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it must be shortened by that amount, so that in this case P Some of these adjectives are also used with the accusatire must fall 6 inches to raise w 1 inch; but a power of 1 (8 124. 2. Obs.), as :-Ich bin das Gehen nicht gewohnt, I am not pound will balance a weight of 6 pounds; therefore, here also, accustomed to walking. Er ist es müte, he is tired of it. the power multiplied by the distance through which it moves

VOCABULARY. is oqual to the weight multiplied by its distance.

These two systems are those in most general Ad'erbau, m. agricul. Fromm, devout, pious. Schuld, f. fault, guilt. use. We must, however, just look at the third ture.

Geizig, covetous. Schulrig, guilty. system, which is represented in Fig. 76. B is a An'flagen, to accuse. Geschwäß', n. gossip. Summe, s. sum. pulley fastened to the cord B D, which passes Bär, m. bear. Gestän'dig, confess. That, f. deed. over the runner A, and is made fast to the Bet ürftig, wanting, ing.

Thron, m. throne. weight at the other end; c is likewise fixed to needy.

Handwerk, n. handi. Tüchtig, well quali

. a cord which passes over B to the weight; Beglei'ten, to accom- craft, trade.

fied.
a third cord passes over c, and p acts at the

pany, guide.
Hant, f. skin, hide.

Ueberbrüssig, weary,
extremity of this. Each cord is thus fastened Venö'thigt, in want of. Helfen, to help. disgusted.
to the weight. Now in this case it is rather Beute, f. booty, prey. Kuntig (sein), (to be) Un'gewohnt, unaccus.
more difficult to find the advantage gained, as Bevor', before.

acquainted (with). tomed. the weight is not shared equally by the threo Beroußt', conscious Landgut, n. farm, es. Un'funtis, cords. The first cord is stretched by P, which, (of).

tate.

quainted with as before, we will call 1 pound; the part c F, Boden,m.ground, soil. Land'lebeit, n. country Un'werth, unworthy. therefore, supports 1 pound of the weight. The Böse, m. wicked (per- life.

Verdächtig.suspected. next cord is stretched by the tension of the son).

Nächste, m. neighbour. Vertrin'fen, to spend two parts of the first, and its strain is there- Dienst, m. assistance, Niemals, never, at no (for drink). fore 2 pounds, which is the portion of the service.

time.

Verü'ben, to commit. weight it sustains. Similarly the tension of Freundschaft, f. friend. Richter, m. judge. Werthy, worthy, Fig. 76. the cord which passes over the pulley A is 4 ship.

Schießen, to shoot. Zukunft, f. future. pounds, and therefore the entire weight sup

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. ported by p is the sum of 4, 2, and 1, that is, 7 pounds. Were another pulley added, p would in like manner support 8 + 4 Die ter Keßerei' an'geflagten Per. The persons accused of heresy + 2+1, or 15 pounds.

so'nen mußten in der Vorzeit den were compelled in (the) forThis, then, completes the description of the different systems Feu'crtod erlei'den.

mer times to suffer death by of pulleys. Try now and work out the following examples of the

fire. different mechanical powers as far as we have gone. In me- Der Arme, ter einer Sache bedürftig The poor (man) who is destitute chanios, as well as in everything else, practice makes perfect, ist, ist gewöhn'lich auch einer an. of one thing is commonly also and the only way to become fully acquainted with its principles bern benö'thigt.

(needy) in want of another. is to try their application to the various cases in which you Wenn das Pferd sich seiner Stärfe If the horse were conscious of meet with them. You can easily find plenty of examples to try bewußt' wäre, fönnte co Niemand his strength, none could comin addition to those given here.

bändigen.

trol him. EXAMPLES

Nur der'jenige, welcher tüchtig in Only he (the one) who is well

seinem Beruf ist, fann seines qualified for his calling can 1. With what force must a man press on a lever, the total length of which is 4 feet 4 inches, in order to raise a weight of 888 pounds, the 34 bin meiner Sache gewiß' und des I am sure of my cause, and ac

Lebens froh werden.

