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about, are placed. The contents of such a drawer are the tubes, and which are wielded from within. Further, there is a measure of our ignorance, and when we are particularly fresh manifest tendency for each segment of the body to have a pair in spirit, or have much leisure, we open it with a confident of limbs. Thus, beginning from behind, we find on the lasti expectation that a patient study of its contents will lead us to a segment the limbs are not developed, but only indicated; but further knowledge, and a truer and more complete arrangement. on the next they form the side lobes of the tail, and are the main Such a drawer is Cuvier's branch Radiata, and men who have felt instruments by which the lobster darts rapidly backward when that Cuvier had forestalled all other anatomists in the arrange- alarmed. The next four segments have each paired limbs, conment of the higher animals into their main divisions, have been sisting of two small fringed plates set at the end of a joint, and able to solace themselves by re-arranging the heterogeneous with them the lobster paddles quietly forward. Then comes a number of animals for which the star-fish and sea-urchin stood segment with a pair of limbs composed of two joints, used for as the representatives in the mind of Cuvier.

other necessary purposes. Then under the great shield are the Inasmuch as we must dismiss this branch Radiata from our walking limbs, all many-jointed. Two pairs with one claw are system, and shall not be able to recur to it again, as we must preceded by two more terminated by small pincers; then come to the other branches, it is, perhaps, as well that we should the formidable claws. Next come the foot-jaws and jaws. explain the character on which it was founded. Cuvier observed There are six pairs of these, placed closely one over the other, that while some of the higher animals have their two sides alike, beneath the mouth; they cannot be seen in the engraving. yet they could be split down the middle in one direction only, so Then come the pair of longer feelers, the shorter feelers, and as to leave two exactly similar halves. Thus, if one of us were finally the jointed eye-stalks. Thus each of the twenty-one seg. divided from the crown of the head vertically downward, so ments of which the lobster's integument is supposed to consist that the division passed throngh the mid-line of the back and has a pair of well-developed limbs, with the exception of the also of the breast, we should be divided into two like halves; last. but if the vertical division were made in any other direction, the How utterly different is the locomotive apparatus of the fish! two halves; though they might be equal, would certainly be not The necessary hard parts upon which the muscles must play are alike. If, on the other hand, a star-fish be placed flat on a nowhere to be found on the outside. They are situated intertable, it may be bisected in more than one direction, and the nally. Running through the centre of the body from snout to halves would be alike. Indeed, if we wanted to divide it into tail is a bony column or axis. This axis consists of pieces like portions, we should naturally cut it into five or ten or more which are so closely united end to end that they support one segments, beginning from the centre, and cutting outwards. The another, but are capable of a slight motion on one another, so organs are not paired on each side of one plane, but arranged that the back-bone which they form can be bent and slightly like the spokes of a wheel in diverging directions from a central twisted. This back-bone, ending forward in the base of the axis. This plan of structure was therefore considered as the skull, is the main part of the hard skeleton which affords attachtype of the branch Radiata, a radius meaning a line drawn from ment to the muscles which move the limbs. In this case the the centre to the circumference of a circle. If this radial tendency of each segment of the internal skeleton to produce arrangement of organs had been universal throughout this sub- limbs is so little marked, that there are not more than two kingdom, and were found in no other, this would have formed a pairs of paired limbs in all; and throughout this large subwell-marked division, but it is not so. Some of the organs of kingdom, which includes brutes, birds, reptiles, and fish, there higher animals have an apparent radial arrangement, as, for are never more than this number found, though sometimes there instance, the hooklets by which intestinal worms fix themselves. is but one pair, and sometimes none at all. These limbs are not In so-called radiate animals there is generally a two-sided jointed hard tubes, pulled and moved by muscles running up the arrangement to be found. Thus, while the arms of the sea inside of them, but they are supported by bony levers, while the anemono are radial, stretching away on all sides, its mouth has muscles act on them externally. two lips and two corners. The common purple-tipped sea- Passing on to the other systems of internal organs, we find a hedgehog (echinus) is in outward form a typical radiate, but its marked difference in the arrangement of the nervous, alimentary near ally, the heart-archin, is almost as two-sided as ourselves. (food), and blood circulatory systems, in relation to one other. We therefore reject this sub-kingdom, and substitute others in In the lobster the nervous system consists of a double series its stead, as will be seen in the sequel.

of rounded masses called ganglions, which commence with two Instead of at once enumerating the numbers of sub-kingdoms lying side by side (though partially united together) above the of the animal kingdom, and appending to each a dry catalogue mouth, and in connection with the eyes, antennæ (feelers), eto. of the characters upon which they are formed, it is, perhaps, From these two cords stretch back, one running on each side better to induce the reader to examine two animals belonging to the mouth or throat, to another double ganglion, and from this two different branches for himself, so that he may remark the cords pass back which unite the remaining nervous masses togeessential differences in structure which they manifest. Suppose, ther, all of which lie in a series along the floor of the tubular then, he procure a prawn and a stickleback, or, if he aim at cavity of the body enclosed by the rings. Each ring has a double larger specimens, more easily examined, he can obtain, as we ganglion of its own, but these are sometimes united together, as have done, a lobster and a haddock. If these be carefully in the lobster. The food canal runs from end to end through observed, first as to their external character, and then as to the centre of the body, and at its front extremity passes through their internal organs, there will be found some points of simi- the nervous tract (as we have seen), and opens on the under side larity, but a great many points of difference.

