak. recognise. 146. SHEPHERD'S PURSE, ing great ravages amongst them. Characteristics : Calyx tubular, urceolate (like a pitcher, from

Now the reader must be informed, the Latin urceus, a pitcher) five parted, ordinarily furnished at if he does not already know, that the scurvy is a disease its throat with one or more series of filaments. Corolla of Siro almost entirely dependent upon too exclusive a diet of salt meat, petals. Stamens five, hypogynons, adherent to the support of without accompaniment of vegetables, more especially vegetables the ovary. Ovary stipulate superior, one-celled; three or fra of succulent character. Formerly the scurvy made great ravages placentæ; three or four styles terminated by club-like stigmas; in our navy; at present it is scarcely known, having been ovules reflexed ; fruit, a berry, indehiscent (not splitting)op banished, partly by the administration of fresh preserved pro- capsular, three or five valved; seed, dicotyledonous; embryo visions, but chiefly by the administration of lime-juice, which straight, central. now constitutes a portion of the rations of every sailor. If We shall be able to individualise the Passion-flower order

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without giving ourselves the trouble to appeal to all the charac | Greek word eidos (ei-dos), likeness, which word, in composition, teristics mentioned. Nevertheless, botanists who penetrate more changes eid into oid. Directing the eye to the lower part of deeply into the study of plants find it necessary to examine all the sepals, they will be observed to rise from a shallow cup-like the characters present.

body, to which also are attached the petals and other portions Many species of Passion-flower are now common enough in of the flower. As regards the petals themselves, they are our gardens. For the purpose of examination we shall select coloured similarly to the inside of the sepals, and are of the an individual

same colour on of the species

both sides, by termed

which circumbilis, the repre

stance they sentation of

may be distin. which we sub

guished from join (Fig. 152).

the sepals, as The student

also by the cir. will first ob

cumstance of serve, on glanc

their not hav. ing at the

ing a little broad charac

horn, which teristics of the

may be found specimen, that

on examination the flower is


springing from supplied with

each of the sethree large


pals. bracts, which

We next arConstitute

rive at the filawhat botanists

mentary rays term an invo

which the lucrum. Pro

imaginative ceeding in

Spaniards ward, we next


to arrive

the crown of what ? The

thorns! What calyx? It

are those rays? should be the

They are petals calyx, judging


so modified in from its posi

shape that tion, but the

they almost appearance of

the its separate

appearance of parts (sepals)

stamens. This is different


and yet moro pearance of

frequently its those sepals

converse, staWe have al

mens modified ready met

into petals, is with. They

not at all un149 are not green,

frequent in coloured

many flowers, like the petals

as the result of most flowers.

of cultivation. We have al.

In the Passionready stated,

flower tribe, however, that

however, it amongst the

exists as the other trans

usual condi. formations of

tion of the parts which oc

flower. Let us casionally en.

now proceed to sue, the trans

examine the reformation of

productive, or the calyx into

fruit and seed. the appearance

producing por. of a corolla is 150

tions of the not unfre

flower, which 148. SCURVY ORASS (COCHLEARIA OFFICINALIS). 149. THE WALL-FLOWER. quent. So fre


are very pequently,


culiar. We deed, does this

have already occur, that mere green colour is not to be regarded as more mentioned a cup-like body in connection with the structhan a collateral circumstance. The external floral whorl is ture of a Passion-flower. It corresponds with the part always considered by botanists as a calyx, whatever its colour lettered c in Fig. 151. From the centre of this cup a may be. That colour is often very brilliant, as in the fuchsia, column-like body is observed zising aloft in the centre of for example, where the gay-looking part of the flower is not the flower, to which certain appendages are attached. The corolla or aggregation of petals, but calyx, or aggregation of nature of these appendages will at once be obvions. Extersepals. This assumption by the parts of the calyx of the nally, we easily recognise five anthers, and internally we appearances usually presented by the corolla gives rise to what recognise the club-headed styles; but looking again at botanists term a petaloid calyx. The term petaloid means the stamens, we search in vain for the filaments, which are, resembling a petal; the termination oid being derived from the l in fact, united to the stalk which elevates the ovary,


from the ap



to which they are usually attached. These filaments do not exist, already been given. He ransacked the abbeys and other depoat least do not separately exist; they are all united-soldered, as sitories of records for proof of his right, and though he found the French say, and it is a very good word—to the support of the little encouragement by so doing, he none the less boldly ovary. This expression, “support of the ovary," is now to us; advanced his pretensions. In answer to the reference made to but if the reader looks at his dissected Passion-flower, or at our him as referee, he directed the claimants to moet him at diagram in Fig. 151, he will recognise the propriety of the Norham, whither he marched with a large force, which was expression ; for in this tribe the ovary is supported within the meant to overawe the Scotch Parliament or Council, assembled flower by means of a little stem. Now this little stem being at the same place. called a stipes, the ovary is said to be stipitate. This term, the In May, 1291, the meeting took place accordingly at Norham, reader will remember, occurs in our list of characteristics of the Scots being drawn up in a green plain opposite the castle, this natural order. Let the student now examine a little more in pursuance of the demand they made to be allowed to deli

. in detail the anthers or pollen-forming heads of the stamens. berate in their own country; the English king and his followers These do not point towards the stigmas, but in the opposite being stationed on the English side of the Tweed. To the direction, which is very unusual. Fertilisation of the ovule Scotoh camp went the English Lord-Chancellor Burnel, and depends, as we need not repeat, upon contact between the asked in his master's name “whether they would say anything pollen-dust and the stigmas; hence it would seem that the that could or ought to exclude the King of England from the anthers should always point towards the stigmas. In most right and exercise of the superiority and direct dominion over cases they do so point towards them, but in the Passion-flower the kingdom of Scotland, which belonged to him, and that they tribe we find an exception to this rule.