(be glad cf) enjoy his life. fulcrum being 4 inches from the end? 2. Two boys are on a see-saw, one weighs 72 pounds, the other 54

Weges fundig.

quainted with the road. pounds; if the plank be 14 feet long, whore must the fulcrum be placed an tas Fahren gewöhnt'

, werde ich Accustomed to ride, I soon bofor them to balance each other?

bald des Gehens müte.

come tired of walking. 3. Three men are weighing an anchor with a capstan. Two have Schuldig oder nicht schuldig eines Guilty or not guilty of a crime, spokes 4 feet long, the third has one 5 feet 6 inches long. The radius Verbrech'ene, jeder wurde

every one was condemned. of the axle is 6 inches. How much strain do they exert on the cable ur'theilt. when each presses with a force of 100 pounds ?

Der Jäger ist seines Zicles ficher. The hunter is sure of his aimn. 4. A man with a winch 18 inches long turns a pinion with 6 teeth, Ich bin ießt meines Lebens ü'ber. I am now weary of my life. this works in a wheel of 60 teeth, carrying another pinion with 8, which drives a wheel with 54; round the axle of this the cord passes.

trüssig.

If the radius of the axle be 4 inches, what force must be exerted to

Der Dieb ist tes Diebstahls, der A thief is guilty of (the) theft, raise a weight of 2 tons ?

Mörder tes Mordes, und in einem a murderer of (the) murder, (The radii must here be considered as proportional to the number despo'tischen Lande, cine frei'heits. and, in a despotic country, & of teeth.)

liebende Seele tes Hoch'verratis liberty-loving sonl of high 5. In the simple pulley (Fig. 69), if the angle a v b is 90 degrees, schulrig.

treason. and the power is 49 pounds, what weight can be supported ?

Mancher Mensch verbringt' fein Lc. Many a man wastes his life 116. In the second system, when there are four movable pulleys, how

ben un'eingerent seiner ewigen mindful of his eternal des. many pounds must I pull with to overcome a resistance of 7 hundred.

Bestim'mung.

tiny. weight, and how far must the power move to raise the weight 6 inches?

7. In the third system, with 5 pulleys, what weight will 5 pounds Wenn er nur seiner Schuld gestan'. If he would only confess (werə support; and how strong must the middle rope be ?

tig wäre, ich wollte ihm gern ver. confessing, etc.) his guilt, I 8. If a cask weighing 150 pounds be suspended from a pole 8 feet zei-hen.

would gladly pardon him. long, and carried between two men on their shoulders, if the point of suspension be 3 feet from the front man, how much of the weight will

EXERCISE 90. each bear?

1. Ich bin ciner solchen Arbeit ungewohnt und würde fie nicht thun, Meat

ich nicht des Geldes bedürftig wäre. 2. I bin einer großen Summe LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXV. Geldes benöthigt; helfen Sie mir, ich bin Ihrer Hülfe gewiß nicht umverth

. 3. Wenn er eingerent meiner Wohlthaten wäre, würde er nicht so hantela SECTION XLVII.-ADJECTIVES REQUIRING THE 4. Dieser Mensch ist so schlecht, das ich ihn jeder That fähig Halte. 5. GENITIVE.

Glauben Sie, taś cin Gciziger seines Lebene froh sein kann? 6. 3d will ja ADJECTIVES in German that reqnire the genitive, generally gern meiner That geständig sein, las mich nur laufen! 7. Der Zager sur answer to our adjectives followed by the preposition “of” ($ 124), seiner Beute so gewiß, tag er die Haut tes Bären vertranf, bevor er ist 90 as :--Ich bin der Sache gewiß, I am sure of the matter. Er ist seiner schossen hatte. 8. laß mich icßt gehen, ich bin deincs Olestwäses Herzfid Pflicht eingetenf, he is mindful of his duty. Sie find teiner Freunde müte. 9. Out, wenn Sie meiner übertrüffig find, iverbe ich gebu 10. schaft unwirdig, they are unworthy of thy friendship. They are Niemals werde ic mich einer That idulrig inachen, welche mich STET sometimes best rendered by adjectives followed by the preposi- Freuntschaft unwürrig machen würde. 11. 3d besibe ein Pantgut, aber tion "with” or “to,” a3 :-@r ist des Weges fundig, he is ac ungewoljnt der Arbeit, und unfurtig ook Aderbaries

, bin ich terselben über quainted with (has knowledge of) the road. Es ist nicht der Mühe trussig. 12. Giner ist des Andern werth, aber auch oft Ginet bes unter werth, it is not worth the trouble.