of the body. The heart is situated above the food canal, and Both are elongated animals, and both can be divided by a just under the hard covering of the back. We have, therefore, mid-vertical section into two similar halves. The outer covering the main blood system situated above the food canal in the of the fish, though it is covered with small scales, is thin and contre, and the nervous system below it; these two latter, howflexible. It offers but little resistance to pressure, and no firm ever, crossing one another and exchanging places just at the support, or fixed point, from which muscles can play upon the front of the animal. All these structures are contained within limbs. It, moreover, manifests no tendency to division into seg. one tube, which is the hard covering of the animal. ments or rings. Turning to the lobster, we find it is enclosed Contrasted with this arrangement is that of the fish. In this in a hard, inflexible armour, which is divided into segments or animal the food canal occupies the same central position, but rings, placed one behind the other. This division is well marked the heart, instead of lying above it, lies on the under side. The and complete in the hinder part of the body, where there are nervous system does not consist of a series of knots, but of a seven hard annular pieces united by softer membrane. They continuous column, and it is contained not in the tube which overlap one another above, but are separated below. The great lodges the other viscera, but in another tube, formed of bony shield which covers the head and fore part of the body also arches springing from the back-bone, and which is saper-imposed consists of fourteen segments, but they have all become united. on the other tube. The relative arrangement is best understood

This thick, hard outer covering is the only solid part of the by a reference to the illustration, where transverse sections animal, and therefore to this must be attached the muscles at are given, supposed to be taken from the parts of the animals both ends; that is, both at the fixed point of support from which where the lines marked a b cross the lateral views of the they pall, and also at the part of the body or limbs which they lobster and haddock. are intended to move. This arrangement is carried out even to The fish and the lobster, then, present two types of structure the limbs, whose joints are likewise cased in separate hard which are utterly different in many fundamental points, and if

2

in the comparison we have seized on those points which are of unsymmetrically through tho body, their number and position greatest importance, we shall find that when we compare any being very various in the different divisions of the sub-kingdon. other animals belonging to these branches, first to the one type Organs of secretion, nutrition, and propagation more perfect than and then to the other, in reforence to these peculiarities, we shall those of locomotion and animal life. have no difficulty in classifying them either in one division or Molluscoida.-Animals having tho general character of tho the other.

Mollusca, but distinguished from them by having hearts of a A dog, for instance, thongh a very different animal from a simple saccular character without division, or noite at all. With fish, is like it in the points we have noted. It has a back-bone ciliated tentacles disposed in a circle or horse-shoe shape round

jointed vertebræ, and a columnar nervous system. It has the mouth. Do segmented external skeleton. It has but four limbs, and its Annulosa (from annulus, a ring).--Animals with a body comjaws are not paired limbs lying side by side, but are placed one posed of a longitudinal series of more or less distinctly developed above the other. A dragon-fly is very different from a lobster ring-like segments, which are more or less repetitions of onio in less fundamental particulars, but in the essentials named it is another, according to the lower or higher position the species. like to it. It has a chain of double nerve masses on the floor of The horny or leathery exteriors of these rings form an eroits tubular body, crossed by the food canal between the first and skeleton, to which the muscles are attached, and which forms a. second masses; and so we might run on through the whole of protective envelopo to tho body. Nervous system consisting the structure, and show that it was really built upon tho same of a double chain of ganglia. Every organ or system of organs general plan as the lobster,

bi-laterally symmetrical. Locomotive organs and organs of The sub-kingdom to which the fish belongs is called Vertebrata, sense attain in this class a high development. a vertebra being the technical name given to ono of the joints Annuloida.--Animals somewhat like the Annulosa, but the of the back-bone. This name vertebra was given because the perfect form is developed within a ciliated larva. fact that the back-bone was so sub-divided enabled its elements Cælenterata.-Animals whose alimentary canal freely comto turn one on another (verto being the Latin for to turn). municates with their body cavity. Body consisting of two

The lobster belongs to the invertebrate animals, but the foundation membranes of definite cellular structure. invertebrates include more than one sub-kingdom, and that to Protozoa.-Animals whose body consists of a sarcode sub. which the lobster belongs was called by Cuvier Articulata, stance, which has no definite cellular structure, but which is because they are jointed as to external skeleton of both body elastic, extensile, and albuminous in composition. They have no and limbs. Articulus is the Latin for a joint.

nervous system or organs of sense, but have structures called If, instead of a dog or a dragon-fly, we had taken a slug, wo respectively nucleus and contractile vesicle. should have found that while the arrangement of the nervous, If the student finds these descriptions hard to understand, he blood, vascular, and food systems to one another was quite must wait for explanation till the following lessons are before different from the fish, and similar to the lobster, yet we should him. It is now necessary to be concise, even at the risk of being have found no hard jointed body, no chain of double ganglions obscure. on the floor of the body, and no limbs. This animal, therefore, belongs to neither of these types, though it is, of course, an invertebrate.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XVI. The student is now prepared for the enumeration of the sub- RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. kingdoms and their characters. They are these :

Relative--Qui, quæ, quod, who or which. Interrogative-Quis, Vertebrata.

quæ, quid ? who or which ? Mollusca (of Mollusca.

