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a law

man.

VOCABULARY.

In quivis, quævis, quidvis (quodvis), the termination vis, thou Ardenter, adv., ar., Gero, 2, I carry (E. R. Mors, mortis, t., death wilt, increases the indefiniteness, so that quivis is, who or what denlly, glowingly gestation),

(E. R. mortal). you will, cujusvis ; aco. quemvis, quamvis, etc. A similar import (E. R. ardent). Guberno, 1, I govern. Probus, -a, -um, is found in quilibet (libet, it pleases), quælibet, quidlibet (quod. Civitas, -ātis, f., the Honoro, 1, I honour. good, kind (E. R. libet), who or what you please ; so, gen. cujuslibet. state. Justus, -a, -um, just. probity).

Alius, another; alter, the other, the second of a pair (the latter, Curo, 1, I care for, Lex, legis, f.

Sanctus, -a, -um, holy

corresponding to the former); ullus, any; nullus (non ullus), no take care of (E. R. a (E. R. legal).

(E. R. sanctity). cure). Maleficus, -a,

one; uter, which (of the two); neuter (non uter), neither, neither

-um, Succurro, 3, I hasten Devasto, 1, I lay waste, wicked; as a noun, to aid, I succour.

the one nor the other, take the genitive singular in ius, and the devastate.

an evil-doer.

Tibi placet, thou art dative in i, like unus. See the next lesson on numbers. Exaudio, 4, I grant the Mitis, -e, mild (E. R. pleased.

VOCABULARY. request of. mitigate).

Adymo, 3, I take away. Inhereo, 2, I stick to. Merftum, i, m., worth, EXERCISE 59.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Augurium, -i, n.,augury Insitus, -a, -um, inborn. value, merit. 1. Rex qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem curare debet. 2. Dignitas, -atis, f., dig. Jus, juris, n., right, Pecunia, -&, ., money. Regi cujus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent.

nity.

law (E. R. jury, ju- Quasi, as if. 3. Regem cui leges sunt sanctæ, cives colunt. 4. Felix est rex quem Futūrus,

-um,
risdiction).

Sæculum, -i, n., an age omnes cives amant. 5. O rex qui civitatem nostram gubernas, tibi future.

Justitia, -2, f., justice. (E. R. secular). placet honorare bonos cives, terrere maleficos, succurrere miseris, Græcia, f., Greece. Locus, i, m., a place Terror, -õris, m., terror, exaudire probos.

Idcirco, therefore.

(E. R. local, locality). Tribuo, 3, I assign,

allot. EXERCISE 60.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Impendeo, 2, I hang Mens, mentis, f., a

over (E. R. impend). mind (E. R. mental). 1. Kings who govern states must care for the safety of all the citi. zens. 2. Good men willingly obey kings whose government is mild

EXERCISE 63.-LATIN-ENGLISH. and just. 3. Kings whose laws are holy are willingly obeyed by good

1. Si mortem timemus semper aliquis terror nobis impendet. 2. Si citizens. 4. The kings are happy who are dear to their citizens. 5. cuipiam pecuniam fortuna adimit idcirco miser non est. 3. Græcis O kings who rule our states, ye ought to honour a good and great parvum quendam (quemdam) locum Europæ tenet. 4. Inhæret ia 6. O God, we worship thee who art pleased to succour the

mentibus nostris quasi quoddam augurium futurorum sæculorum. 5. wretched. 7. The enemies with whom you contend lay waste your In unoquoque virorum bonorum habitat deus. 6. Justitia jus unicuique country.

tribuit pro dignitate cujusque. 7. Cuique postrum amor vitæ est VOCABULARY.

insitus. Ago, 3, I drive, I do. Honestus, -um, Opinio, -ōnis, f., an

EXERCISE 64.- ENGLISH-LATIN. Ambulo, 1, 1 walk honourable (E. R. opinion.

1. Some terror always hangs over the bad. 2. What terror (quid abroad.

honesty).

Peccatum, i, n., a sin. terroris, literally, what of terror?) hangs over thee? 3. If thou takest Cogito, 1, I think. Indulgeo, I am lenient Quæro, 3, I seek, fortune from any one thou art blamed. 4. They hold a certain small Curro, 3, I run, pass to (E. R, indulge). Repugno, l, I fight part of Greece. 5. In every bad man evil dwells. 6. Justice allots away.

Ingratus, -a, -um, un- against (E. R. repug. to every one his merits. 7. Certain ones have money. Excrucio, 1, I tor. thankful (E. R. in- nance, pugilist). turo (E. R. excru- gratitude).

Sententia, -æ, f., vieu,

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS. ciate, from crux, a Luscinia, -2, f., a opinion,

Correlative is a term denoting mutual relation, in such a way, cross).

srightingale.

