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too far into a desolated country to be able even to make good his retreat.

The French papers announce the re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland, and the assembling of the diet at Warsaw, which has constituted itself into the General Confederation of Poland.

A peace was concluded between Russia and Turkey previous to the commencement of the war with France; but it is af. firmed by Bonaparte, that the Porte refuses to ratify the treaty, and that war will be immediately renewed on the part of that power. This is probably, however, only the sanguine anticipation of what he hopes to effect by means of the ambassador whom he has sent so Constantinople; as the letters received by the regular channel of communication, are silent as to any such occurrence,

Swed EN, it is supposed, will take a part in the war against France; but we apprehend, that, in the present exhausted state of her resources, it will be almost impossible for her to transport and maintain large armies, unless she is largely assisted with money.

Conformably to the expectations which were formed respecting the course of events in SPAIN, Lord Wellington has advanced into the interior of that country. He entered Salamanca on the 17th of June; the army of Marmont retreating towards Toro, and leaving a garrison of eight hundred men in some strong fortifications, which had been erected by the labour of three years, on the ruins of the colleges of Salamanca. These forts it became necessary formally to invest. They were carried by storm on the 27th, with the loss of upwards of one hundred men killed, and three hundred and fifty wounded. Marmont, who, though he remained in sight with his whole army, did not think it prudent to interrupt Lord Wellington's proceedings at Salamanca, since the fall of these forts, has retired towards Walladolid. No general action has taken place, but several severe skirunishes have given our

cavalry an opportunity of farther proving their superiority. The latest dispatches from Lord Wellington are dated from Nava, about fifteen leagues from Walladolid. In the Asturias, General Bonnet, who commanded the French force there, is said to have been so pressed by the Guerillas, as to be under the necessity of evacuating that province. A Spanish force has laid siege to Astorga. In the south, Soult had collected an army of 25,000 men, with which he advanced towards General Hill, who, with a force nearly equal to his own, was posted at Albuera. A battle was expected in this quarter; but Soult has suddenly retired towards Seville; in consequence of which General Hill has moved forward to Almandralejo. General Ballasteros his experienced a defeat in Andalusia. In other parts of Spain, successful expeditions have been undertaken by the Guerillas, aided by the British ships of war, against different points occupied by the enemy. A considerable body of British troops from Sicily, joined by some Spanish regiments from Minorca, were about to make a descent in Catalonia. And it is said, that Spain has at last consented that an army of Spaniards shall be formed, to be trained and commanded by British officers.


The intelligence received from America, has assumed, in the course of the present month, a still more decided character of hostility than before. A resolution of an hostile description, and supposed to be in favour of immediate war with Great Britain, had been adopted by both the House of . Representatives and the Senate; so that an absolute rupture may be anticipated. We cannot but deplore this unhappy issue. We are, however, fully of opinion, that while America has most unseasouably and unjustly hurried on this contest, she is likely to be by far the greatest sufferer from it. But we will not entirely abandon the hope, although we confess it is a very saint one, that hostilities may yet be stayed, and that the world will be spared the farther aggravation of its calamities, which must be the consequence of such a war.


partli Ahi Exit at Y Potocredin Gs. 1. The state of insubordination and outrage, in some northern counties, having become such as to call for the interference of Parliament, a secret committee was appointed by each house to consider the subject. The reports of these committees made it ap

pear that the evil was of a nature which the existing powers of the magistracy were unable to repress. They gave a brief view of the lawless proceedings of the rioters, and of the system of military organization which they are stated to have adopted, similar in many respects to that which in Ireland preceded

the late rebellion. The following dreadful oath has been generally administered among them : “I. A. B. of my own voluntary will, do declare, and solemnly swear, that I will never reveal to any person or persons, in any place or places, under the canopy of heaven, the names of the persons who compose the secret committee, either by word, deed, or sign; their proceedings, meeting place, abode, dress, features, marks, complexion, connections, or any thing else that may lead to the discovery of the same; on the penalty of being put out of the world by the first brother that shall meet me, my name and character blotted out of existence, and never to be remembered but with contempt and abhorrence. I further swear, that I will use my best endeavours to punish by death, any traitor or traitors, should any rise up amongst us, he or them; and though he should fly to the verge of nature, I will pursue him with unceasing vengeance. So help me God to keep this oath inviolable".” The committees dwell on the extremie difficulty of procuring evidence to convict of. feuders, in consequence of the system of terror which has been enforced, not only by threats, but assassination;–and on the eagerness and activity which have been displayed in procuring fire-arms, and in acquiring a knowledge of their use. The legislative measure, founded on this report, is confined to the counties of Nottingham, Lancashire, and Cheshire, and the