Annulosa = Articulata of
Cuvier). Molluscoida.

Annuloida, Cuvier.
Colenterata,

Singular.
Protozoa.

Cases.
It should be noted that the form in which these are given has N. qui, who;

quæ, who;

quód, which. a meaning. That the Vertebrata stand at the top of the scale is G. cujus, whose ; cujus, whose; cujus, of which. admitted by all; the Protozoa are as unquestionably the lowest

D. cui, to whom ; cui, to whom ; cui, to which animals, and next above them come the Calenterata. It is, how

quem, whom; quam, tohom;

quod, which. erer, impossible to determine whether the Mollusca or the Arti

Ab. quo, by whom; qui, by whom; quo, by which, aulata are the higher animals. The Mollusca seem, in the

Plural. higher members of their branch, to approach most nearly to the N. qui, who;

quæ, who; vertebrates, but the higher members of the branch Articulata G. quorum, whose;

quarum, whose;

quorum, of whicle are of such beautiful and complicated structure that they cer

D. quibus, to whom; quibus, to uhonz ; quibus, to which. tainly cannot be placed lower than the Mollusca. We are com.

Ac.
quos, whom;
quas, whom ;

quæ, which, pelled, therefore, to range them side by side, at a like elevation.

Ab. quibus, by whom ; quibus, by whom. quibus, by which, We proceed to give the characters of the sub-kingdoms :1. Vertebrata.-Animals, the main trunk of whose nervous sys

Singular. tem consists of ganglionio matter massed together in the form of N. quis ?

quis ? before a noun, quid ? before a pond, a column. It is found on the dorsal (upper) aspect of the body,

que ?

quod ? its axis lying in the median vertical plane which divides the G.

cujus?
cujus?

cujus ?
animal into two symmetrical halves. This main nervous trunk D. cui ?
consists anteriorly of the brain and posteriorly of the spinal

Ac.

quam ?

quid cord. It is usually enclosed in a bony or cartilaginous cavity

Ab. formed by the upper arches of the vertebra. The bodies of

Plural. these vertebræ form the essential portion of an internal bony or N.

quæ ? cartilaginous (gristly) skeleton. The column thus formed is

quorum?
quarum?

quorum? placed immediately below the central nervous trunk, and sends | D.

quibus ?
quibus ?

quibus?
upward processes to form a series of dorsal arches to defend the Ac.
nervous axis, and downward a series of less perfect arches, in

Ab. quibus ?

quibus?

quibus? which lie the circulatory and alimentary organs. Appended to The preposition cum is sometimes set after the pronoun; as, this column, which forms the axis of support and resistance quocum, quacum, quibuscum, with whom, with which. whereon the rest of the skeleton hinges, are (normally) four Quis is repeated so as to form the compound pronoun quis. limbs, two anterior and two posterior. The blood is red, and quis, whosoever. In this case, both parts are declined thus: enclosed in vessels. Jaws playing vertically.

quisquis, m.; quæquæ, f.; quicquid, n. When the neuter is Mollusca (from mollis, soft). - Animals with soft bodies enveloped used as a substantive it is generally written quidquid. Tako in soft skin, which is constantly moist, which is itself muscular, as instances : quoquo modo res habet, in whatever way the thing and to it the museles are attached. This skin has usually the is; quicquid id est, whatever that is. In quicunque, whosoever, power of sccreting within or upon its tissues a calcareous extra- the qui is declined, and to its parts cunque is added, as cujus. vascular secretion (the shell). The nervous masses are dispersedcunque, quodcunque, etc.

RELATIVE.

M.

F.

X.

Ac.

quæ, which.

a

INTERROGATIVE.

cui?

cui ?

quem ? quo?

qua?

quo?

qui ?

quæ ?

G.

quos ?

quas ?

quæ ?

-um,

man.

VOCABULARY.

In quivis, quævis, quidvis (quodvis), the termination vis, thou Ardenter, adv., ar., Gero, 2, I carry (E. R. Mors, mortis, f., death wilt, increases the indefiniteness, so that quivis is, who or what dently, glowingly gestation).

(E. R. mortal). you will, cujusvis ; acc. quemvis, quamvis, etc. A similar import (E. R. ardent), Guberno, 1, I govern. Probus, -a, -um, is found in quilibet (libet, it pleases), quælibet, quidlibet (quod. Civitas, -ātis, f., the Honóro, 1, I honour. good, kind (E. R. libet), who or what you please; so, gen. cujuslibet. state. Justus, -a, -um, just. probity).