Utilis, -e, useful (E. R. that of two or more things, as is the one so is the other. Take, Falsus, -um, Me habeo, I have my. utility).

as an instance, the pair of correlative pronouns, qualis and talis; false.

self (that is, in a cer- Veritas, ätis, f., truth meaning as and as; thus, qualis sum ego, talis es tu, such as Habeo, 2, I have. tain condition), I am. (E. R. verity).

I am, such art thou.
EXERCISE 61.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

These correlative pronouns are various, and are exhibited in 1. Quis me vocat? 2. Quid agis, mi amice? 3. Quis scribit has this table of literas? 4. Quid cogitas? 5. Quid ago? 6. Cur me excrucio? 7.

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Quæ amicitia est inter ingratos? 8. Quod carmen legis? 9. Quis
homo venit? 10. Quis poeta dulcior est quam Homerus ? 11. Cujus

Interrogative.
Demonstrative,

Indefinite. Vox suavior est quam vox lusciniæ ? 12. Quibus peccatis facillime in. Qualis, of what kind ? talis, of such kind. dulgemus ? 13. Quicquid est honestum, idem est utile. 14. Quicquid Quantus, how great? tantus, so great ; aliquantus, of some nise, vides, currit cum tempore. 15. Quoquo modo res sese habet, ego Quot, how many ? tot, so many;

aliquot, some number. sententiam meam defendo. 16. Quæcunque opinio veritati repugnat,

Relative. falsa est.

Relative Indefinite.
EXERCISE 62.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Qualis, of what kind ? qualiscunque, of what kind soever.

Quantus, of what size ? quantuscunque, how great soever. 1. What dost thou say? 2. Who is that man? 3. Who is that Quot, of what number? 4. With whom does thy friend walk? 5. Whom seekest

quotcunque, quotquot, of whatever number. woman? thou? 6. What book dost thou read? 7. To whom dost thou write Quot, tot, aliquot; quot, quotcunque, and quotquot, are inde. this letter? 8. However the things are we praise your view.

clinable, and are used only in the plural number; as, quot INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

homines sunt ? how many men are there? aliquot homines, some Quis in a dependent form undergoos slight changes in de men; tot homines quot video, as many men as I sce; quotcunque

homines video omnes boni sunt, all the men I see are good. clination: thus, quis, qua or quæ, quid ; pl. qui, quæ, quæ. When it is used as an adjective pronoun, then quis may become

VOCABULARY. qui, qua becomes quæ, and quid becomes quod. The same is the Aristides, -is, m., tho Imitator, - ris, m., an Prædico, 1, I spent case with aliquis, some one: thus, sub. aliquis, aliqua, aliquid; name of a celebrated imitator,

before, declare (E. E. adj., aliquis, allqua, aliquod. So alicujus, alicui, etc. In the Athenian.

Liberi, -orum, m., chil. preach). plural, quis, etc., become qui, qua, quæ, or qua, aliqui, aliquæ, Bonum, i, n., good, dren (used in the Quod, conj., thal. aliqua.

the good.

plural only).

Respublica (res and Quis united with piam, becoming quispiam, acquires an in. Contemno, 3, 1 despise. Oratio, -ōnis, t., spooch. publica, both parts

Existo, 3, I stand out, Pastor, - ris, 1., definite import, any one soever ; and runs thus : quispiam, quæ

are declined; thus, become, erist.

shepherd (E. R. a rei publicæ, rem piam, quidpiam; adj. quodpiam.

Fragilis, easily pastor).

publicam), the slate, Another form is quisquam (quis and quam), every one ; which broken, fragile (from Pecco, I sin, fail,

the republic, the comis declined: nom. quisquam, quicquam; gen. cujusquam; dat. frango, I break).

monwealth. cuiquam. Quidam, a certain one, stands thus : nom. quidam, Grex, gregis, m., a Permultus, -8,

-um, Soleo, 2, I am acous. quædam, quiddam; adj. quoddam; gon. cujusdam, and so on. flock.

tomed. Quisque answers to our each one : nom. quisque, quæque, quid

EXERCISE 65.-LATIN-ENGLISH. quo (quodque); gen. cujusque ; dat. cuique; acc. quemque, etc. Unusquisque, every one, brings the idea of individuality into hoc, quod peccant principes, quantum illud quod permulti imitatores

1. Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiæ. 2. Tantum malum est greater prominence, and is formed thus: unusquisque, unaquæque, principum existunt. 3. Quot genera orationum sunt, tot oratorum unumquidquo; adj. unumquodque; the pronoun is made up of genera reperiuntur. 4. Quales sunt duces, tales sunt milites. 5. Qualis que, and, quis, who or which, and unus, one.

est rex, talis est grex. 6. Quales in republica sunt principes, tales

al

err.

very much.

