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PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING

one object, it is in the singalar number; if a noun denotes | woman, being changed into nouxoy before the neuter TekvOV,
more objects than one, it is in the plural number. The Greek child. An adjective of three terminations may be seen in this
tongue has a third number, called the dual (Latin duo, two), example :-
which denotes two objects; thus, royos is a word (singular);

Masculine.
Feminine.

Neuter.
Aoyon, words (plural); now, two words (dual); where os is the
singular termination, on the plural termination, and w the dual

και αγαθος ανήρ,
η αγαθη γυνη,

το αγαθον τεκνον, termination,

the good man. the good woman. the good child.

Some adjectives have only one termination, as uakpoxerp, longThese terminations, os, 01, w, undergo changes according to handed; anatwp, without a father. In declension, adjectives, the relation in which they stan] to a verb, to another noun, or

with a few exceptions, follow the forms of the substantives. to a preposition. Thus os may become ov, and 01 may become

PREPOSITIONS. ous. Any word which is changed in form, to express a corre

Prepositions are words which go before nouns, and show the sponding change in sense, is said to be inflected. Such inflexions relation which the nouns bear to the affirmation or negation or variations in the endings of nouns are termed cases. There are in Greek five cases, namely

made in the sentence, or the member of the sentence in which 1. The Nominative, the case of the subject; as, & ratne present some knowledge of them must be communicated, in

they stand. Of prepositions I shall treat in full hereafter. At ypaper, the father writes. 2. The Genitive, the case indicative of origin, whence ; as, & TOU the words

order to prepare the beginner for the following instructions. In Tatpos ólos, the father's son.

πορευομαι προς πατέρα, 3. The Dative, the case indicative of place, where, and of the

the father, manner, and instrument; as, TY TOU tatpos 014, to the father's

the word mpos, to, is a preposition. 4. The Accusative, the case of the object, or whither; as, o In Greek, prepositions govern either one case, two cases, or Tammp TOY úlov ayata, the father loves the son.

three cases, and may accordingly be classified thus:--
3. The Vocative, the case of invocation, or direct address; as,
eyane, TaTEP, TOV úlov, father, love thy son.

One Case.
Two Cases.

Three Cases. In Greek there is no ablative case; the functions of the ablative case are discharged, partly by the dative, and partly by the

Genitive. genitive. The nominative and the vocative are called recti, Ayti, in presence of, Aia, through.

Aupi, about. direct; the other cases are called obliqui, indirect.

instead of.
Kata, down.

Eni, upon.
Substantives and adjectives of the neuter gender have the Ano, from.

'Trep, for.

Meta, with. nominative, the accusative, and the vocative alike, in the singu. Ex, out of.

Mapa, from. lar, the plural, and the dual.

Eveka, on account of.

Meph, concerning. The dual has only two case-endings; one for the nominative, Mpo, before, for the

Npos, with or from. accusative, and vocative, the other for the genitive and dative. good of.

'Tro, by.

Dative.
DECLENSION.
Ev, in.

Apoi, around. Declension is the classification of nouns and adjectives agree- Evv, with.

Eni, on. ably to the variations of their case-endings. There are, in

Meta, amidst. Greek, three declensions; called severally, the first, the second,

Mapa, by,' near (of and the third declension. The learner will do well in regard to

rest). every noun and adjective, to ask himself, What is its nomina

lepi, around. tive? What is its case? What is its number | What is its

Npos, at (of rest). gender? What is its declension ? For instance, spanecals is

'Tho, under (of rest). from the nominative apareca, a table, is in the plural number,

Accusative. dative case, feminine gender, and of the first declension. In

Αμφι end Περι, about order to practise and examine himself fully, he should also form Ava, up.

Ala, because of. Ei, to. or "go through” every noun, adjective, tense, mood, and indeed Eis, into.

Kata, down, through. Mera, after. every word capable of declension or conjugation, according to 'ns, toward. 'Trep, over.

Tapa, by the side of. the several models or paradigms given in the successive lessons.

Npos, to (of motion). THE ADJECTIVE.