Alius, another; alter, the other, the second of a pair (the latter, Caro, 1, I care for, Lex, legis, f. a law Sanctus, -a, -um, holy corresponding to the former); ullus, any; nullus (non ullus), no take care of (E. R. a (E. R. legal).

(E. R. sanctity). cure). Maleficus, -a,

one; uter, which (of the two); neuter (non uter), neither, neither

Succurro, 3, I hasten Devasto, 1, I lay waste, wicked; as a noun, to aid, I succour,

the one nor the other, take the genitive singular ius, and the devastate.

an evil-doer.

Tibi placet, thou art dative in i, like unus. See the next lesson on numbers. Exaudio, 4, I grant the Mitis, -e, mild (E. R. pleased.

VOCABULARY. request of. mitigate).

Adimo, 3, I take away. | Inhæreo, 2, I stick to. Merytum, i, m., worth, EXERCISE 59.--LATIN-ENGLISH,

Augurium,-i, n.,augury Insitus, -a, -um, inborn. value, merit. 1. Rex qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem curare debet. 2. Dignitas, -ātis, f., dig. Jus, juris, n., right, Pecunia, -æ, ., money. Regi cujus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent. nity.

law (E. R. jury, ju. Quasi, as if. 3. Regem cui legos sunt sanctw, cives colunt. 4. Felix est rex quem

Futūrus,

-um,
risdiction).

Sæculum, -i, n., an age omnes cives amant, 5. O rex qui civitatem nostram gubernas, tibi future.

Justitia, -2, f., justice. (E. R. secular). placet honorare bonos cives, terrere maleficos, succurrere miseris, Græcia, f., Greece. Locus, -i, m., a place Terror, - ris, m., terror, exaudire probos.

Idcirco, therefore.

(E. R. local, locality). Tribuo, 3, 1 assign,

allot. EXERCISE 60.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Impendeo, 2, I hang Mens, mentis, f., a

over (E. R. impend). mind (E. R. mental). 1. Kings who govern states must care for the safety of all the citi. zens. 2. Good men willingly obey kings whose government is mild

EXERCISE 63.-LATIN-ENGLISH. and just. 3. Kings whose laws are holy are willingly obeyed by good

1. Si mortem timemus semper aliquis terror nobis impendet. 2. Si citizens. 4. The kings are happy who are dear to their citizens. 5. cuipiam pecuniam fortuna adimit idcirco miser non est. 3. Græcia O kings who rule our states, yo ought to honour a good and great parvum quendam (quemdam) locum Europæ tenet. 4. Inhæret in 6. O God, we worship thee who art pleased to succour the

mentibus nostris quasi quoddam augurium futurorum sæculorum. 5. wretched. 7. The enemies with whom you contend lay waste your

In unoquoque virorum bonorum habitat deus. 6. Justitia jus unicuique country.

tribuit pro dignitate cujusque. 7. Cuique nostrum amor vitæ est VOCABULARY.

insitus, Ago, 3, I drive, I do. Honestus, -um, Opinio, -ōnis, f., an

EXERCISE 64.- ENGLISH-LATIN. Ambulo, 1, I walk honourable (E. R. opinion.

1. Some terror always hangs over the bad. 2. What terror (quid abroad.

honesty).

Peccatum, •i, n., a sin. terroris, literally, what of terror?) hangs over thee? 3. If thou takest Cogito, 1, I think. Indulgeo, I am lenient Quæro, 3, I seek. fortune from any one thou art blamed. 4. They hold a certain small Curro, 3, I run, pass to (E. R, indulge). Repugno, 1, I fight part of Greece. 5. In every bad man evil dwells. 6. Justice allots aucay.

Ingratus, -a, -um, un. against (E. R. repug. to every one his merits. 7. Certain ones have money. Excrucio, 1, I tor. thankful (E. R. in- nanco, pugilist). turo (E. R. excru- gratitude).

Sententia, -e, f., vieur,

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. ciate, from crux, a Luscinia, -2, f., a opinion,

Correlative is a term denoting mutual relation, in such a way, cross).

nightingale.

Utilis, -e, useful (E. R. that of two or more things, as is the one so is the other. Take, Falsus, -a, -um, Me habeo, I have my. utility).

as an instance, the pair of correlative pronouns, qualis and talis; false.

self (that is, in a cer- Veritas, ātis, f., truth meaning as and as; thus, qualis sum ego, talis es tu, such as Habeo, 2, I have. tain condition), I am. (E. R. verity).

I am, such art thou.
EXERCISE 61.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

These correlative pronouns are various, and are exhibited in 1. Quis me vocat? 2. Quid agis, mi amice? 3. Quis scribit has this table of literas? 4. Quid cogitas? 5. Quid ago? 6. Cur me excrucio? 7.

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Quæ amicitia est inter ingratos? 8. Quod carmen legis ? 9. Quis
homo venit? 10. Quis poeta dulcior est quam Homerus ? 11. Cujus

Interrogative.
Demonstrative.