non sui sunt memores.

solent esse cives. 7. Vir bonus non contemnit homines miseros,

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XVI. qualescunque sunt. 8. Corporis et fortunæ bona, quantacunque sunt, sunt incerta et fragilia. 9. Quotquot homines sunt, omnes vitam HOW IRELAND BECAME PART OF GREAT BRITAIN.-PART 1. amant. 10. Quotcunque sunt scriptores, omnes Aristidis justitiam A GLANCE at the map of the United Kingdom will serve to show prædicant. EXERCISE 66.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

that England being inhabited by a powerful people, numerically

superior to the peoples both of Scotland and Ireland, those two 1. As many men so many minds (the minds are as numerous as the countries must necessarily be in union with her. Neither of men). 2. As many boys so many girls. 3. As many fathers so many them could rest in security in the neighbourhood of so strong a mothers. 4. As great as is thy grief so great is my joy. 5. Such as

state; both would in turn be liable to be objected to, as the are parents such are children. 6. As is the shepherd so is the flock. lamb was by the wolf in the fable; and unless they could secure 7. I do not despise the things, whatever they are. 8. Aristides is declared just by all writers, how many soever they are.

efficient foreign alliances, they must, sooner or later, fall a prey, as the lamb also did. For it would be manifestly intolerable

for the strong state to have possible enemies so near, opening a KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XIV. way at any time into the very heart of her dominion, presenting (Vol. II., p. 64.)

a ready means of injury available by the first enemy which EXERCISE 53.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

chose to bid for the friendship of either Scotland or Ireland;

and it could not be but that the strong state should perpetually 1. Every nature is preservative of itself. 2. A wonderful desire for strive to remove, by some means or other, the possibility of the city, for my friends, and for thee holds (possesses) me. 3. Thy harm from such a source. Union would seem therefore to be father is very much delighted by thy remembrance of him. 4. Anger bas suggested by the best interests of all concerned. It was also, no power over itself. 5. A wise man has always power over himself.

politically considered, a necessity. 6. Care for you makes me uneasy. 7. All men are kind judges of themselves. 8. Thy recollection of us is exceedingly pleasant to me.

In another paper (Historic Sketches, No. XIV.), it was shown 9. The friend is mindful of me and of thee. 10. (Our) father in his how the necessity for union presented itself to the mind of absence is held by a great longing after me, and after you, my brother, him who has been called “ the greatest

of the Plantagenets," and after you, O sisters. 11. (Our) friends are mindful of us. 12. “the English Justinian,” Edward I. There, too, was shown, Many of you please me. 13. Very many of us greatly love thee. especially in regard to Scotland, the manner in which the EXERCISE 54.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

English king strove to supply his necessity: how, acting accord

ing to his instincts, he tried to dragoon the Scots into union; 1. Insipiens est impotens sui. 2. Pater est potens sui. 3. Potens how he for a while succeeded, and how finally his efforts were gui est virtus. 4. Non est vitium potens sui. 5. Potensne sui est frustrated, and he had nothing under the sun for his warlike in? 6. Natura sui est conservatrix. 7. Natura virtutis est conserva: labour. His state policy was a sound one, but his means for trix sui. 8. Nemo vestrum sui potens est. 9. Nostrum plurimi sui sunt potentes. 10. Immemor mei est infidus amicus.

11. Fidi amici carrying it out were unwisely chosen, and his proud spirit 12. Tua memoria et desiderium mei mihi sunt scorned to apply itself to any other. He would be Cæsar or gratissima. 13. Cura tui me angit. 14. Plurimi vestrum, o discipuli, nothing, and in the course of his time he was both, as regarded diligentes sunt. 15. Mirus est amor sui.

the rulership of Scotland. How the union with Scotland was.

ultimately managed was also pointed out in the same paper. EXERCISE 55.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Let us now turn to the case of the sister island, and see how 1. Sallust is a very elegant writer. 2. His books I gladly read (I that came into the union. am glad to read). 3. I have a faithful friend. 4. I am very much To say that Ireland fell to England by conquest is neither attached to him. 5. The song of (thy) brother pleases me much, thou wholly true nor wholly false. It is wholly false to say that it oughtest to read it. 6. Idleness makes the body grow heavy, labour

was conquered in the sense that Edward I. tried to conquer strengthens (it). 7. Avoid that, seek this. 8. This letter moves me very Scotland-conquered, that is, as a whole, the entire nation being much. 9. These songs are very sweet.