unwerth. 13. Gin König, der das Volt nicht fiebt, ist der Thronek u

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mürtig. 14. Wenn du mich auch der That verdådytig hältst, fann ich dies | Dem Schiffer find tic'jenigen Klippen To the sailor, those rocks (cliffs) felbe toch nicht eingestchen, da ich sie nicht verübt habe. 15. Wenn die die gefähr‘lichsten, welche ihm nicht are the most dangerous which Menschen immer des Todes eingedenf wären, würden sie sich nicht so oft schlech. bernerf bar sind.

are not perceptible to him. ter Thaten schuldig machen. 16. Hilf deinem Nächsten und frage nicht, ob er Sei deinen Freunden ergeben, und Be devoted to thy friends, and teiner Hülfe würdig ist, wenn er derselben bedarf. 17. Ich will Sie be. deinen Feinden gefällig.

obliging to thy enemies. gleiten, denn ich bin des Weges funtig und sebe, daß Sie der Gegend ganz Was dem Ginen nüßlich ist, ist oft What is useful to one is often untundig find. 18. Id danfe Ihnen, mein Herr! ich bin Ihres Dienstes dem Andern schädlich.

injurious to another. nicht benöthigt; denn da ich des Gebeng müde, und des Fahrens åberorúsig Ich bin Ihnen für Ihre Gute sehr I am very much obliged to you bin, werde ich hier bleiben. 19. Was thut ein Mann in Amerika, der an verbunten.

for your kindness. feine Arbeit gewöhnt ist ? 20. Er muß der Arbeit gewohnt werden und Danche Menschen sind ren stillen Many men are like the quiet tes Sprichworts eingebent sein, wer nicht arbeitet, soll nicht essen.

Wassern gleich, an'genehm dem waters, agreeable to the eye,

Nuge, aber untreu dem'jenigen, but unfaithful to him who EXERCISE 91.

der sich ihnen an'vertraut.

entrusts himself to them. 1. America has a golden soil for him who is acquainted with Ich werde mir diese Sache auch ohne I shall take this matter to & trade. 2. The covetous man is insensible to the misery of

teine Ermahnungen an'gelegen heart (let it be important to others. 3. The Italians who rose in some provinces against

sein lassen.

me), even without your exAustrian oppression were unmindful of their weakness. 4. I

hortations. became tired of hearing such a long speech. 5. Everybody is

EXERCISE 92. sure of death, but no one is always mindful of it. 6. If thou

1. Angenehm wäre es mir, wenn ich einmal einen Mann fände, der mir wert so accustomed to country life as I am, thou wouldst not stay in town. 7. Never will I make myself guilty of a deod 3hr Betragen turchaus nicht anständig

, und ih tichte, es wäre Ihnen

anhängig wire. 2. Wenn Sie mir auch verwandt sind, so scheint mir doch which will make me unworthy of your friendship. 8. The man who has led a conscientious life, and followed the dictates of his felbst bemerkbar, tap lcute, tenen Ihr Vetragen befannt ist, Ihnen nicht conscience, has no fear of dying; but the wicked man, unmindful gewogen sind. 3. Meinem Vater ist die lopte Thcucrung noch sehr erin, of his actions and conscious of his crimes, is afraid of death and nerlich. 4. Gefährlich ist dem Wanterer jener Prad. 5. Sei gefällig the future. 9. Many a one who stands accused of a crime deinem Nächsten, gehorsam deiner Obrigfeit, tann wird dir diese geneigt before his judges is conscious of less offence than those who Daß der Fürst dem Dolfe nicht gleichgesinnt, und das Volt rem Firsten

und jener gewogen sein. 6. Ist Ihnen das versprochene Geld gewiß ? 7. judge him.

gleichgültig ist, macht dem Erfern das Regieren schwer, und ist tem leptcrn SECTION XLVIII.-ADJECTIVES REQUIRING THE DATIVE. hinterlich an seinem Glüce. 8. Die Sterne sind mir günstig, leicht wird

mir mein Unternehmen sein. 9. Wenn die Wanzen tem Menschen auch Adjectives in German that require the dative usually answer nicht schädlich fint, to find fie iým dochy lastig. 10. Mir ist es sehr lieb, to our adjectives followed by the preposition “ to," as :-G8 ist daß ich dir in ticser Sache nūßlich sein kann. 11. Meinem Freunde war mir angenehm, it is agreeable to me. Er ist seinem Vater ähnlich), he 3hr lob sehr schmeichelhaft. 12. Gut zu werden, ist dem Laslechaften is similar to (resembles) his father. Er ist seinem Herrn ergeben, schwer, denn cr bleibt gewöhnlich seinen Neigungen treu. 13. Mancher he is devoted to his master. Das Geschäft ist ihm lästig, the busi- Schwache ist dem Starfen an Geist überlegen. 14. Welch ein Unterschied ness is disagreeable to him. (§ 131.)

ist zwischen : ein Mensch ist dem antern ungleich, und ein Mensch ist dem VOCABULARY.

andern unähnlich? 15. Wic steht das Spiel ? 16. Mir sehr ungünstig.

