« AnteriorContinuar »
earth, earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven."
By Adain and Christ compared together, we understand the one to be the type, and the other the antitype. This is a truth which our apostle intimates in more places than one: he expressly declares it in the fifth chapter to the Romans, and the fourteenth verse, where he says, that "Adam was a figure of him that was to come." He was a figure of Christ in these following respects: Adam was a public person, and the head of all mankind, in his state of inuocency, and hence it was, that he falling, conveyed to all his posterity, the imputation of sin ; and there with the total depravity of his fallen nature, his misery, and death: so Christ, as the head of his church and people, conveys to them righteousness and life.
This is what the apostle treats of in the fifth chapter to the Romans; but in the chapter before us, his design in speaking of the two Adams, is to point out how Christ was set forth and represented by the first man, (even in his pure ere* ation state, above the consideration of the fall) as pre-ordained before the world was, to be the head and root of the elect, to convey to thern all the blessings of supernatural life, immortality, and blessedness. Our apostle's doctrine in this chapter is concerning the resurrection of the elect dead; this he proves by many arguments, in the beginning of this chapter, the chief of which are drawn from the resurrection of Christ, in whom all the elect must live, as in Adam all die. This is treated of from the beginning of it, to the twenty-first and twenty-second verses. At the thirty-fifth verse he starts the question, as if made by one who yet objected to the doctrine of the resurrection; with what body, or in what state and condition of life shall the dead arise? To which he answers that, for matter and substance, it is the same body they had before. But for qualifications, the condition of their persons and state of life, shall differ from what they now are, as much as a body celestial, does from a terrestrial body.
After this, he proceeds to shew, that God had ordained two such different conditions of life, and of bodies, for the sons of men: the one common for all men; the other peculiar to the elect. "There is, (says he) a natural body, and there is a spiritual body." To prove which, he quotes a passage from the second chapter of Genesis, and applies it to the present subject, saying, "And so it is written, the first man Adam, was made a living soul ;" and, as well knowing the mind of the Holy Ghost in the passage, he adds to it, "the last Adam was made a quickening spirit." This is what he deduces from it.
Thus he makes Adam a type of Christ. He calls one the first Adam, and the other the second Adam; and by giving this name to Christ, he plainly declares, that the one was represented by the other, which plainly proves that they were both public heads: the one the head of nature, the other the head of grace.
All mankind were in the first by creation, and through the channel of generation, receive their distinct personalities, being, and life, and will do so, down to the end of time.
All the elect were in the second, by that eternal act of the mind and will of God, expressed in the scripture by the phraseology of being chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world: and they all receive being, spiritual life, and their new and supernatural creation in him, when they are born again through the almighty energy of the Holy Ghost.
The apostle next shews that God, in his decrees, ordained that Adam should be first, with his natural body, to usher in, (if I may so say,) Christ in his spiritual body. The original of •these two heads, is thus pointed out in my text, and they are therein compared together; " The first man is of the earth., earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven."
The comparison between the first man Adam, who is of the earth, earthy; and the second man, viz. Christ, who is the Lord from heaven, stands thus. Adam, the head and root of all mankind, had in him a principle of natural life; so Christ, the head and root of all the elect, has in himself a principle of spiritual life: and, like as Adam conveys his natural life to all his offspring, so Christ conveys his spiritual life to all his seed : and Adam was, says Dr. Goodwin, before his fall, a prophetic type of Christ to come, as the head of the elect, who, as a public person, should advance them to the like glorious condition, as himself had in heaven. The glory of this accomplishment was appointed for him, without the consideration of the fall: that interposing, he came, suffered, and died, to remove the obstacles that the fall had laid in the way of the execution of the work first designed.
A further comparison between the first and second Adam may be taken thus: the formation of Adam's body, was by the immediate hand of God; the union of his body and soul was a shadow of the personal union of our nature, in the person of the Son of God. Adam's body was suited to take in all the pleasures and comforts, which the whole world could afford;—it was the epitome of the whole world, and every creature in it;—it contained the perfections of all creatures ;—it had a natural beauty in it;—. and was originally immortal ; i. e. it had perpetual vigour; yet, it was but earth. Because the subject lies out of the rOad of common observation, I will explain all this before I proceed.
There was a consultation of the Trinity concerning the creation of man. Gen. i. 26. His body was formed out of the virgin earth, so that he was "without father, without mother," and is expressly called the " Son of God." Luke iii. 38. The union of his soul and body was by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and wholly mysterious. The body of Adam was suited to take in all the creatures in this lower world ;—it was made for him;—his body was suited to it, and fitted to receive pleasure and comfort from every creature in it;—his body was the epitome of the world, and all things in it;—they were all suited to him, and he to them. There was a majesty, beauty, glory, and excellency in his body, as animated with a living rational soul, so that Solomon, in all his glory, did not shine forth in such majestic brightness and beauty, as the first man did in his native inherent beauty, majesty, glory, and excellency in paradise; yet his body, though the sum of all created aud creature excellencies, suited to take in the comforts of the whole creation, and to receive joy and pleasure from every creature: yet it was but an earthy body formed out of the dust, it was fitted only for a corporeal state. He had, indeed, universal headship, as the father of all rational offspring; he was also invested with lordship and dominion over every creature in this our world: yet he could never have mounted higher than this state