11. The soldiers gladly obey that general. 12. All favour united under one head for the purpose of resisting a common

13. That precept of thine is excellent. 14. This opinion invader. It is not only doubtful whether, had the Irish been pleases me, that displeases me. 15. This war is very cruel. 16. This united, the Anglo-Normans who went over would ever have boy is industrious, that (one) sluggish. 17. I keep in memory that possessed more ground in the country than was needed to cover excellent precept. 18. That friend of thine is a very good man. 19. their bones, but it is almost certain that the subjugation of the That authority of yours is very great. 20. I praise the diligence of island wonld never have taken place; assuredly it would not that scholar, I blame the slowness of this (one). 21. To that (one) school with the force which actually went over. Of course, after the is very pleasant, to this (one) very troublesome.

precedent set at Hastings, where the fate of England was EXERCISE 56.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

decided in one pitched battle, and in view of the fact that a. 1. Sallustius est scriptor elegans, Livius elegantior, et Cicero ele- mob, however numerous, can avail nothing against the attack gantissimus. 2. Eorum libros libenter lego. 3. Ejus frater et amicus of disciplined troops, it is perhaps presumptuous to say so much; mihi sunt cari. 4. Fidum amicum babes et ei es aldictissimus.

5. but we have only to point to the case of Scotland for justificaFilii mei habeat fidas uxores et eas valde amant. 6. Vehementer his tion, and to see how there the whole strength of England failed literis moveor.

7. Mendaci mulieri non credas. 8. Hic puer mihi to hold in bondage a united, freedom-loving people, irregular placet, ille displicet. 9. Hoc poema valde est elegans, illud elegantius. and undisciplined though they were, in comparison with the 10. Hic tuus miles fortis est. 11. Hujus discipuli diligentia a me followers of the first soldier of his day. Ireland was not conpræceptore laudatur. 12. In hac scholā plures quam in vestra sunt quered as a whole, for it never resisted as a whole never industrii discipuli.

acknowledged for the purposes of the common weal one supreme EXERCISE 57.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

head or “ dictator whom all men should obey.” It is not, there1. Many men do not think the same on the same things (subjects) fore, absolutely true to say that it was conquered, neither is it for the same day. 2. The fool now trusts, now distrusts the same absolutely false. It fell like the house that was built upon the opinion. 3. Seditious soldiers withstand the commander himself. 4. sand, because it had no foundation and was divided against The mind moves itself. 5. Virtue is praiseworthy on its own account. itself. Bit by bit it was subjugated by force of arms, and 6. Often nothing is more hostile to a man than he is to himself. 7. according to a system of warfare which aimed at preventing a Every animal loves itself. 8. Our country ought to be dearer to us than we ourselves. 9. That precept of the Delphic oracle is excellent which required the constant presence of a strong military force

repetition of resistance by means of extirpation - a system -Koow thyself.

in the conquered districts, and which provoked from time to EXERCISE 58.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

time those outbursts of national and party anger which the 1. Hostes urbem obsident et eam expugnare tentant. 2. Hujus system has periodically put down with bloodshed and violence. magni hominis factum ab omnibus scriptoribus laudatur. 3. Cæsar At no one period in her history has Ireland ever been united as et Pompeius præclari duces Romani sunt. 4. Illi fortuna amicior est Scotland was when she successfully resisted the invader ; and quain huic.

5. Illius et hujus fortitudo mira est. 6. Rex ipse exercitus est dux, 7. Non semper eadem de iisdem rebus sentis.

certainly, at the time of the first attempt that was made upon

8. Pater et filius iisdem literis student. 9. Virtutes per se amabiles sunt. 10.

her independence, Ireland was split up into rival factions as Omnes se ipsos diligunt. 11. Patria tibi carior esse debet quam tate bitter and hostile to one another as the worst common enemy tibi. 12. Noscite vos ipsos, juvenes. 13. Mendax sæpe sibi ipsi could desire. dificüt.

The restless spirit that dwelt in the breast of every Normar

false man. that man.

very early drove the Norman masters of England to seek fresh Now, at the time he did so, Henry II. was in Normandy, adventuros, fresh conquests. Before their power in England wholly absorbed in his great struggle between Church and State, was consolidated, before they had had time to push their autho- represented by Thomas à Becket and himself; and it is reasonrity into the heart of Scotland, they looked greedily across able to suppose that he did not at the moment care very much the water which divided their newly-gotten kingdom from the for the visitor who came to him with such importunate requests kingdoms of Ireland, and they resolved to win in them a set for help in a matter where the King of England's interests were tlement as absolute and abiding as that they had obtained not concerned. The application of the Irish prince, however, in England. Lust of power, of acquisition, rather than any was not to be rejected summarily; the sound of it recalled to far-sighted views of statesmanship, prompted the first invaders the mind of the great statesman who then sat on the English of Ireland to undertake their work, and they entered upon it throne a plan he had long ago thought over, but, for want of in a spirit wholly in accordance with the motives that actuated opportunity, had lain aside. Eleven years before—that is to them.