17. So unlieb es mir ist, muß ich dir erklären, daß mir tein Geldwäß un: Abʻgeneigt, disinclined. Gefährlich,dangerous. Stark, strong. leidlich ist. 18. Wer möchte wohl den Grundsaß glauben: „Wer seinem absold, averse.

Gefal'lig, obliging. Tycu'erung, f. dearth. König nicht unterthänig, ist untreu seinem Vaterlante ?" 19. Go ist mir Aehnlich, similar, re- Gehor'sam, obedient. Ueberle'gen, superior. ewig unvergeßlich, wie sehr ich dir verbunten bin. 20. Nicht jeder, der mir sembling.

Genehm', agreeable. Un'ähnlich, dissimilar. verwantt ist, ist mir auch wohlgefällig. 21. Was mir angehörig ist, lasse An'gehörig, belonging Geneigt', inclined. Ungleich, unlike. ich mir auch angeleyer sein. to. Gewoʻgen, favourable. Un'günstig, unfavour

EXERCISE 93. Un'gelegen, important, Gleich gesinnt, like. able. of consequence. minded.

Unlieb, disagreeable. 1. Who can be hostile to a child ? 2. Is it agreeable to you An bangig, adherent, Gleich'gültig, indif. Unterneh'men, to un- to take a walk ? 3. This is injurious to your business. 4. attached to. ferent.

dertake.

Everybody has been favourable to him. 5. A benevolent action An’ständig, becoming. Grunbias, m. princi- Un'terschied, m. dis. is well-pleasing to God. 6. You are very similar to your father An'stellung, f. situa- ple, axiom.

tinction.

in your habits, for he was disinclined to smoking and averse to tion.

Günstig, favourable. Un'tertha'nig, submis- drinking. 7. What belongs to me, that I shall also take to Pehilflich. service- Hin'derlich, hindering.

sive.

heart. 8. To every thinking man it is observable, that it is able.

Lep'terer, latter. Untreu, faithless. not easy for a prince to make the people devoted to him. 9. Bemertbar, obsery. Lob, n. praise. Unvergeh'lish, not to be With pleasure will I be serviceable to you, in obtaining a situaable. Neigung, f. inelina- forgotten.

tion. 10. Be obliging to thy parents, obedient to their authoDurchaus', through- tion.

Werbun'ren, obliged. rity; then will they be inclined to thee, and favourable to thy out, entirely. D'brigfcit, f.authority. Versprochen, promised. prosperity. 11. To drink cold water is injurious to a heated Grgeben, devoted. Pfad, m. path. Wan’derer, m.traveller body. 12. The horse is a docile animal, and obedient to his Grbik'en, to heat, in- Rauchen, to smoke. (on foot).

master. 13. If it be agreeable to you, come to my house to. flame. Schatlich, injurious. Wanze, f. bug.

morrow,

at noon. 14. The dog is submissive and faithful to his Grin'nerlich, coming Sdmei'chelhaft,

flat. Wild, wild, savage.

15. He was inclined to make himself disagreeable to to mind

tering.

Wille, m. mind, will, his friends.
Gresterer, former. Schwach, weak, in. design.
Emig, eternally.

firm.

Wohlgefällig,

well. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Keint, hostile. Spiel, n. play.

pleasing.