'Tro, under (of mo

tion). An adjective denotes a quality. This quality may be considered as being connected with, or as being in an object, as "the A glance at this table will show that the case which in any Ted rose;" or as ascribed to an object, as "the rose is red." In example a preposition is connected with, has much to do in both cases the adjective in Greek, as in Latin, is made to agree modifying its signification. Only by constant practice can the in form, as well as in sense, with its noun. A change takes exact meaning and application of the several prepositions be place in the adjective, conformably to the change in the signifi-known. The Latin student will, in this list, recognise words. cation, thus, a good man is ayados amp, but a good woman is with which he is familiar; thus er is the Latin ex; ev is the ayain gurn. Observe the os of the masculine is for the feminine Latin in; apo is the Latin pro; ano is the Latin ab; útep is the changed into n. Not only in gender, but in number and in case Latin super; and úno is the Latin sub. does the adjective in Greek, as in Latin, conform to its noun : Before I treat of the declension of nouns, I must give the 8.g., ayalos av pwros, Latin, bonus homo, the good man; d definite article, as it is so intimately connected with nouns that exOpatos COTIV ayaos, homo bonus est, the man is good; ý kann the latter cannot well be set forth without the former; and as Movoa, pulchra Musa, the beautiful Muse; À Movoa EOTI Kain, the article is often used as indicative of the gender of the noun. Musa pulchra est, the Muse is beautiful; To kalov cap, pul

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, , , to, the. chrum ver, the beautiful spring ; to eap COTI Kalov, ver pulchrum est, the spring is beautiful.

Singular. The adjeotive, then, like the substantive, has a threefold

Mas. Fem. Neut. English. gender-the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter. But many Nom. d

the. adjectives, such as compound and derivative, have only two ter

Gen.

of the. minations; one for the masculine and feminine, and another for Dat.

TQUE

τω

to or by the. the neuter; e.g.:-

Aco.

the.
Masculine Feminine.
Neuter.

Plural.
Nom, δι åt

the.
και ήσυχος ανηρ,
ή ήσυχος γυνη,
το ήσυχον τεκνον,
Gen.

of the. the quiet man. the quiet woman. the quiet child.

Dat.

to or by the. Here youxos remains the same with amp, man, and gurn,

Acc.

the.

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P.

A

flee.

Dual.

Mont Cenis, the trains go along a series of zigzags, which are Nom. Acc. TW τα

τω
the.

really a succession of inclined planes, and thus the mountain Gen. Dat.

of or to the.

chain is crossed. A driver, too, in driving a heavy load up a There is no form for the vocative; w, which is commonly stoep incline will frequently cross from side to side of the road, used, is an interjection. The way to learn the article (as well

as he goes up a less steep incline, and thus spares the horses. as the adjective) is to repeat the parts first perpendicularly, d,

How comes it, then, that this advantage is gained, and what TOU, TQ, Tov, etc., and then horizontally, as ,, ý, to, until you proportion does the load bear to the power that raises it? We are perfectly familiar with the whole. When you think you

will try and solve these questions. Let A c represent a plane have mastered the task, examine yourself by asking, Whať is inclined at the angle caB; w the accusative singular, feminine gender? What is the nomina- is a weight resting on the plane tive plural, masculine gender ? etc.; and when you have given and fastened to a cord which an answer from memory alone, consult the book, to ascertain passes over the pulley D, and whether you are correct. Finally, write out the article in full is kept stretched by a power, from memory. Indeed, spare no pains to make yourself master

The cord we will first sup. of the article. There is a special reason for this advice, since pose to be parallel to the sur. the terminations of the article are, in the main, the same as the

face of the plane, and the

Fig. 77. terminations of the noun and the adjective.

power therefore acts in this
direction. Friction has, in practice, great influence in a

case like this ; as, however, we shall speak about that shortly, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-II.

we will neglect it now, and suppose that the plane is perEXERCISE 1.---GREEK-ENGLISH.

fectly smooth, and that the weight is just kept in its position 1. Always be true. 2. Rejoice ye (xapw, I rejoico). 3. Follow. 4.

by the action of P. We found in our third lesson that, if we Do not complain. 5. I live pleasantly. 6. I am well educated. 7.

draw a line, G E, downwards from G, the centre of gravity of w, Thou writest beautifully. 8. If thou writest ill, thou art blamed. 9. He hastens. 10. He fights bravely. 11. If you flatter, you are not

and make it of such a length as to represent the weight of w, true. 12. If thou datterest, thou art not believed. 13. We flee. 14.