Indefinite. Vox suavior est quam vox lusciniæ ? 12. Quibus peccatis facillime in. Qualis, of what kind ? talis, of such kind. dulgomus ? 13. Quicquid est honestum, idem est utile. 14. Quicquid Quantus, how great? tantus, so great ; aliquantus, of some size, vides, currit cum tempore. 15. Quoquo modo res sese habet, ego Quot, how many? tot, so many;

aliquot, some number. sententiam meam defendo. 16. Quæcunque opinio veritati repugnat,

Relative.

Relative Indefinite. falsa est. EXERCISE 62.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

Qualis, of what kind ? qualiscunque, of what kind soever.

Quantus, of what size? quantuscunque, how great soever. 1. What dost thou say? 2. Who is that man? 3. Who is that Quot, of what numbor ? quotcunque, quotquot, of whatever number, woman? 4. With whom does thy friend walk ? 5. Whom seekest thou? 6. What book dost thou read? 7. To whom dost thou write Quot, tot, aliquot; quot, quotcunque, and quotquot, are inde. this letter? 8. However the things are we praise your view.

clinable, and are used only in the plural number; as, quot INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

homines sunt ? how many men are there? aliquot homines, some Quis in a dependent form undergoos slight changes in de men; tot homines quot video, as many men as I see; quotcunque clination: thus, quis, qua or quæ, qu ; pl. qui, quæ, quæ.

homines video omnes boni sunt, all the men I see are good. When it is used as an adjective pronoun, then quis may become

VOCABULARY. qui, qua becomes quæ, and quid becomes quod. The same is the Aristides, -is, m., the Imitator, -āris, m., an Prædico, 1, I speak case with aliquis, some one: thus, sub, aliquis, aliqua, aliquid; name of a celebrated imitator.

before, declara (E. E. adj., aliquis, allqua, aliquod. So alicujus, alicui, etc. In the Athenian.

Liberi, -orum, m.,

chil.

preach). plural, quis, etc., become qui, qu», quæ, or qua, aliqui, aliquæ, Bonum, i, n., good, dren (used in the Quod, conj., thal, aliqua.

the good.

plural only).

Respublica (res and

I Quis united with piam, becoming quispiam, acquires an in. Contemno, 3, I despise. Oratio, -ōnis, f., speech. publica, both parts

Existo, 3, I stand out, Pastor, - ris, n., a definito import, any one soever ; and runs thus : quispiam, quæ

are declined; thus, become, erist,

shepherd (E. R. a rei publicæ, rema piam, quidpiam; adj. quodpiam.

Fragilis,

-e,
easily pastor).

publicam), the slate, Another form is quisquam (quis and quam), every one ; which

i

broken, fragile (from Pecco, I sin, fail, the republic, the com is declined: nom. quisquam, quicquam; gen. cujusquam; dat. frango, I break).

monwealth. cuiquam. Quidam, a certain one, stands thus: nom. quidam, Grex, gregis, m., a Permultus, -2,

•um, Soleo, 2, I am acousquædam, quiddam; adj. quoddam; gen. cujusdam, and so on. flock,

tomed. Quisque answers to our each one : nom. quisque, quæque, quid

EXERCISE 65.-LATIN-ENGLISH. quo (quodque); gen. cujusque; dat. cuique; acc. quemque, etc. Unusquisque, every one, brings the idea of individuality into hoc, quod peccant principes, quantum illud quod permulti imitatores

1. Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiæ. 2. Tantum malam est greater prominence, and is formed thus: unusquisque, unaquæque, principum existunt. 3. Quot genera orationum sunt, tot oratorum anuinquidque; adj. unumquodque; the pronoun is made up of genera reperiuntur. 4. Quales sunt duces, tales sunt milites. 5. Qualis que, and, quis, who or which, and unus, one.

est rex, talis est grex. 6. Quales in republica sunt principes, tales

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very much.

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solent esse cives. 7. Vir bonus non contemnit homines miseros,

HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XVI. qualescunque sunt. 8. Corporis et fortunæ bona, quantacunque sunt, sunt incerta et fragilia. 9. Quotquot homines sunt, omnes vitam HOW IRELAND BECAME PART OF GREAT BRITAIN.- PART I. amant.