* The following passage of Scripture, which it appears, though not from the report of the committee, has been extensively used as a motto by the insurgents, too plainly indicates the designs of at least some among them:—“And thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end; thus saith the Lord God, Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall not be the same: exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and it shall be no more, until he come whose right it is ; and 1 will give it to him." Ezek. xxi.25–27. It is no more than justice, however, to add, that there is good reason to believe that not a single religionist of any description has been concerned in these disturbances. This is an important fact, which ought by no means to be overlooked. It is well known indeed, that among our revolutionary spirits, some years back, it used to be considered as a decided mark of incivism to have a Bible in the house,

West Riding of York. It gives to magist trates a power of searching for and seizing secreted arms; also a power of summarily dispersing tumultuary meetings, and apprehending persons engaged in them, without waiting the time which is prescribed by the Riot Act; and of holding them to beil till the quarter sessions, where they may be tried as for a misdemeanor. It gives, moreover, to the magistrates of the adjacent counties a concurrent jurisdiction, so as to prevent the rioters from eluding justice by crossing the boundary line of their counties. This law is to continue in force only till the next meeting of Parliament; and though confined at present to four counties, it may be extended to others by proclamation. Ministers expressed a hope, that this mild measure would be found sufficient to suppress the present disturbance; but if not, Parliament would be again assembled, at whatever inconvenience, rather than resort to a harsher measure in the first instance than appeared to be absolutely necessary. It is impossible too highly to commend this spirit of moderation and forbearance on the part of Government. 2. A measure of still more importance, because not a measure of temporary but of permanent domestic policy, has been adopted by the legislature. We allude to the bill for repealing the Conventicle and Fivemile Acts, and for amending the Act of Toleration. This bill has passed through both Houses, with an unanimity that strongly marks the growing liberality of the age. We shall take an opportunity of detailing its provisions, when it shall have finally passed into a law. 3. The bill for the abolition of sinecures, which had passed the House of Commons, has been thrown out in the House of Lords. 4. The sum of 100,000l. has again been voted for the increase of small livings. A sum of 30,000l. has also been voted for the erection of pentientiary houses. 5. A bill has been brought into Parliament, by Sir William Scott, for the reform of our ecclesiastical courts, and particularly in respect to the power of excommunication; certainly an anomalous power, as it is now exercised, and one which is liable to very great abuse. 6. We intimated, in our last number, that Government had shewn a disposition to conciliate the Catholics of Ireland, by giving the subject of their claims a full consideration during the approaching recess. . A motion, brought forward by Mr. Canning, in the House of Commons, pledging that house to enter on the consideration of those claims in the next session of Parliament, was carried by a considerable majority; in the House of Lords, a similar motion, brought forward by the Marquis Wellesley, was lost by one vote. 7. In a discussion which took place in the House of Commons, on the subject of the ral state of the finances of the country, the Chancellor of the Exchequer admitted, that some new and vigorous plan of finance was called for by the circumstances of the country; and that if it should be his arduous duty to propose financial measures to the house in the next session, he should fees it necessary to propose such a plan for its consideration. 8. It appears, by papers laid before Parliament, that the number of French officers who have broken their parole, chiefly during the last two years, amount to 468, while not one British officer has been found to have been guilty of a similar perfidy. A bill is in its progress through Parliament, for making it felony to assist prisoners of war in effecting their escape.

in a war, in tel, LIG ence. The Gazettes are filled with details of naval

exploits on a small scale, in the Mediterranean, in the Bay of Biscay, and in the North Sea. Several convoys have fallen into our hands, which were destined for the supply of the French armics in Spain; and some small fortresses, garrisoned by French troops, have been taken & demolished, on different points of the Spanish coast.—A Danish squadron, consisting of a 44 gun frigate, three sloops of war, and 25 gun-boats, which had run, for shelter, into the small creek of Lyngoe, has been entirely destroyed by some of our cruisers.

noxiestic intel, Lic ence.

Dr. Law has been appointed the Bishop of Chester, in the room of Dr. Sparkes, removed thence to Ely.

The Right Hon. C. B. Bathurst has been appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; Sir Thomas Plomer, Attorney-General, in the room of Sir W. Gibbs, raised to a Puisne Judgeship in the Court of Common Pleas; and Mr. Garrow, Solicitor-General.

We are happy to observe, that a plan has been adopted by Government, for giving liberal pensions, not only to all officers of the

army who are disabled by wounds, but to all

non-commissioned officers and privates under similar circumstances.