and then through E draw E F parallel to G D, and just long If we flee, we are pursued. 15. You flee badly (like cowards). 16. If enough to meet the line G F, which is perpendicular to the you are idle, you are blamed. 17. If you fight bravely, you are ad. surface of the plane, that then E F represents in magnitude the mired. 18. If they flatter, they are not true. 19. It is not well to

power P. We have, in fact, a triangle of forces, the three sides flee. 20. It is well to fight bravely. 21. If thou art pursued, do not of which represent the three forces which act on the weight and

22. Fight bravely. 23. If they are idle, they are blamed. 24. If keep it at rest. But the angles of the triangle E F G are equal thou speakest the truth, thou art believed. 25. Always excel. 26. to those of the triangle C B A. This is easily seen, for the Eat and drink, and play, moderately.

angle E F G is equal to C B A, each being a right angle. GBF EXERCISE 2.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

is also equal to AC B; for, if we continue E F till it meets 1. Αληθενω. 2. Αληθευεις. 3. Αληθευει. 4. Αληθευομεν. 5. Αληθευετε. BC, we shall have a parallelogram, and these will be opposite 6. Αληθευουσι. 7. Ει αληθενω πιστευομαι. 8. Mn uaxeobe. 9. Maxovtar. angles, and so must be equal; the third angles are equal too, 10. Επεσθε. 11. Επη. 12. Επεσθε. 13. Παιζει. 14. Devyovor. 15. E. since G F and E G are perpendicular to A C and A B. The angles φευγουσι διωκονται. 16. θαυμαζομαι. 17. θαυμαζονται. 18. Ει βλακενουσιν | of one triangle are equal, then, to those of the other, and thereου θαυμαζονται. 19. Εν εχει ανδρειως μαχεσθαι. 20. Μετριως εσθιε και πινε. | fore the sides of the triangle EFG bear the same proportion to 21. Ου σπευδoυσι. 22. Ει κολακενεις ον θαυμαζη. 23. Καλως γραφει. 24. one another that those of CB A do. Of this you can satisfy Γραφoυσι κακως. 25. Εν εχει αει αριστενειν. 26. Metpows Bootevete. 27. yourself by actual measurement, and you will find the rule Αγαν εσθιουσι.

always hold good. The proper mode of proving it, you will

learn from Euclid. MECHANICS.—XII.

The three sides of A BC represent, then, the three forces which

act on w; A c representing the weight, B c the power, and A B THE INCLINED PLANE—THE WEDGE-THE SCREW.

the resistance of the plane, or the part of the weight which is The mechanical powers are usually said to be six in number :- supported by it. Hence we see that if the incline be 1 foot in the lever, the wheel and axle, the pulley, the inclined plane, | 20, a man in rolling a weight up will only have to support the wedge, and the screw. On examination, it will be found of it. that any machine whatever consists of various combinations or We can easily arrive at this result in another way. Suppose modifications of these. If, however, we look more closely, we a person wants to lift a weight of 200 pounds to a height of shall find that these six may really be reduced to three, namely, one foot, he will have to exert a force of that amount if he lift it the lever, the pulley, and the inclined plane.

straight up, and will then move it through just one foot. But These, then, are the three fundamental mechanical powers; if, instead of this, he moves it up this incline, when he has the wheel and axle being, as we saw in our last lesson, a suca passed over one foot in length of its surface, he will only have cossion of levers coming into play one after another; and the raised it of a foot, and will have to move it over the whole wedge and the screw, as we shall soon find, merely modifica- twenty feet of the plane in order to raise it the one foot. tions of the inclined plane. To this, then, we must now turn That is, he will have to move it twenty times the space he our attention, and see how the inclined plane may be used as a would if he lifted it direct, and will therefore sustain only mechanical power, and what is the advantage gained by its use. of the weight at any moment. Still, he must sustain this

A horizontal plane is one that has an even surface, like a portion twenty times as long. This supplies us with another portion of the surface of a lake on a calm day, every part being illustration of the low of virtnal velocities which we explained at the same level. If this plane be now tilted or lifted at one in the last lesson. end, so as to make an angle with the horizon, it is called an The general rule for the gain in the inclined plane when the inclined plane, and the angle which it makes with the level power acts in a direction parallel to it, may be stated as follows: surface is called its angle of inclination. Hence we speak of The power bears the same ratio to the weight it will sustain a plane inclined at an angle of 30, or any other number of that the perpendicular elevation of the plane does to the length degrees. There is also another way of speaking of the inclina of its surface. tion, as, for instance, when we say a road has an ascent of one If the power, instead of acting along the plane, acts at an Angle foot in twelve, meaning that for every twelve feet of length to it, whether it be parallel with the base or in any other direcmeasured along its surface there is a vertical rise of one foot. tion, as G K, we have merely to draw E u parallel to the line of These modes of expressing the same fact may be used indis. action of the force, instead of parallel to the plane, and, az criminately.