10. Quotcunque sunt scriptores, omnes Aristidis justitiam A GLANCE at the map of the United Kingdom will serve to show prædicant. EXERCISE 66.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

that England being inhabited by a powerful people, numerically

superior to the peoples both of Scotland and Ireland, those two 1. As many men so many minds (the minds are as numerous as tho countries must necessarily be in union with her. Neither of men). 2. As many boys so many girls. 3. As many fathers so many them could rest in security in the neighbourhood of so strong a mothers. 4. As great as is thy grief so great is my joy. 5. Such as state ; both would in turn be liable to be objected to, as the are parents such are children. 6. As is the shepherd so is the flock. lamb'was by the wolf in the fable; and unless they could secure 7. I do not despise the things, whatever they are. 8. Aristides is

efficient foreign alliances, they must, sooner or later, fall a prey, declared just by all writers, how many soever they are.

as the lamb also did. For it would be manifestly intolerable

for the strong state to have possible enemies so near, opening a KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XIV. way at any time into the very heart of her dominion, presenting (Vol. II., p. 64.)

a ready means of injury available by the first enemy which

chose to bid for the friendship of either Scotland or Ireland; EXERCISE 53.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

and it could not be but that the strong state should perpetually 1. Every nature is preservative of itself. 2. A wonderful desire for strive to remove, by some means or other, the possibility of the city, for my friends, and for thee holds (possesses) me. 3. Thy harm from such a source. Union would seem therefore to be father is very much delighted by thy remembrance of him. 4. Anger has suggested by the best interests of all concerned. It was also, no power over itself.

5. A wise man has always power over himself, politically considered, a necessity. 6. Care for you makes me uneasy. 7. All men are kind judges of themselves. 8. Thy recollection of us is exceedingly pleasant to me.

In another paper (Historic Sketches, No. XIV.), it was shown 9. The friend is mindful of me and of thee. 10. (Our) father in his how the necessity for union presented itself to the mind of absence is held by a great longing after me, and after you, my brother, him who has been called “the greatest of the Plantagenets,” and after you, O sisters. 11. (Our) friends are mindful of us.

12.

“ the English Justinian,” Edward I. There, too, was shown, Many of you please me. 13. Very many of us greatly love thee. especially in regard to Scotland, the manner in which the EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

English king strove to supply his necessity: how, acting accord

ing to his instincts, he tried to dragoon the Scots into union; 1. Insipiens est impotens sui. 2. Pater est potens sui. 3. Potens how he for a while succeeded, and how finally his efforts were sui est virtus. 4. Non est vitium potens sui. 5. Potensne sui est frustrated, and he had nothing under the sun for his warlike ira? 6. Natura sui est conservatrix. 7. Natura virtutis est conserva: labour. His state policy was a sound one, but his means for trix sui, 8. Nemo vestrum sui potens est. 9. Nostrum plurimi sui carrying it out were unwisely chosen, and his proud spirit sunt potentes. 10. Immemor mei est infidus amicus. 11. Fidi amici non sui sunt memores. 12. Tua memoria et desiderium mei mihi sunt scorned to apply itself to any other. He would be Cæsar or gratissima. 13. Cura tui me angit. 14. Plurimi vestrum, o discipuli, nothing, and in the course of his time he was both, as regarded diligentes sunt. 15. Mirus est amor sui.

the rulership of Scotland. How the union with Scotland was.

ultimately managed was also pointed out in the same paper. EXERCISE 55.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Let us now turn to the case of the sister island, and see how 1. Sallust is a very elegant writer. 2. His books I gladly read (I that came into the union. am glad to read). 3. I have a faithful friend. 4. I am very much To say that Ireland fell to England by conquest is neither attached to him. 5. The song of (thy) brother pleases me much, thou wholly true nor wholly false. It is wholly false to say that it oughtest to read it. 6. Idleness makes the body grow heavy, labour

was conquered in the sense that Edward I. tried to conquer strengthens (it). 7. Avoid that, seek this. 8. This letter moves me very Scotland-conquered, that is, as a whole, the entire nation being much. 9. These songs are very sweet. 10. I do not believe that 11. The soldiers gladly obey that general, 12. All favour invader. It is not only doubtful whether, had the Irish been

united under one head for the purpose of resisting a common that man.

13. That precept of thine is excellent. 14. This opinion pleases me, that displeases me. 15. This war is very cruel.

16. This united, the Anglo-Normans who went over would ever have boy is industrious, that (one) sluggish. 17. I keep in memory that possessed more ground in the country than was needed to cover excellent precept. 18. That friend of thine is a very good man. 19. their bones, but it is almost certain that the subjugation of the That authority of yours is very great. 20. I praise the diligence of island would never have taken place; assuredly it would not that scholar, I blame the slowness of this (one). 21. To that (one) school with the force which actually went over. Of course, after the is very pleasant, to this (one) very troublesome.

precedent set at Hastings, where the fate of England was EXERCISE 56.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

decided in one pitched battle, and in view of the fact that a. 1. Sallustius est scriptor elegans, Livius elegantior, et Cicero ele mob, however numerous, can avail nothing against the attack gantissimus. 2. Eorum libros libenter lego. 3. Ejus frater et amicus of disciplined troops, it is perhaps presumptuous to say so much; mihi sunt cari. 4. Fidum amicum babes et ei es addictissimus.

but we have only to point to the case of Scotland for justificaFilii mei habent fidas uxores et eas valde amant. 6. Vehementer his tion, and to see how there the whole strength of England failed literis moveor. 7. Mendaci mulieri non credas. 8. Hic puer mihi to hold in bondage a united, freedom-loving people, irregular placet, ille displicet. 9. Hoc poema valde est elegans, illud elegantius. and undisciplined though they were, in comparison with the 10. Hic tuus miles fortis est. 11. Hujus discipuli diligentia & me followers of the first soldier of his day. Ireland was not conpræceptore landatur. 12. In hac scholā plures quam in vestra sunt quered as a whole, for it never resisted as a whole-nover industrii discipuli.