EXERCISE 10 (Vol. I., page 67).
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

1. Is this young man the captain's son ? 2. No, he is the old

weaver's son. 3. Who has this little girl's pincushion? 4. This little Ieder rechtliche Mann ist vem Gu. Every honest man is iolined child of the good friend has it. 5. Who has the good uncle's beautiful

ten geneigt und dem Bösen ab's to (loves) good, and disin- horse ? 6. The young goldsmith has it. 7. Who has the hunter's geneigt.

clined to (hates) evil.
great black dog ? 8. The merchant's young brother has it. 9. Has

10. No, it has the Mir ist nichts mehr an'gelegen, als There is nothing more (so) im. the little child the good brother's sharp kuife ? meinen Freunden behulfʻlich zu portant to me than to be ser.

owner.

good girl's new comb. 11. Has the old watchmaker's young friend fein, wo ich fann.

viceable to my friends where

the old servant's beautiful horse ? 12. No, he has the rich English. man's horse. 13. Have you the good tailor's dress-coat ? 14. No, I

have this new dress.cont from the good tailor, 15. Have you this Der Hund ist seinem Herrn gehorʻiam The dog is obedient to his

poor weaver's cloth ? 16. No, I have cloth from the weaver. 17. Is unb tanfbar; warum will ter master, and thankful; why all old wine strong ? 18. No, and not all new wine is weak. 19, The Dienich ihm nicht gleich sein? will man not resemble him? new dress-coat is of black cloth.

I can.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXVIII.

of as peculiarities in the formation of certain letters—peculiari.

ties so called, because they differ from the ordinary method OFFICIAL HANDWRITING.-II.

adopted for forming the letters in question. In our last lesson we spoke of peculiarities that lend a distinc- Of the four specimens of approved official handwriting that tive character to handwriting, and which combine to form what we have given, these peculiarities are least noticeable in Specimay be properly termed a writer's peculiar style of writing. mens No. 2 (page 33) and No. 3, and most conspicuous in SpeciThese peculiarities into which every one instinctively falls when mens No. 1 (page 33) and No. 4. In Specimen No. 3 there is he has no longer a copy-slip before him, which he is compelled to l not a single letter, except perhaps the letter T at the commenceimitate in every

ment, which de minor detail,

parts from the consist chiefly of

normal form of the peculiar mode

the letters of the of formation

writing alphabet. adopted for some

In Specimen No. of the letters and

2 the chief de the general ap

partures from the pearance of the

usual form are writing as

found in the letwhole, which last will depend in a ad

acknowledge, and great measure on

the letter p in the temperament

the word receipt. and habits of the

In Specimen No. writer. On this, tor 013

1, the letter g in indeed, hinges the

the words give whole system of

and large shows & those persons

considerable de

parture from the sess

usual mode of of minutely de

making this letlineating a man's

ter, while the let. character from an

ter s, thrice reinspection of his

peated in the handwriting. It

word successful is unlikely that a

in each case looks slovenly person's

like the writing will pre

are sent a series of

ing than the let clear and neatlySPECIMEN OF HANDWRITING APPROVED BY HER MAJESTY'S CIVIL SERVICE

ter it is intended formed letters; COMMISSIONERS.-NO. 3.

to represent. In or, vice versâ, that

Specimen No. 4, any one who is neat in his person and precise in his habits will | in the word easily, the letters e and y present differences of forwrite a coarse, sprawling hand, stretching across the page in an mation, as well as the g in given and the y in formality. irregular line of thick and heavy up-strokes and down-strokes. From what we have pointed out, it will be readily seen how The writing of a steady, resolute, self-reliant man will, in nine these peculiarities combine to give a distinctive character to cases out of ten, show the characte of the writer by the firm handwriting. On a further inspection of the specimens before ness of the down-stroke, and the sharp, clean manner in which us, especially Specimen No. 3, it will be noticed that the writing each letter is defined; while a nervous, timid, irresolute man, is beautifully straight and regular in the first place; that the who is

letters

the power

as

responsibility, and who seem to pos- such

were relieved

by order

of the Parochial Board, but whose settlersents still undetermined. mambo ya msimu

:

more

alw & y 8

are well

ly defined

and, third. ly, that

The Medical Certificate
appears to me to be sometimes
too easily given,
formality

ness and

ready to

shaped be led by

and clearothers in stead of

in the next ta king

place; the lead, generally betrays

compacthis constitutional

Deatness failings by

as mee the irregularity of his writing, which,

shortness however,

of the must not be confounded

SPECIMEN OF HANDWRITING APPROVED BY HER MAJESTY'S CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSIONERS.-NO. 4. the letters with the

that el. irregularity caused by impetuosity of temper or rapidity of tend above or below the body of the letters in the centre of each thought, either of which will make a man write at such speed line. In these three points lie the principal requisites that the that his letters seem to run into one another, and are jumbled Examiners will look for in the handwriting of candidates for the together in an almost indistinguishable mass.