before, we shall obtain a triangle of forces, the three sides of Now we can easily see that some advantage is gained by the which represent the three forces, and thus we can calculate the use of the inclined plane. If a drayman wishes to raise a heavy power required to support the weight. barrel into his dray, he does not attempt to lift it vertically, for If we have two inclined planes meeting back to back, like the he knows he could not do it ; but he lays a ladder or plank letter V inverted, and a weight resting on each, the weights sloping from the ground up to the dray, and rolls the barrel up being connected by a cord which passes over a fixed pulley at this incline. So in the railway which has been formed over the summit, we can see, from this principle that there will be

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THE WEDGE.

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equilibrium when the weights bear the same proportion to each cord upon it, we shall have a screw, the spiral line traced out other as the lengths of the inclines on which they rest: for by the cord being called its thread. It is easy to see that the it is clear that, the steeper the plane, the less is the portion of thread has at every point the same inclination as the inelined the resistance borne by it. If, for example, one incline is 15 plane, and that a particle in travelling up the screw will pass inches long, and the other 21 inches, a weight of 5 pounds over the same distance as if it moved up the plane. on the former will balance one of 7 pounds on the latter. A screw, then, is a cylinder with a spiral ridge raised upon it; For, supposing the vertical height of the summit to be 6 inches, this ridge is sometimes made with a the portion of the force of 5 pounds which acts downwards, and square edge (Fig. 79 a), and then has tends to raise the other, is of 5 pounds, which equals 2 more strength; but usually it is pounds; while the portion of the other which acts downwards is sharp, as seen in a common screw, 1 of 7 pounds, which is also equal to 2 pounds.

and this way of making it reduces This system of two inclines is often used in mining districts, friction. a train of loaded trucks running down from the pit's mouth to To use the screw, it is necessary the staith, being made to drag a train of empty ones up the to have a hollow cylinder with a incline. Many familiar instances of the use of the inclined groove cut on the inside of it (Fig. plane are met with every day, though they often escape notice, 796), so that the thread of the screw unless we are specially looking for them. Our knives, scissors, (Fig. 79 c) exactly fits into it, and the bradawls, chisels, needles, and nearly all cutting and piercing screw will rise or fall according to tools, act on this principle. Those immense blocks of stone which way it is turned. This hollow placed across the top of upright pillars, which excite the surprise cylinder is called the nut or female of all visitors to Stonehenge, are believed to have been raised in screw. this way, by making an inclined plane and pushing them up on It is evident that, if we are to gain rollers.

any power, the nut must not be al.

Fig. 79.

lowed to turn together with the screw; We pass on now to notice the wedge, which essentially con- and hence we have different modes of using the screw, according sists of two inclined planes of small inclination placed with as the screw itself or the nut is fixed. When used to fasten the their bases one against the other.

beams of a house together, or to strain the wire of a fence, the Sometimes one side only of the wedge is sloping, and it is screw is prevented from rotating, and the nut turned by a then simply a movable inclined plane. In using this, it is so

wrench; the screw is thus drawn forward, and the required placed that it can only be moved in the direction of the length, strain applied. In a carpenter's vice, on the other hand, the and the weight to be raised is likewise prevented from moving The gain is in each case just the same, the difference being

nut is fixed, and the pressure applied by turning the screw. in any direction except vertically. If pressure be applied to the head of the merely one of convenience in applying it. wedge, the weight will be raised. The

Now we shall easily be able to see the amount of power gain is the same here as in the in. gained. If a particle be placed at the point of a screw and clined plane.

prevented from turning with it, it will, after one revolution of The wedge, however, usually con

the screw, have been raised through a distance equal to that sists of a triangular prism of steel, between two threads of the screw, while any point in the cir

or some very hard substance, and is cumference of the screw will have passed through a space equal с

used as shown in Fig. 78. The point to that circumference. If, then, the power be applied at the is inserted into a crack or opening, surface of the screw, it will bear the same proportion to the and the wedge is then driven, not by a

resistance that the distance between two threads of the screw constant pressure, but by a series of does to its circumference. Fig. 78. blows from a hammer, or some similar