acknowledged for the purposes of the common weal one supreme EXERCISE 57.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

head or “ dictator whom all men should obey." It is not, there1. Many men do not think the same on the same things (subjects) fore, absolutely true to say that it was conquered, neither is it for the same day. 2. The fool now trusts, now distrusts the same absolutely false. It fell like the house that was built upon the opinion. 3. Seditious soldiers withstand the commander himself. 4. sand, because it had no foundation and was divided against The mind moves itself. 5. Virtue is praiseworthy on its own account. itself. Bit by bit it was subjugated by force of arms, and 6. Often nothing is more hostile to a man than he is to himself. 7. according to a system of warfare which aimed at preventing a Every animal loves itself. 8. Our country ought to be dearer to us than we ourselves. 9. That precept of the Delphic oracle is excellent which required the constant presence of a strong military force

repetition of resistance by means of extirpation --- a system -Know thyself.

in the conquered districts, and which provoked from time to EXERCISE 58.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

time those outbursts of national and party anger which tho 1. Hostes urbem obsident et eam expugnare tentant. 2. Hujus system has periodically put down with bloodshed and violence. magni hominis factum ab omnibus scriptoribus laudatur. 3. Cæsar At no one period in her history has Ireland ever been united as et Pompeius præclari duces Romani sunt. 4. Illi fortuna amicior est Scotland was when she successfully resisted the invader ; and quam huic. 5. Ilius et hujus fortitudo mira est. 6. Rex ipse exer

certainly, at the time of the first attempt that was made upon citus est dux. 7. Non semper ešdem de iisdem rebus sentis. 8. Pater et filius iisdem literis student. 9. Virtutes per se amabiles sunt. 10.

her independence, Ireland was split up into rival factions as Omnes se ipsos diligunt. 11. Patria tibi carior esse debet quam tate bitter and hostile to one another as the worst common enemy tibi. 12. Noscite vos ipsos, juvenes. 13. Mendax sæpe sibi ipsi could desire. dificüt.

The restless spirit that dwelt in the breast of every Normar

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very early drove the Norman masters of England to seek fresh Now, at the time he did so, Henry II. was in Normandy, adventures, fresh conquests. Before their power in England wholly absorbed in his great struggle between Church and State

, was consolidated, before they had had time to push their autho- represented by Thomas à Becket and himself; and it is reasonrity into the heart of Scotland, they looked greedily across able to suppose that he did not at the moment care very much the water which divided their newly-gotten kingdom from the for the visitor who came to him with such importunate requests kingdoms of Ireland, and they resolved to win in them a set for help in a matter where the King of England's interests were tloment as absolute and abiding as that they had obtained not concerned. The application of the Irish prince, however, in England. Lust of power, of acquisition, rather than any was not to be rejected summarily; the sound of it recalled to far-sighted views of statesmanship, prompted the first invaders the mind of the great statesman who then sat on the English of Ireland to undertake their work, and they entered upon it throne a plan he had long ago thought over, but, for want of in a spirit wholly in accordance with the motives that actuated opportunity, had lain aside. Eleven years before-that is to them.

say, in 1155—he had obtained from Pope Adrian IV. (the only The conquest of Ireland was on this wise :-It had been Englislıman who ever sat in the chair of St. Peter) a Papal bull, agreed in 1161, after many trials of strength between the several granting him the lordship of Ireland with full possession of the Irish princes, that Murtogh O'Lochlin, King of Ulster, should country, the Pope claiming, and Henry for the nonce admitting, be recognised as supreme in the island. He was nominally what a right in the Pope to dispose of the whole of Christendom as was then called a suzerain, as distinguished from a sovereign; lord paramount. At the time of the grant it had not suited that is to say, he was feudal lord over his brethren by their own Henry to take the matter in hand; he had other irons in the consent--a “first among equals,” but not absoluto dominator, fire, and even now it was highly inconvenient to have to stir except in his own kingdom of Ulster. The princes who con. hurriedly in it. Still, a wandering Irish prince driven from his sented to this arrangement were four in number—the kings of home, and ready to agree to any conditions so long as he was Dunster, Connaught, Leinster, and Meath, each of whom had restored and his enemies were punished, was not a sight that vassals under them more or less troublesome, who made their presented itself every day; and the astute mind of Henry saw sovereignty as permissive a dignity as the four kings made the at once the advisability of securing a pretext for his interference, dignity of Murtogh O'Lochlin. Of course, a throne resting on which he would do under guise of helping a neighbouring such explosive materials must have been but an anxious place, potentate to his own. Once in Ireland—if with a decent excuse not to say an unsafe one. The broils which had only been all the better-his plan was never to loosen his hold on it; to temporarily suppressed through the effect of exhaustion in the make it his either by playing off one petty prince against combatants, broke out again as soon as strength had been another, and making the winner recognise him for lord, or else, renewed, and all was commotion in the kingdom of Erin. if needs must, though he did not want the trouble, by regular Fighting for fighting's sake was sufficient inducement, when all conquest of the island. other causes failed, to make the princes take up arms; and the Unable to quit Aquitaine, where Dermot found him, and where only wonder is how the people subsisted at all in a country certain disputes with the barons, together with the trouble which was ravaged with fire and sword all over on an average respo ing Becket, detained him, Henry gave the Irish prince once a year.