Civil Service, and our readers may rest assured that no candi. We place before our readers, in the present lesson, two more date who, in forming his handwriting and acquiring a style specimens of official handwriting approved by Her Majesty's peculiarly his own, has succeeded in making it compact

, clear, Civil Service Commissioners, and an inspection of these may and legible, need entertain the slightest fear of rejection as far enable us to point out examples of what we have already spoken as his writing is concerned.

are im parted to the writing by the

loops and the tails of

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LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-IV.

The most ancient monuments of Egypt ornamented with

columns are situated in the Heptanomis, an old division of the PROGRESS OF ARCHITECTURE IN EGYPT AND INDIA-THE

country which corresponded pretty nearly with the district COLUMN.

called Middle Egypt by modern geographers, and which was AFTER the rude style of building practised in early times had situated between the Delta and the Thebaid, extending from 'spread itself in various forms over the ancient world, true art | 24° N. lat. to 30° N. lat. These monuments exhibit speciat last made its appearance. The great nations of

mens of the greatest simplicity, and strongly analoantiquity, as they advanced in civilisation, created a

gous to those of the Doric order. The monuments national architecture, each with a feeling and expres

of India excavated in the rock present the same sich peculiarly its own. As soon as the stones used

principles of these primitive orders. In these two in buildings began to assume a cubical, prismatic, or

countries, which are the cradles of architecture, cylindrical form, and the square and compasses gave a

artists at first decorated their columns and their new direction to stone-cutting, architects gave wing

capitals with ornaments of which the ideas were to their imagination, because they now had the

taken from the local vegetation, to which were somemeans of realising its creations. Symmetry was

times added others borrowed from animal nature. studied in the ground-plan of their edifices; their . Thus in Egypt, after having set up the simple architraves were raised upon pillars and columns; cylindrical shaft for their column, they sculptured and experience ere long taught them the strength upon it branches of the lotus, meeting each other of every stone, and the proper height of every and fastened together by fillets. The capital part of a building. Hence arose that harmony and which crowned the column was at first composed MYC proportion which

of the bud of the NY elevated architeo

same flower.

This ture into an art.

first idea was after- MUNC We shall not at

wards developed in tempt to decide the

the application of question whether pillars and

vegetation of every kind to the columns were first formed in ex.

ornamentation of the columns of cavations, or in separate construc

the temples and of the great tions; but it is evident that they

public edifices. Among the six were the first elements of a regular

examples of Egyptian capitals architecture that is to say, of

given in this page there is one the orders which constituted the

composed of the leaves of the first basis of architectural har.

palm-tree. mony. To the pyramidal con

Egypt, thus adorned with orders structions of Egypt and of Asia

of architecture, had its national speedily succeeded the erection

style. The numerous works upon of palaces and other edifices, in

the history and antiquities of which square and cylindrical pil.

Egypt published during the last lars formed most essential

half-century have made us part: the great weight of the

quainted with its archæological materials employed requiring that

treasures, such as the temples and they should be supported at short

palaces of Thebes, the Isle of distances for the formation of in

Philæ, Karnac, Abousambul, Edfou, ternal and external galleries.

Memphis, and others; and large These single pillars could only be

public buildings, decorated with connected at the top by architraves

numerous columns, immense pil. of such dimensions as combined

lars, obelisks, and sphinxes, which the ratio of their breadth with

give to this style a peculiar chathe proportions of the supporting

racter of antiquity and grandeur, power of the co

of which mere lumns. Upon these

verbal descriparchitraves

tion would fail placed platforms

to convey any or ceilings of flat

idea to the
stones, which, by

reader.
their thickness,
SCULPTURED GATEWAY AT KARNAC.