In practice, however, the power is nearly always applied at instrument. It is usual to consider the extremity of a lever, as at d in Fig. 79 a, so that it becomes a the wedge as kept at rest by three forces—first, å pressure combination of the lever and inclined plane. In a thumb-screw acting on the head of the wedge, and forcing it vertically down the flattened part acts as a lever, and when a screw is driven by wards, as at P; secondly, the mutual resistance of it, and the

a screwdriver we usually grasp it at the broadest part, and obstacle which acts at right angles to the

surface of the wedge, thus gain a leverage. More commonly, however, a long lever is acts at right angles to the direction in which the object would fundamental principle of virtual velocities. Hence, we have the as at RR; and thirdly, the force which opposes the motion, and put through the head of the screw.

In all such cases we can easily ascertain the gain from the move, as at c.

As, however, the resistance to be overcome varies very much following rule :-Measure the circumference of the circle defrom moment to moment, both in direction and intensity, and as

scribed by the power, and divide this the force is usually supplied by impact or blows, and not by by the distance between two threads pressure, such calculations afford very little help towards deter- of the screw; the result will be the mining the real gain.

mechanical gain. The other mechanical powers are usually employed in sustain. whose circumference is 10 feet, and

Thus, if the power describe a circle ing or raising a weight, or offering a continuous resistance; a continuous force is therefore used with them. In the wedge, the distance between two threads be the resistance to which it is applied is usually one which, when inch, we have a gain of_10 feet once overcome, is not again called into play. In splitting timber,

divided by 1 inch, or 480. . There is, for instance, when the wedge is driven in, the particles of timber however, a difficulty here. We canare forced apart, their cohesion is overcome, and they do not not easily measure the actual space join again. So in dividing large stones, when once a crack has through which the power passes, nor been made through them, no continued application of force is

can we calculate it with absolute needed to keep them from re-uniting. When continuous force is accuracy. It is, however, usually required, the wedge having been driven forward is kept from near enough if we take the circumslipping back by friction.

ference as 37 times the diameter. As, then, we cannot calculate the force generated by a blow; but you may always use 34 without

The fraction is more exactly 3:14159,

Fig. 80. we must be content with the

general statement that the smaller being far wrong. Thus, if the radius of a circle be 2 feet 6 the angle of the wedge the greater is the power gained.

inches, its diameter is 5 feet, and its circumference 34 times 5

feet, or about 15 feet 8 inches. We see then, now, how to This is the last of the mechanical powers, and, like the wedge, work a question like the following :- In the screw of a bookacts on the principle of the inclined plane. If we stretch a cord binder's press there are 3 threads to an inch, and a force of 10 80 as to represent the slope of an inclined plane, and then, hold. pounds is applied to a lever_14 inches long. What force are ing a ruler, or some cylindrical body, vertically, we roll up the the books pressed with ? The gain is 14 X 2 X 34 divided

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THE SCREW.

by ļ, which equals 264; and as the power is 10 pounds, the 3. 2,700 pounds.

18x 60 x 54 pressure is 264 X 10, or 2,640 pounds. The real pressure is,

4. He must have a force of 161 pounds. The gain is

6x8x417 however, less than this, as a portion of the power (sometimes 270 ; and two tons divided by this give 16ji pound

5. A little over 69 pounds, set down at a third) is employed in overcoming friction.

6, I must pull with a force of 98 pounds through a space of 4 feet. Still, this is not altogether lost, for it prevents the screw

7. 155 pounds. The middle rope sustains 20 pounds of the weight. turning back when the pressure is removed. We have clearly

8. The front man will bear t of the weight, or 931 pounds, the other two ways of increasing our gain in the screw, we can either 564 pounds. lengthen our lover or make our threads closer; but we soon reach a practical limit to either of these, as the lever becomes inconveniently long, or else the threads so narrow that they

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XVI. are stripped off by the pressure.