say, in 1155—he had obtained from Pope Adrian IV. (the only The conquest of Ireland was on this wise :-It had been Englishman who ever sat in the chair of St. Peter) a Papal bull, agreed in 1161, after many trials of strength between the several granting him the lordship of Ireland with full possession of the Irish princes, that Murtogh O'Lochlin, King of Ulster, should country, the Pope claiming, and Henry for the nonce admitting, be recognised as supreme in the island. He was nominally what a right in the Pope to dispose of the whole of Christendom as was then called a suzerain, as distinguished from a sovereign; lord paramount. At the time of the grant it had not suited that is to say, he was feudal lord over his brethren by their own Henry to take the matter in hand; he had other irons in the consent-a "first among equals," but not absolute dominator, fire, and even now it was highly inconvenient to have to stir except in his own kingdom of Ulster. The princes who con. hurriedly in it. Still, a wandering Irish prince driven from his sented to this arrangement were four in number—the kings of home, and ready to agree to any conditions so long as he was Munster, Connaught, Leinster, and Meath, each of whom had restored and his enemies were punished, was not a sight that vassals under them more or less troublesome, who made their presented itself every day; and the astute mind of Henry saw sovereignty as permissive a dignity as the four kings made the at once the advisability of securing a pretext for his interference

, dignity of Murtogh O'Lochlin. Of course, a throne resting on which he would do under guise of helping a neighbouring such explosive materials must have been but an anxious place, potentate to his own. Once in Ireland—if with a decent excuse not to say an unsafe one. The broils which had only been all the better-his plan was never to loosen his hold on it; to temporarily suppressed through the effect of exhaustion in the make it his either by playing off one petty prince against combatants, broke out again as soon as strength had been another, and making the winner recognise him for lord, or else, renewed, and all was commotion in the kingdom of Erin. if needs must, though he did not want the trouble, by regular Fighting for fighting's sake was sufficient inducement, when all conquest of the island. other causes failed, to make the princes take up arms; and the Unable to quit Aquitaine, where Dermot found him, and where only wonder is how the people subsisted at all in a country certain disputes with the barons, together with the trouble which was ravaged with fire and sword all over on an average respecting Beckot, detained him, Henry gave the Irish prince once a year. Domestic peace within the limits of the lesser letters recommendatory to the English nobles, and issued this kingdoms themselves was a thing unknown; the vassals were proclamation in his behalf :-"Henry, King of England, Duke too nearly equal for jealousy not to show itself in action; and of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, to all his liegecombined, they were more than a match for their kings. This men—English, Norman, Welsh, and Scotch --and to all the was proved in the case of Murtogh O'Lochlin himself, who nations under his dominion, sends greeting. As soon as the having waged war on one of his vassals in a perfectly barbarous present letters shall come to your hands, know that Dermot, way, having put out his eyes, and slain his most intimate friends Prince of Leinster, has been received into the bosom of our grace in cold blood, roused by his acts so great a resistance on the and benevolence. Wherefore whosoever, within the ample extent part of his other subjects, that he was overthrown and killed in of our territories, shall be willing to lend aid towards the restoa battle, on the issue of which he had staked his fortune. ration of this prince, as our faithful and liege subject, let such

On his death in 1166, the nominal sovereignty of Erin passed person know that we do hereby grant to him, for such purpose, to Roderic O'Connor, King of Connaught, a savage, whose first our licence and favour." act, on coming to his father's throne in Connaught, was to put Armed with this proclamation, Dermot came over to England out the eyes of his two brothers, lest they should be troublesome and hastened to Bristol, where he expected to find those who as competitors. He is also famous for having killed with his would lend a willing hand to his enterprise, thus backed by the own hand an enemy whom he had had loaded with chains, and king; but few of the English nobles had ever heard of him until who was defenceless through his fetters at the time the king the present moment, and fewer still were inclined to risk any. struck him. Such a man was not likely to have a peaceable thing in a cause where the question was between barbarism on time of it, and his reign proved to be such a turmoil and con both sides, and where the issue seemed to promise little profit fusion as to tempt the intervention of a foreign foe.