In India, as
formed a new di-

in Egypt, iso mension above the former; and upon these lated columns and pillars appear to have platforms were formed terraces or flat roofs, had their origin in subterranean excava

which were surrounded by another row of tions for architectural purposes ; of these stones forming a border, and having an outward projection numerous examples are seen at Ellora, in the palace or temple which preserved the façade from the effects of the rain. I of Indra. These pillars are much shorter than those of Egypt, These were the origin of cornices and entablatures.

their bases and capitals occupying a considerable The column, in preference to the square pillar, be

portion of the height of the column, and the entacame the type of architectural proportion. Simple

blature, or rather the corona, is less accurately at first, it presented nothing but a cylindrical shaft,

traced. In cases where the Indians cut out the without ornament, and only expressing the purpose

rock for the purposes of decoration, and sculptured it for which it was originally intended. The oldest

over with various ornaments, the column assumes a specimens in Egypt are of this description; Asia

lighter appearance, and the principle of an order of presents similar specimens; and Greece, with the

architecture can be traced. whole of the West, follows the same track: thus

The excavated temples of India are numerous and proving that everywhere there is an invariable simi.

extensive; the principal ones are those of Elephanta, larity in the origin of the arts. The simplicity,

Salsette, and Vellore, or Ellora. Elephanta is situated elegance, and utility of the column engaged the attention of near Bombay, on a small island of the same name, which received architects, and concentrated all the efforts of their imagination. this appellation from the figure of an elephant being cut out upon Thus it became their architectural type or model, and formed the rocks on the southern shore. The grand temple is 120 feet the nucleus of the different characteristic styles of building square, and is supported by four rows of pillars; along the side that were adopted by the great nations of antiquity.

of tha cavern are fifty colossal statues from twelve to fifteen feet

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were

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ness.

GENDER.

high. The face of the great bust is five feet long, and the breadth image of Juggernaut, or Mahadeo, stands in the contre of the across the shoulders twenty feet. At the west end of this pagoda, building, upon an elevated altar. The idol is described as or temple, is a dark recess twenty feet square, without ornament; being an irregular pyramidal black stone, and the temple lit up the altar is in the centre, and there are two gigantic statues at only with lamps. each of the four doors by which it is entered. On entering In the ancient Hindoo writings, another kind of temple is Elephanta, there is a piazza extending sixty feet from east to described, of which now no vestige is to be found. The Ayoen west, and having a breadth of sixteen feet; indeed, the body of Akberry relates that near to Juggernaut is the temple of the the cavern is surrounded on every side by similar piazzas. The sun, in the erection of which the whole revenue of the province caves of Kenneri, on the larger island of Salsette, in the same of Orissa, for twelve years, was entirely expended; that the vicinity, and those of Carli, on the opposite shore of the conti- wall which surrounded the whole was 150 cubits high, and nent, are equally remarkable. The mountain of Kenneri appears nineteen cubits thick; that there were three entrances : at the to have had a city hewn out of its rocky sides, capable of con- eastern gate were two elephants, each with a man on its trunk; taining many thousand inhabitants. The front is hewn into on the west, two figures of horsemen completely armed ; and four storeys or galleries, in which there are 300 apartments ; over the northern gate, two tigers sitting over two dead elethese have generally an interior recess or sanctuary, and a phants. In front of the gate was a pillar of black stone, of small tank for ablution. The grand pagoda is forty feet high an octagonal form, fifty cubits high; and after ascending nine to the soffit of the arch or dome; it is eighty-four feet long, flights of steps, there was an extensive enclosure with a large and forty-six broad. The columns of the portico are finely cupola constructed of stone, and decorated with sculpture. decorated with bases and capitals; and at the entrance are two Such are the ancient monuments of which India can boast, long colossal statues, each twenty-seven feet high. Thirty-five pillars before architecture had reached that proud eminence on which of an octagonal form, about five feet in diameter, support the it stood in ancient Greece. In our next lesson we shall glance arched roof of the temple; their bases and capitals are com- at those of Persia. posed of elephants, horses, and tigers, carved with great exact

Round the walls are placed two rows of cavities for receiving lamps. At the farther end is an altar of a convex

LESSONS IN GREEK.III. shape, twenty-seven feet high, and twenty feet in diameter ; GENERAL REMARKS ON THE NOUN, THE ADJECTIVE, AND round this are also cavities for lamps; and directly over it is a