SUFFIXES (continued). To obviate this difficulty, an arrangement-known, after the inventor, as Hunter's screw—was planned. Fig. 80 represents THERE is nothing that will help more to form an English heart this. A hollow screw, A, of rather large diameter, is cut and made in ourselves and in others than the study of the English lanto work through a strong fixed nut; another screw, B, of smaller guage. We could scarcely receive a single lesson on the growth diameter is fixed to the upper board of the press, a female screw of our English tongue, we could scarcely follow up one of its being out in the interior of the first, into which this may work. significant words, without having unawares a lesson in English Supposing now that both screws have the same number of history as well; without not merely falling on some curious fact threads in a foot, the board will not move at all when the upper illustrative of our national life, but learning also how the great screw is turned, for the fixed screw will enter the hollow of it heart which is beating at the centre of that life was gradually exactly the same distance as it is depressed. But if the upper shaped and moulded. We should thus grow, too, in our feeling one has, say 24 threads in a foot, and the othe.: 25, the one will of connection with the past, of gratitude and reverence to it; we have moved downwards of a foot while the other will have should estimate more truly, and therefore more highly, what it risen is only, and the board will be depressed by the difference has done for us, all that it has bequeathed us, all that it has between the two, which is ato of a foot. It is obvious that we made ready to our hands. It was something for the children may diminish as much as we like the difference between the two of Israel when they came into Canaan to enter upon the wells threads, without at all decreasing their strength, and the more

which they digged not, and vineyards which they had not nearly they are alike, the greater power we gain. The principle planted, fields which they had not sowed, and houses which they of this screw is very similar to that of the Chinese windlass, had not built; but how much greater a boon, how much more described in Lesson IX.

glorious a prerogative, for any one generation to enter upon the There is a modification of the screw, or rather a combination inheritance of a language which other generations by their

of it with the wheel and axle, truth and toil have made already a receptacle of choicest treawhich is frequently used. It sures, a storehouse of so much unconscious wisdom, a fit organ is known as

the endless for expressing the most subtle distinotions, the most tender screw, and is represented in sentiments, the largest thoughts, and the loftiest imaginations, Fig. 81. A thread is cut which at any time the heart of man can conceive.* upon an axle, which is turned Ery, crie; compare together coop (a barrel), cooper, coopery; by a winch, and the teeth of brew, brewer, brewery; smite, smith, smithy; and you see that the wheel catch in the thread the terminations cry, ry, or y, denote a place where & certain of the screw and are thus trade, etc., is carried on. Similar is the force of the ending ary pressed forward as the winch and ory; as, aviary (Latin, avis, a bird), a bird-room ; dormitory is turned, each revolution ad (Latin, dormio, I sleep), a sleeping-room; grapary, a place for Vancing the wheel one tooth. grain. Compare ary. Hence the winch must be I can look at him (a national tiger) with an easy curiosity, as turned as many times as there a prisoner within bars, in the menageris of the Tower." —Burke, Regi

are teeth in the wheel incide Peace.” Fig. 81.

order to raise the weight a Menagerie comes from the French menage, which is the origin

distance equal to the circum- of our manage, and both are from the Latin mann, with the hand, ference of the axle; and since, in the ordinary wheel and axle, and ago, I drive, signifying to tame, to keep in order. the power is to the weight as the radius of the wheel is to that Es or s is a suffix by which is formed the third person singular of the axle, so here, the gain is expressed by the length of the or verby, and the plural of nouns ; as, I read, he reads; ship, arm to which the power is applied, multiplied by the number ships ; box, boxes. When an apostrophe precedes the s, as in of teeth in the wheel, and divided by the radius of the axle. man's, the genitive case is intended.e.g., man's book; God's

In all these cases it has been supposed that the screw has word. only one thread. Occasionally it has two, and then the gain is Esque, a termination derived from the Latin iscus, through only one-half.

the Italian esco, and the French esque, is found in grotesque and We must now give a few more examples for practice, and also picturesque. Grotesque means distorted, unnatural, and hetorithe answers to those in our last lesson.

geneous; from the strange and extravagant figures which were EXAMPLES.

painted in the grottos or crypts of the ancient Romans. 1. An ascent is 120 yards long, and rises in this length 10 feet : what

“ An hideous figure of their foes they drow, power is required to sustain a weight of 7,236 pounds on it?

Nor lines, nor looks, por shades, nor colours true, 2. A road rises 1 foot in 25 : what strain is required to sustain a

And this grotosque design exposed to public view." wagon, weighing 1 ton, on the incline ?

Dryden. 3. A wedge is 11 inches long and 2 inches thick : what resistance will a pressure of 112 pounds on its head overcome !

Picturesque is that which makes a picture, or may enter into a 4. A screw has four threads in the inch: what force must be applied

picture. to a lever 1 foot long to press with a force of 3,000 pounds ?

" Picturesque properly means what is done in the style and with the 5. The lever of a screw is 2 feet 6 inches long, and is moved with a spirit of a painter."-Stewart, “ Philosophical Essays." force of 6 pounds. Required the pressure, there being three threads to the inch.

