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in the cloud and in the sea, were figurative of our open passage through the blood of Christ, in the Lord's good way; and also of the ordinance of baptism. The murmurings of the Israelites are very expressive of our's, which are various, and almost always. When the Israelites saw the Egyptians marching after them, they were sore afraid, and cried out unto the Lord; but it seems, by their address to Moses, and by what the psalmist says, Psalm cvi. 7. to be nothing but sinful complaining: he says, "Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt, they remembered not the multitude of thy mercies, but provoked him at the sea, even at the Red Sea.1* Having passed safely through the sea, at Marah, a march of three days, they murmur for want of water, though three days before they had sung the- high praises of God, for delivering them completely from the rage of the enemy: yet here the water being bitter, it was an occasion of their murmuring. Moses on this account cried unto the Lord, who shewed him a tree, which being cast into the waters, they became sweet. Here the Lord gave them an express ordinance or command to walk in, agreeable to his revealed will, proclaiming himself to be Jehovah, the physician- and healer. The bitter water made sweet, may shew and remind us, how Christ and his presence with his people sweetens and sanctifies their greatest and most bitter afflictions: this
place was called Marah, i. e. bitterness, on account of the bitter waters.
This place was Shur, in the wilderness: from hence they removed by the direction of the cloud to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and three score and ten palm trees, and they encamped there by the waters. Doubtless this situation must be very satisfactory to them; and it may serve to remind us of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, whose doctrines are as refreshing to the spiritual Israel of God, as these twelve wells of water were to the Israelites; and also of the seventy disciples sent forth by Christ to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick, who, like palm-tr,ees, were borne up, and looking heaven-ward, whose doctrine was green, full of verdure, and where received, caused such to walk in the Lord's ways uprightly. At Elim the children of Israel abode several days, and might, in the twelve wells of water, be reminded of the number of their tribes, and in the seventy palm trees, of the seventy souls of Israel that came into Egypt. From hence they removed to Sin or Zin; from thence to Dopkah, from thence to Alush, from thence to Rephidim.
In this wilderness they murmured for want of bread, and the Lord sent them quails and manna. Here the sabbath is first mentioned, though not first commanded; it is conceived that in Egypt they had neglected it, and since their coming
thence, they had marched on it. Now on giving the manna, a rule is given concerning its universal observation: by the Lord's command, a pot of manna is to be kept, as a memorial to future generations, that the Lord fed his people with miraculous bread in the wilderness: it was typical of Christ, the bread of life.
Their next removal was to Rephidim, where they' murmur for want of water, and the Lord gave them water from a rock of flint. This was also figurative of Christ, the Rock of salvation. who being wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities, the waters of life flow forth to the refreshment of his church and people; Rephidim and Sinai are one; it is called Horeb and Sinai indifferently: it was a mountain with two tops, one of which bore the name of Sinai, the other of Horeb: so that the rock smitten .was at the skirts of the hill from Horeb to Sinai. In a cleft of this rock Moses was, when the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed his name, "The Lord, the Lord God, gracious and merciful," &c. The people are scourged for their .murmurings by Amalek's coming out against them-, yet Amalek is conquered at Moses's prayer.
The people come to Sinai on the first day of the third month, called Sivan, it answers to a part of our May. On being encamped here, the Lord speaking out of the cloud of glory, called Moses up into the mount: this was the second day after they came here. On the third Moses* went up into the mount, and relateth the people's answer to God. On the fourth aud fifth days, Moses sanctifieth the people, and sets bounds to the mountain. On the sixth day of the month Sivan in the morning, the law was pronounced by Christ, fifty days after they came out of Egypt: on this festival after the ascension and coronation of Christ in heaven, the Holy Ghost, and the gift of tongues, were given to the apostles.
I will now introduce my text and subject, by viewing and commenting on the verses which go before, and lead unto my text: ver. I. "In the third month, wheu the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." Abib or Nisan was the first month, Jair or Zif was the second month, answering to April and May; Sivan was the third month, it answered to May and June: ver. 2. "For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness, and there Israel camped before the mount;" this was in Arabia. The cloud of glory in which Jehovah dwelt, who by it led and guided them in their marches, was on the mount; and doubtless, also, spread over them, for their security and protection; out of it Jehovah, the angel, who appeared to Moses in the bush, who led thenj Out of Egypt, who went before them as their conductor, spake to Moses, the shepherd of this chosen flock, and called him to come up into the mount, i. e. higher towards that top of it, called Sinai: ver. 3. "And Moses went up unto God, and the Lord called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel ;** ver. 4. "Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you to myself:" ver. 5. " Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me, above all people ; for all the earth is mine:" Ver. 6. "And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.'* Thus the angel Jehovah, who was visibly present in this symbol of his presence, with Moses on the mount, spake with an audible voice to his servant Moses; and as the cloud now rested on the mount, the people had ail the evidence they could of the Lord's being about to display his further glory amongst them j and what is contained in these four verses, is as I may say, the Lord's preface to what he was at this time going to deliver unto them. ';-'. '. It was now the day which immediately followed their coming hither; and we will make the following observations on them, as they may lead