to assistants. No one who had anything to lose, or who had Dermot Mac-Murchad, King of Leinster, a bloodthirsty and anything better with which to occupy himself, would listen to licentious barbarian, had, during the reign of the late suzerain, the Irish prince, who was driven, therefore, to apply to men of conducted himself so infamously as to excite universal hatred desperate fortunes; and such men there were then a3 now, and and disgust against him, except on the part of the suzerains as there always will be, ready for anything which holds out who were his dear friends and intimates. He had carried on an the slightest hope of mending their broken condition. Such s adulterous intercourse with the wife of a neighbouring and man was Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, commonly known friendly prince, Tiernan O'Ruaro, the Lord of Breffny, in Con. in history as Strongbow. Dermot promised to give him his naught, an act which caused the direst commotion, and was daughter Eva in marriage, and to secure him the succession, the beginning of sorrows for all Ireland; for it became as after himself, to the throne of Leinster, on condition of his fruitfal a source of quarrel as the abduction of Helen from bringing over an efficient force to Ireland in the following spring. her husband Menelaus, and was the root of bitterness which Strongbow assented, and Dermot was fortunate enough to secure, sprang up and finally choked the fair flower of Irish inde in anticipation of his coming, the services of Maurice Fitz-Gerald pendence. So long as O'Lochlin was on the throne this bad and Robert Fitz-Stephen, brothers, and adventurers by birth man had a friend, and gloried in his shame shamelessly; but and profession. These agreed to come over as early in the with Roderic O'Connor, though he was what he was, came a spring as they could; and Dormot having made his preparavery different ruler. O'Connor was friendly to the lord of tions, went secretly to Ireland, and remained concealed for Breffny, and espoused his cause immediately on coming to the time in the neighbourhood of Ferns. throne. Under his auspices a rebellion was fomented in Dermot's A foolish and premature outburst of his, made before his own kingdom of Leinster. Tiernan O'Ruarc took the field with allies could join him, nearly proved to be his ruin, and brought a large force raised in his own dominions, and recruited by his old enemy, Tiernan O'Ruarc, and Roderic O'Connor, titular numerous bands of men whom Dermot’s brutality and tyranny monarch of Erin, down

upon him. He lay at their mercy

, which had embittered against him. In a short time Dermot was

driven he experienced on condition of renouncing for ever his rights in to his last covert, and was then obliged to fly for succour to the Leinster, except to a small territory not more ihan sufficient to King of England.

support the dignity of a lesser baron. He accepted the cox

dition, but he purposed while doing so only to gain time till his

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XVI.
English friends should be ready to join him.
In May, 1169, Robert Fitz-Stephen, accompanied by Hervey

SECTION XXIX.-CUCURBITACEÆ, OR THE CUCUMBER

TRIBE. de Montemarisco, a relative of the Earl of Pembroke, and by 30 knights, 60 men-at-arms, and 300 archers, landed in the This natural order is allied by many characteristics to the creek Bann, near Wexford, and were the first Anglo-Normans passion-flower, for which reason we treat of it in this place. that had appeared in Ireland as invaders. They were imme- Characteristics : Flowers monæcious, diæcious, or polygamous; diately joined by Maurice de Prendergast, a Welsh knight, calyx with tube adherent to ovary; stamens free, or monadelphous, with 10 men-at-arms and 60 archers. Dermot, with 500 men, or triadelphous; anthers turning outwards ; ovary three to fiveall he could collect, hastened to meet them, and the united rarely one-carpelleà ; seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous; stem forces, numbering not more than a thousand men, instantly uniformly herbaceous, climbing leaves alternate, palminerved, marched upon Wexford, which capitulated after making a fair each furnished with a lateral stipule ; inflorescence, axillary. show of resistance. From Wexford, Dermot took his friends If we compare the parts of the flower of a common cucumber to Ferns, where they rested three weeks, the Irish princes flower with those of a passion-flower, a similarity in many retaking no steps to molest them, or to delay their progress; spects will be found to hold good. Like the passion-flower, the and from Ferns they went on a marauding expedition into calyx has the colour of petals ; like the passion-flower, there is Ossory, to allow of Dermot revenging himself on Mac-Gilla- the same growing together of stamens; like the passion-flower, Patrick, prince of the district, who had caused the eyes of the ovary has usually one cavity, and the arrangement of ovules Dermot's son to be rooted out. Ossory was ravaged with fire within the ovary is similar. Moreover, both orders yield fruits and sword, the bravest exertions of the people being of no which are juicy. These are strong resemblances. Let us now avail against disciplined and armour-clad troops ; and it was examine the parts in which the two natural orders are dissimilar. only when Dermot was tired of slaughter, and when his In the first place, then, on referring to our characteristics of the allies found that the Irish princes were at length making a order, we find that the flowers in the tribe Cucurbitacece are move against them, that the poor people ceased from being monecious, or diæcious, or polygamous, which means that some vexed.

flowers are male and others female; the male and the female At Tara, Roderic O'Connor convened a council of all the Irish flowers sometimes exist on the same plant, sometimes on diffeprinces, and marched thence with a large but tumultuous army rent plants, and at other times on both. In this important to Dublin. At Dublin, divisions sprang up among the chiefs, particular, then, the Cucurbitacec differ from the natural order some of the most powerful of whom withdrew themselves from we have just been considering. Moreover, the cucumber has the league and went home, leaving the national cause to itself, very rough leaves, which the passion-flower has not; the or not believing that there was really any national cause at cucumber has an inferior ovary, the passion-flower a' superior; stake.