Ess, derived from the Latin 2, the feminine of or; as adjator, 6. In Hunter's screw, if one have 10 and the other 11 threads in a

a helper; adjutrix, a female helper, converts masculine nouns foot, and the lever is 1 foot 9 inches long,'what is the gain ?

into femininec.g., abbot, abbess; actor, actress; prince, princess 7. An endless screw is driven by a 12-inch crank. The axle is 2 Est, a verbal suffis, forming the second person singular of the inches in radius, and the wheel has 45 teeth. What weight will a present tense; as read, readest. It finds corresponding terminapower of 8 ounces sustain ?

tions in the s of the Latin, as legis, thou readest; and the st of ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN LESSON XI.

the Saxon, as bærnst, thori brirnest. This suffix is rapidly be1. He must press with a force of 74 pounds.

coming obsolete, since the second person singular of the verb is 2. Six feet from the heavier boy, as there the moments about the fulcrum will be equal, for 6X72 = 8x54.

Trench “On the Study of Words," pp. 25, 26.

now rarely used; and in the cases in which it is chiefly used

“How oft, my slice of pocket store consumed, namely, by the poets, and by the Society of Friends—the est is

Still hungering, pennyless, and far from home, for the most part dropped. Indeed, but for its constant employ

I fed on scarlet hips and stony haws."-Cowper, “ Task." ment in the public prayers of Christian churches, it would now Fy is from the Latin facio, I make. Facio, in combination, probably be wholly out of use. Nor would the language suffer becomes ficio, as in efficio. The fi in this word, written fy, is by its discontinuance; for, as the person is marked by the pro- the particle under consideration. It is seen in fructify, literally, noun thou, there is no occasion for any infection of the verb, to make fruit; that is, to make fruitful. and such inflection abates the euphony, and diminishes the “ Calling drunkenness, good-fellowship; pride, comeliness; rage, adaptability of our verbs.

valour; bribery, gratification."-Bishop Morton, Et, as in turret (Latin, turris, a tower), is a diminutive, a small

Head or hood, from the Saxon had, head, in composition, tower; coming to us from the Italian torretta.

denotes the essence of any person or thing; its essential condi"Now like a maiden queen she will behold,

tion, viewed as a whole : thus, in Anglo-Saxon and English, From her high turrets, hourly suitors come;

manhad, manhood; wifhad, wifehood, or womanhood; cildhad, The east with incense, and the west with gold,

childhood ; brotherhad, brotherhood; preosthad, priesthood. Will stand like suppliants to receive her doom."

“ Canst thou, by reason, more of godhead know, Dryden.

Than Plutarch, Seneca, or Cicero ?" Eth, the old termination of the third person singular of the

Dryden, Religio Laici." present tense of the English verb; as eateth, found in part in Head is sometimes employod with a more direct reference to the the Latin legit, and found in full in the Anglo-Saxon bærneth, meaning which it has in current uso; as in wronghead and he burneth.

wrongheaded, etc. “He that goeth forth and weepeth."-Ps. cxxvi. 6.

“ Much do I suffer, much to keep in peace,

This jealous, waspish, wronghead, rhyming race."-Pope. Ette, of French origin, is found in words taken from the French; as, coquette, etiquette. Coquette is, with us, applied to

" Whether we [the Irish] can propose to thrive so long as we enter

tain a wrongheaded distrust of England."-Bishop Berkeley. a female who employs her personal attractions to gain attention from males. In French there is the word coquet, a male coquette. After a similar manner we use both heart and head, in faintCoquet seems to come from coq, a cock, a showy and uxorious hearted, lighthearted, hotheaded, lightheaded. animal; and accordingly, it signifies a man who resembles a Ible, see able, formerly explained under suffixes. cock in his attention to woman. By a natural step in the pro- and the German ich, isch ; as soporificus (Latin, sopor, sleepiness),

Ic, ick, ich, have counterparts in the Latin termination icus, gress of language, the term was applied to females.

soporific, rusticus (Latin, rus, the country), rustic, cildisc in Anglo-
Coquet and coy at once her air,
Both studied, though both seem neglected ;

Saxon, childish in English ; bookish.
Careles3 she is with artful care,

The sweet showers of heaven that fell into the sea are turned into Affecting to seem unaffected."-Congreve.

its brackish taste."-Bates, Etiquette is the same word as our ticket, and originally denoted Ical, an adjective-ending, from the Latin icalis : for example, the short inscriptions, or tickets, put on packages of goods to amicalis, amical (friendly), grammaticalis, grammatical ; so point out what they contained. But similar etiquettes or tickets critical (Greek, kpırw, pronounced kri'-no, I judge), which passes were employed to declare certain observances required in a into a noun by dropping al, as critic; so musical, music, mystical, public assembly; and so the word came to signify forms and mystic. formalities, a strict regard to custom ; and in general, social

“ Fool, thou didst not understand conventionalism, particularly in relation to deportment.