Domestic peace within the limits of the lesser letters recommendatory to the English nobles, and issued this kingdoms themselves was a thing unknown; the vassals were proclamation in his behalf :-“ Henry, King of England, Dake too nearly equal for jealousy not to show itself in action; and of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, to all his liegecombined, they were more than a match for their kings. This men-English, Norman, Welsh, and Scotch ---and to all the was proved in tho case of Murtogh O'Lochlin himself, who nations under his dominion, sends greeting. As soon as the having waged war on one of his vassals in a perfectly barbarous present letters shall come to your hands, know that Dermot, way, having put out his eyes, and slain his most intimate friends Prince of Leinster, has been received into the bosom of our grace in cold blood, roused by his acts so great a resistance on the and benevolence. Wherefore whosoever, within the ample extent part of his other subjects, that he was overthrown and killed in of our territories, shall be willing to lend aid towards the restoa battle, on the issue of which he had staked his fortune. ration of this prince, as our faithful and liege subject, let such

On his death in 1166, the nominal sovereignty of Erin passed person know that we do hereby grant to him, for such purpože, to Roderic O'Connor, King of Connaught, a savage, whose first our licence and favour.” act, on coming to his father's throne in Connaught, was to put Armed with this proclamation, Dermot came over to England out the eyes of his two brothers, lest they should be troublesome and hastened to Bristol, where he expected to find those who as competitors. He is also famous for having killed with his wonld lend a willing hand to his enterprise, thus backed by the own hand an enemy whom he had had loaded with chains, and king; but few of the English nobles had ever heard of him until who was defenceless through his fetters at the time the king the present moment, and fewer still were inclined to risk any. struck him. Such a man was not likely to have a peaceable thing in a cause where the question was between barbarism on time of it, and his reign proved to be such a turmoil and con- both sides, and where the issue seemed to promise little profit fusion as to tempt the intervention of a foreign foe.

to assistants. No one who had anything to lose, or who had Dermot Mac-Murchad, King of Leinster, a bloodthirsty and anything better with which to occupy himself, would listen to licentious barbarian, had, during the reign of the late suzerain, the Irish prince, who was driven, therefore, to apply to men of conducted himself so infamously as to excite universal hatred desperate fortunes; and such men there were then as now, and and disgust against him, except on the part of the suzerains as there always will be, ready for anything which holds out who were his dear friends and intimates. He had carried on an he slightest hope of mending their broken condition. Such a adulterous intercourse with the wife of a neighbouring and man was Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, commonly known friendly prince, Tiernan O'Ruare, the Lord of Breffny, in Con. in history as Strongbow. Dermot promised to give him his naught, an act which caused the direst commotion, and was daughter Eva in marriage, and to secure him the succession, the beginning of sorrows for all Ireland; for it became as after himself, to the throne of Leinster, on condition of his frnitful a source of quarrel as the abduction of Helen from bringing over an efficiont force to Ireland in the following spring, her husband Menelaus, and was the root of bitterness which Strongbow assented, and Dermot was fortunate enough to secure, sprang up and fmally choked the fair flower of Irish inde in anticipation of his coming, the services of Maurice Fitz-Gerald pendence. So long as O'Lochlin was on the throno this bad and Robert Fitz-Stephen, brothers, and adventurers by birth man had a friend, and gloried in his shame shamelessly; but and profession. These agreed to come over as early in the with Roderic O'Connor, though he was what he was, came a spring as they could; and Dermot having made his preparaTcry different ruler. O'Connor was friendly to the lord of tions, went secretly to Ireland, and remained concealed for a Breffny, and espoused his cause immediately on coming to the time in the neighbourhood of Ferns. throne. Under his auspices a rebellion was fomented in Dermot's A foolish and premature outburst of his, made before his own kingdom of Leinster. Tiernan O'Rnarc took the field with allies could join him, nearly proved to be his ruin, and brought a large force raised in his own dominions, and recruited by his old enemy, Tiernan O'Ruaro, and Roderic O'Connor, titular numeroug bands of men whom Dermot's brutality and tyranny monarch of Erin, down upon him. He lay at their mercy, which had embittered against him. In a short time Dermot was driven he experienced on condition of renouncing for ever his rights in to his last covert, and was then obliged to fly for succour to the Leinster, except to a small territory not more than sufficient to King of England.

support the dignity of a lesser baron. He accepted the com

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