the passion-flower has rays, the cucumber flower has none. At Ferns, Dermot entrenched himself, assisted by the skill Nor does the distinction between the two natural families end and science of his Anglo-Norman allies; and when Roderic came with a mere difference of form and parts. The chemical cha with forces outnumbering the strangers by about thirty to one, racter of their secretions, as we shall find by-and-by, differs he found himself unable to act on the offensive against them. also. The passion-flower tribe are uniformly harmless as regards He tried negotiation with Dermot, and with the English com- every part except their root, whereas every member of the manders separately, endeavouring to detach them from each cucumber order contains a poison. The cucumber or gourd other by, appeals to their respective interests. But tho con- family, occurs naturally in all tropical and sub-tropical regions ; federates compared notes, and the treachery of Roderic returned its members are more rare in temperate climes, but the shortedgeways into his own bosom. He was compelled, in spite of ness of their life, usually limited to one summer, admits of the his great army, to make terms with the rebel, to promise him cultivation in Europe of many tropical species. recognition as sovereign prince of Leinster, and to do the like The greater number, if not all the members of the tribe by his heirs afterwards. Dermot was left free to follow his Cucurbitacee, contain a bitter poisonous principle presenting own inclinations, and he accordingly marched with his allies, many degrees of intensity. In the colocynth it attains its maxireinforced by Maurice Fitz-Gerald and a small following, to mum, and, being extracted, furnishes us with a valuable mediDublin, which had thrown off its duty to him, and which was cine. In the ordinary cucumber the poisonous bitter principle now made to pay by rivers of blood for its temerity, being only is usually but little developed; never to the extent of being saved from utter destruction by the wish of Dermot to turn his dangerous, although frequently enough to be disagreeable. In arms northward, where the King of Munster was fighting on the melon, sugar is the principal secretion; nevertheless, the unequal terms with O'Connor of Connaught.

bitter principle so prevalent in the family is not wanting; it Allying himself with the King of Munster, Dermot drove exists in the outside rind of the fruit, and to a still greater Roderic back into his own dominions, and finding himself so extent in the roots, which are violently emetic. Colocynth has strong, resolved to set up a claim to be sovereign of all Erin. already been mentioned. White bryony, another specios, is still At this juncture Raymond le Gros, in command of the vanguard more violent in its action. The common cucumber (Cucumis of the Earl of Pembroke, arrived at a place near Waterford, and sativus), although capable of growing in the open air of our cli being joined by Hervey de Montemarisco, succeeded in esta- mate, is a native of India and Tartary. The species called blishing himself in a fort near Waterford, of which city the Dudaim is cultivated in Turkey on, account of the delicious inhabitants made some resolute but vain attempts to oust the odour of its fruit, which, however, is possessed of an insipid taste. strangers, who, in return, made some direfuí attacks on the Gourds are certain species of Cucurbitacece with very large Waterford folk; and on one occasion put to death seventy fruit. Although our garden cucumber possesses no great claims of their chief men, prisoners, in cold blood, and in the most to beauty, it is otherwise with certain species. The Cucumis diabolical manner.

Three months afterwards the Earl of Pem- Momordica, for example, is a very beautiful Indian plant, the broke himself, in spite of a positive order from his king, which leaves and fruit of which differ in external appearance from reached him at Milford Haven as he was about to embark, and almost every species of the Cucurbitaceae (Fig. 153). Less which forbade him to proceed, came over to Waterford with beautiful than extraordinary is the species called Trichosanthes 200 knights, 1,000 archers, and a large supply of stores and colubrina (Fig. 156), the fruit of which resembles huge serpents provisions.

hanging from the parent stem. It is a native of Central AmeRaymond le Gros joined his master, and the earl, knowing rica ; its leaves are more than a foot in diameter, and its flowers that if he wanted to justify by success his disregard of King disposed in corymbs; the corolla is white, and bordered by a Henry's orders, he must lose no time in setting to work, gave long hair-like fringe; hence the specific term Trichosanthes, which orders for an immediate attack on Waterford. The city was

means, in Greek, hairy-flowered. carried by assault, and then Dermot came, gave the earl his The Ecbalium agreste-a plant better known as the wild daughter Eva in marriage then and there, and consulted with cucumber, or squirting cucumber-is cultivated at Mitoham, in his too-powerful son-in-law as to their course for the future. Surrey, for the sake of a peculiar drug called elaterium, which Dublin, which had again revolted, was to be reduced. Thither is yielded by its fruit. The fruit, after it has fallen from its merched the foreigners, and took it easily, filling its streets and stalk, possesses the curious property of expelling its seeds houses with death and destruction.