The mystic language of the eye nor hand.”—Donne. Eur, a French termination, from the Latin or : thus vendeur

Ne, from the Latin adjective termination ilis, to be seen in (a seller) is from the Latin venditor ; proditeur, a betrayer, from docilis (Latin, doceo, I teach), docile, teachable ; fragilis (Latin, the Latin proditor. It is similar to import to our ending er, and frango, I break), fragile, easily broken. Some Latin adjectives denotes an actor: for example, producteur, Fr. a producer. Of in ilis are represented by adjectives in ful in our tongue, as old many English words, now terminating in or, terminated in utilis, useful. ellt; as autheur for author. The termination is still retained

In, ine is from the Latin termination inus, which denotes in certain nouns denoting abstract qualities : for instance, sometimes a name, as Tarentine, an inhabitant of Tarentum, grandeur (Latin, grandis, great); hauteur (French, haut, high), but in English more often a quality, as genuine, from the Latin derived immediately from the French. The notion of the actor genuinus, which is derived in its turn from genus, a kind or is retained in the French douceur (from the French doux, sweet), race—that is, that which possesses the qualities belonging to its A sweetener ; a fee, or bribe.

kind, in opposition to spurious, which, in its Latin meaning, Ever, connected in origin with the Latin ævum, age ; and the signifies a bastard. Greek alwv (i'-own), age, comes to us directly from the AngloSaron ære, and signifies always, an enduring reality, either in

No foreign gums, nor essence fetched from far,

No volatile spirits, nor compounds that are time past (Ps. xv. 6; xc. 2), time present (Ps. cxix. 98), or

Adulterate ; but at Nature's cheap expence time to come (Ps. cxi. 5). Ever, as a suffix, strengthens the

With far more genuine sweets refresh the sense."-Carev. word to which it is appended : thus, " whatever you do " has more force than "what you do.” Ever is found in other com- Edgar the son of Athel

, or Edgar of noble blood. In English, ing

Ing, in Anglo-Saxon, signifies son, as Edgar Atheling; that is, pounds; for example, whoever, however, wherever, whenever. forms the ending of our active participles, as singing, from to Additional force is given by the insertion of the particle so; sing ; also a very largo class of nouns ; thus, singing itself may

whosoever, whencesoever, whithersoever. This so used to stand where ever is now placed; as, whoso, howso, whatso.

be employed as a noun, as the singing was good.

These nouns,

as might be expected from the meaning of the Saxon ing, denote “ Her curged tongue (full sharp and short)

existence ; thus, to sing is a verb, but singing is the active of Appeared like aspis' sting, that closely kills,

the verb in actual being. When these words in ing are used as Or cruelly doth wound whomso she wills."

nouns they should have the government of nouns ; thus, the Spenser, "Faerie Queene."

singing of the birds was delightful. Almost every English verb Full

, of Saxon origin, obviously the same as the adjective may be made into a noun by the suffix ing ; to eat, the eating ; full

, gives an instance of the origin of these particles in words to diminish, the diminishing; to run, the running. Obserye which originally had a definito form and signification. According that the idea of activity is connected with nouns ending in ing; to its root-meaning, full (now in combination written ful) denotes as, the seeing; the hearing; the dancing; the reporting—that a large portion of the quality indicated by the word to which it is, the act, the process of dancing, reporting, etc.—wherein those is affixed; as, hate, hateful; thank, thankful; grateful, delightful. nouns differ from other nouns which express the result of an Full bas for its opposito less; for example, merciful, merciless. action; as sight, the result of the act of seeing; report, the In the employment of words, you cannot follow analogy alone, result of the act of reporting. The former have been called but mast consult authority: thus, you may say penniless, but active, the latter class passive nouns, from the analogy they you cannot say penniful; yet pitiful is as good as pitiless. bear to active and passive verbs.

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