THE PREPOSITIONS.—THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. large concave dome cut out of the rock. It is said that about this grand pagoda there are ninety figures or idols, and not loss than 600 of these figures within the precincts of the excavations. Nouns or Substantives are names of objects or things which The cave-temple at Carli is even on a greater scale than now exist in space or in the mind. There are, in Greek, three described. But the temples of Ellora, near Dowlatabad, are genders ; the masculine, to denote the male ser; the feminine, reckoned the most surprising and extensive monuments of to denote the female sex; and the neuter (Latin neuter, neither), ancient Hindoo architecture. They consist of an entire hill to denote objects which are neither male nor female. The excavated into a range of highly-sculptured and ornamented genders are distinguished partly by the sense and partly by temples. The number and magnificence of these subterranean the terminations of the nouns. There are terminations, for edifices, the extent and the loftiness of some, the endless diver- instance, which denote the feminine gender, as n; there are sity of the sculpture of others, the variety of curious foliage of other terminations which denote the masculine gender, as as in miuute tracery, the highly-wrought pillars, rich mythological the first declension ; and, again, there are others which denote designs, sacred shrines and colossal statues, all both astonish the neuter gender, as ov. This is a peculiarity to which we and distract the mind of the beholder. It appears truly wonder. have nothing similar in English adjectives. Those who have ful that such prodigious efforts of labour and skill should studied Latin are already familiar with it. In regard to gender remain, from times certainly not barbarous, without a trace to as denoted by the meaning, let the ensuing rules be committed tell us the hand by which they were designed, or the populous to memory. and powerful nation by which they were produced. The courts 1. Of the masculine gender are the names of male beings, of of Indra, of Juggernaut, of Parasu Rama, and the Doomar winds, of months, and of most rivers, as :-Matwv, Plato; Leyna or nuptial palace, are the names given to several of Zecupos, the west wind; Ekatou Balwy, the month Hecatombæon ; these great excavations. The greatest admiration has been Eupwras, the river Eurotas. excited by the one called Keylas, or Paradise, consisting of a 2. Of the feminine gender are the names of female beings, of conical edifice, separated from the rest, and hewn out of the trees, of lands, of islands, and of most cities, as :-Kopn, a girl; solid rock, 100 feet high, and upwards of 300 feet in circum. Opus, an oak; Apradia, Arcadia ; seoßos, Lesbos ; Kolocau, ference, entirely covered with mythological sculptures.

Colophon. Besides the excavated temples of India, there are several 3. Of the neuter gender are the names of fruits, the diminuothers of different forms which may here be noticed. First, those tive in ov (except the female proper name ý neovt.oy), the names composed of square or oblong enclosures ; secondly, temples in of the letters of the alphabet, the infinitives, all words not de. the form of a cross; and thirdly, temples of a circular form. clinable in the singular and the plural, and every word used

Of temples of the first kind, the largest one remaining is that merely as the sign of a sound. of Seringham, near Trinchinopoly. The circumference of the

4. Of the common gender are personal nouns which, like our outward wall is said to extend nearly four miles. The whole child, may be applied to male or female ; thus, eos may be edifice consists of seven square enclosures, the walls being 350 used of a male or female divinity, and so be rendered either good feet distant from each other. In the innermost spacious square or goddess. are the chapels. In the middle of each side of each enclosure

This common gender " is a grammatical phrase used to wall there is a gateway under a lofty tower; that in the outward denote such nouns as are common to both males and females ; wall, which faces the south, is ornamented with pillars of that is, are sometimes masculine and sometimes feminine. precious stones, thirty-three feet long, and five feet in diameter.

In Greek grammar it is usual to employ the definite article, in Of temples of the second kind-namely, those in the form of order to indicate the gender. The definite article, nominatira a cross—the most remarkable is the great temple in the city of singular, is 8, ń, to, the; d is masculine, i feminine, and to Benaros, on the banks of the Ganges, which has been devoted neuter; o, thereforo, put before a noun, intimates that the to the religion and science of the Hindoos from the earliest

noun is of the masculine gender; h), that the noun is of the periods of their history. The form of the temple is that of a feminine gender; and to, that it is of the neuter gender

. great cross with a cupola in the centre, which towards the top If both d and are put before a noun, it is done to show that becomes pyramidal. At the extremity of each branch of the the noun is of the common gender : thus, d armp, the man; cross, all of which are of equal length, there is a tower with i yuvn, the woman; to epyov, the work; d, ñ, beos, the male or balconies, to which the access is on the outside.

of temples of circular form, the temple of Juggernaut is female) divinity ; ó, ý, mais, the child, whether boy or girl. considered the most ancient in India ; the Brahmins attribute its foundation to the first king on the coast of Orissa, who Number is a distinction of nouns founded on the circum. lived, according to their chronology, 4,800 years ago. The stance whether they denote one or more. If a noun denotes

NUMBER.

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