through the hole in which the stalk was inserted. The drug

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itself is obtained from a thick green mucus that surrounds the will be seen, are alternate, which, in this family, constitutes an seeds. This mucus is collected from the fruit when it is nearly important generic distinction. ripe, and after being allowed to stand for a short time, it be- Let us now observe the flowers (Fig. 159). We find them to comes turbid and deposits a sediment, which, when it has been consist of a calyx in one piece or sepal; hence the flower is dried, is known as elaterium. It is a powerful purgative and monosepalous. We find, moreover, that the calyx is furnished irritant, and has an

with five tooth-like acid taste. The

projections, which Bryonia dioica, or

would have resulted common bryony, is

in the generation of a plant which fur.

five different sepals, nishes one of the

had the progress of principal medicinos

indentation gone far used in homæo.

enough. pathy. It is indi.

The corolla, also, genous to England,

consists of one part and is found in al.

or petal; hence the most every hedge

flower is said to be row in the southern

monopetalous. Our and western coun.

second diagram(Fig. ties, attracting no

158) represents one tice by its pretty.

of these flowers cut looking bunches of

open in such a scarlet berries and

manner that the its beautifully

mode of insertion of formed cordate

the stamens is evipalmate leaves. It

dent. Like the must not be con

calyx, the corolla is founded with the

also five dentated. black bryony, or

Remark, now, how Tamus communis,

the stamens are atanother plant used

tached. They spring by homeopathic

from between the practitioners. This

dentated processes belongs to a diffe

or lobes of the corent natural order,

rolla; and this is namely, Dioscore. 153. ELATERIUM-LIKE GOURD (CUCUMIS MOMORDICA).

invariable for all aceae. It has long,

the genera and spetwining stems and bunches of red berries; but its leaves, although cies of the Solanacece, serving to distinguish their members they are cordate, are not divided into lobes like those of the from those of the Primulaceæ, or the primrose tribe. If the common bryony. They are of a dark-green colour, almost ap. reader examine the construction of a primrose, he will find proaching to black.

what we say to be true. SECTION XXX.-SOLANACEÆ, OR THE NIGHTSHADE If we now proceed from the flower to the ovary, and trans. TRIBE.

versely divide it, two separate cells may be observed, each of Characteristics : Calyx free ; corolla regular, in five divisions; which contains a number of ovules (Fig. 160). This ovary, stamens inserted on the tube of

when ripe, constitutes the fruit, the corolla, their number equal to

155

a small two-celled black berry, that of the divisions, and alter

If a seed be transversely divided, nating with them. Anthers burst.

the embryo will be observed coiled ing longitudinally, rarely by pores,

up within it, and is therefore at the apex; ovary two-celled ;

said by botanists to be curved style continuous ; stigma simple ;

(Fig. 161). Finally, the most pericarp with two, four, or many

essential characteristics of the cells; either a capsule with a double

Nightshade tribe are superior twodissepiment parallel with the

celled ovary, regular flower, and valves, or a berry with placentæ

alternate leaves. The latter pe adhering to the dissepiment. Her

culiarity distinguishes them from baceous plants or shrubs ; leaves

the Gentian tribe, with which alternate, undivided, or lobed ; in.

their appearance in other respects florescence variable, often axillary;

corresponds. pedicles without bracts. 154

Numbers of the numerous In the above description of the

family of the Solanaceu belong characters of plants belonging to

to the tropics, very few species the tribe Solanacec, the term "dis

being natives of temperate regions, sepiment,” from the Latin di or dis,

and none existing in either northapart, and sepes, a hedge, is applied

southern frigid zone. to the partitions that divide the

Nearly all, if not all, the species cells of the ovary from one another. 154. THE MANDRAKE (MANDRAGORA 155. FRUIT OF THE

of the Solanaceæ contain a poison When we inform the reader that

OFFICINALIS.)

STRAMONIUM.

of a narcotic kind. Even that the nightshade, henbane, tobacco,

useful solanaceous plant, the stramonium, and the mandrake plant, all belong to this natural | potato, is not entirely free from poison. The fruits are notoorder, we state enough to convey to him a general impression riously poisonous, and even the juice of raw potatoes is inconcerning the Solanaceo. It is a highly dangerous family, jurious. Nevertheless, the potato, as we all know, is highly although one that ministers to our sustenance in the potato, nutritions. This arises from the starch and gluten which and to the comfort of many in the tobacco.

it contains being mingled with so little of the poisonous The best flower the reader can select for making himself principle that the latter is destroyed by the cooking process to acquainted with the

characteristics of the Solanaceæ will be which potatoes are subjected before being eaten. The eggeplant that of the common deadly nightshade. Let it be procured is one of the Solanacec, so in like manner is the tomata ; both with leaves attached, for they merit observation. The leaves, it are occasionally eaten; the latter, indeed, frequently; by the

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