would there and then exhibit it if they believed it was expedient Fig. 150 represents the transverse section of the ovary con. for them ;-protesting that he would favourably hear them, taining the seeds. The fruit, or ripened ovary, in all species of allow what was just, or report what was said to the king and the Passion-flower is egg-shaped, differing in size according to the his council, that what justice required might be done." No species. The blue Passion-flower produces a fruit about the dissentient voice having been raised, a notary who was present size of a hen's egg; but in other species the fruit is much larger, formally registered the right of the King of England to decide and contains a delicious pulp.

the controversy as to the Scottish crown; and then the chanPassion-flowers, we have seen, are both agreeable and useful cellor inquired of all the competitors, beginning with Robert from the beauty of their flowers and the flavour of their fruits ; Bruce, “whether, in demanding his right, he would answer and many species are medicinal. The pulp surrounding their seeds receive justice from the King of England as superior and direct is in some cases sweet, in others acid; the latter serve as the lord over the kingdom of Scotland." Bruce answered, " that he basis for the preparation of acidulated drinks, not only agreeable, did acknowledge the King of England as superior and direct but medicinal. One specios, Passiflora Rubra, contains a nar. lord of the kingdom of Scotland, and that he would before cotic principle which is sometimes employed as a substitute for him, as such, demand, answer, and receive justice.” In liko opium. Passiflora Quadrangularis is cultivated for the refreshing words the other claimants answered the chancellor's question, pulp surrounding its seeds, but its root is very poisonous. In and signed and sealed a solemn instrument to the same effect. European gardens a large number of species of the Passion-flower Commissioners were then appointed to represent the competitors, are now cultivated, amongst which may be cited as the chief, and sittings were held forthwith at Berwick, where the whole Passiflora Cærulea, or the blue Passion-flower; this being the matter was solemnly gone into. commonest of all. Of this flower the Passiflora Amabilis (Fig. Judgment was given in favour of John Baliol, who was ready 152) is a hybrid or cross race between Passiflora Alata and to acknowledge himself the vassal of the English king ; but the Passiflora Princeps. Its flowers are scarlet, and exhale a deli- Scottish lords of parliament, who attended the conference, cate odour. The Murucuja Ocellata is a hot-house species, expressly declined to do this, saying that they would not answer bearing deep-red flowers. Tactonia Mollisima bears rose- such a question until they had a king, at the same time coloured flowers, and is a climbing plant, requiring a green reminding the English that the claim once recognised under house for its culture.

duress had been expressly and solemnly renounced, and that on

several occasions their kings had refused to lend the help HISTORIC SKETCHES.XV.

which as feudatories of English honours they really owed,

unless their independence so far as Scotland was concerned HOW ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND BECAME ONB.-PART II.

was formally and distinctly recognised. Eventually, however, Many competitors, as might be supposed, appeared to contest their unwillingness was overcome; they sworo fealty to Edward so great a prize as the crown of Scotland ; but the question really as lord paramount, and acquiesced in the surrender of the lay between two, John Baliol and Robert Bruce, noblemen of principal Scotch fortresses into his hands. English domination Norman extraction. The ground on which they founded their was complete, and to show that it was so, King John was six respective claims to the Scottish throne was as follows : William times summoned to the English Parliament as one of the vassal the Lion died, leaving a brother David, who was created Earl of peers. Huntingdon on his marriage with King Edward's sister. This Even Balio! 'ndolent and wanting in self-reliance as he was, to earl had three daughters : the first, Margaret, who married Alan, belled at this, and the Scotch people, chafing under the idea of Lord of Galloway; the second, Isabella, who married Robert being in bondage, resolved to back him on the first opportunity Bruce, of Annandale; the third, Adama, who married Lord that he should attempt to throw off the English yoke. This oppor. Hastings. At the time of the death of Alexander III., John tunity presented itself in 1294, when war broke ont between Baliol, the grandson of Margaret, Lady Galloway, claimed the France and England. That war had raged for some time with crown, as nearest descendant of the elder branch; and Robert varying success, when in 1296 Edward called on John to help him Bruce claimed it by what he asserted to be a better title, in against France, and to surrender certain strongholds as security that he was the son of Isabella, the second daughter of David, for his doing so. John refused both demands, and Edward and was thus one generation nearer to the original stock. Lord immediately marched with a strong army to the north, glad of Hastings claimed, somewhat absurdly, a third of the kingdom, the pretext he had long sought of bringing Scotland under his on the assumption that it must be divided equally between the own personal sway by conquest. At Berwick and Dunbar the three branches, as private property might have been. The last Scots were beaten with dreadful slaughter, after which Stirling, claim was never seriously entertained by any one ; but though Edinburgh, Roxburgh, and all the southern part of the king modern law and custom would have found no difficulty in dom, fell into Edward's hands. Bruco and his son, with many deciding in favour of John Baliol, the question between him more of the Scotch nobles, were in the English camp, the and Bruce was, in the then state of law, by no means an easy unhappy country was divided against itself, and it fell with one to answer. Both claimants determined to support their great fall. Everywhere submission was made to the conqueror, pretensions by force of arms, and were gathering their friends the hare-hearted Baliol resigned his crown to Edward, wbo for that purpose, when they were persuaded to refer their dis-returned to the south undisputed lord of the whole of Great pute to the arbitration of the King of 'England.

Britain. Baliol was imprisoned and afterwards died in banishNow Edward saw his opportunity, and resolved to seize it. ment, and Earl Warenne was appointed viceroy or lieutenant of He claimed a right to decide the matter by virtue of his being Scotland. lord paramount of Scotland, a dignity the value of which has For eighteen months things went on drearily in Scotland;

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