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We should have been glad to return the paper of No GRADUATE, but we apprehend it has been destroyed. We do not, at this distance of time, recollect the particular ground on which its insertion was declined—whether it was “too strong," as the writer supposes, or too weak, to suit our meridian.

We are always happy to receive communications from AMEN. In commenting on our remarks on an Electic Reviewer (No. for May, p. 327), he appears to have wholly mistaken our drift. Our object was simply to repel what we conceived to be an unjust charge, and we had not the most remote intention to reflect blame either on the Baptist Society, or on the Baptist Mission Society. AMEN is anxious it should be understood that the reviewer has never had any thing to do with the concerns of the Baptist Mission Society. We

have said nothing which would imply that he had any share in its management, but we .

willingly give currency to this direct disclaimer. We deny that the object of our defence owes anything to forbearance. If it be true that another Clergyman has prompted persecution, we can see no reason why his unchristian conduct should not be exposed.

We are sorry to have overlooked J.C.'s communications. We intend to use them at a convenient opportunity.

We have no objection to Mr. Whyte's republication of the paper he mcntions.

ERRATA. In the last Number, p. 363, col. 2, l. 6, for matter read manner. p. 375, col. 1, last line but one, sor expresses read represses.

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HE exploits of heroes and conquerors have been much celebrated in their own age, and their histories recorded for the admiration of posterity. I allow them the praise they deserve; but when I consider the lives they destroyed, and the miseries they brought upon mankind, in consequence of the various calamities of war, I am pained at the relation, and my pleasure in contemplating their conduct is much diminished. Different, however, are my sensations when I read the lives and conduct of pious ministers of the Gospel. Through their endeavours, under the Divine blessing, the miseries of men are alleviated, and the . and needy brought to possess durable riches. By their ministrations, souls ruined by sin are saved from destruction, and are made the happy partakers of grace and glory. An eminent instance, calculated to illustrate this observation, will be found in the subject of the following memoir, the late Rev. C. Bayley, D. D., founder and minister of ‘St. James's church, Manchester. He was born near Whitchurch, in Shropshire, about the year 1752, of respectable parents, though his father was deprived of an estate to which he was the lawful heir. His mother was remarkable for her piety. She was constant in her attendance on the excellent services of our church, on the week days as Christ. Obsery. No. 128.

life will abundantl

well as on Sundays, and her son, from a child, was her companion in these holy exercises. Of him, indeed, it may be almost said, as of Jeremiah and John the Baptist, that he was sanctified from the womb. He discovered very early marks of a religious mind, and a desire to be instructed in things far above the general capacities of children. Even when about six years of age, he was in the daily habit of using fervent prayer. He

was accustomed to pray in a room

adjoining one which was occupied by a very careless and wicked man; who, hearing the child pray so earnestly, was heard to say, “That child's prayers will make my hell sevenfold the hotter.” He was sent to the grammarschool, where by his assiduity he made great progress in learning, staying there until he became the master. To his advancement in literature, his excellent grammar in the Ilebrew language bears sushcient testimony. For that publication he was honoured, gratuitously, and without any application on his part, with a doctor's degree from a foreign university, and he afterwards took the same degree at Cambridge. His Latin sermon on that occasion was much applauded. He entered the ministry as curate of the Rev. John Fletcher, vicar of Madeley, Salop; and how closely he trod in the steps of that great and good man, the sequel of his shew. He was also with the Rev. Dr. Conyers, at Deptford; and there he received, more than once, offers of preferment, which he declined. . 3 Q

Having occasion, about this time, to go to Manchester, to visit some friends, he became acquainted with Miss Rachel Norton, whom he afterwards married. This lady appeared to be in every respect so well suited to promote his ardent desires to be useful in the church, that she might well be said to be “a gift from the Lord;” and without any exaggeration it may be affirmed, that he owed much of his success to her counsel and assistance. This happy union turned his thoughts towards settling in that neighbourhood; and perceiving that there was a great want of churches in Manchester, he determined to attempt to build one in that part of this town where it was most needed. The difficulties he had to contend with on this occasion were . great, as must be well known to all who have had the courage and selfdenial to embark in a similar undertaking; difficulties which arise not merely from the expense attending it, but from the necessity of conciliating incumbents, patrons, and bishops, as well as removing many other obstacles. However, after much labour and perseverance, he accomplished his purpose, and obtained of the Warden and Fellows of the collegiate church of Manchester, the presentation for sixty years; a favour which they had never granted before to any one : and he was, in consequence of this concession, presented to it himself in the year 1788, and the church was consecrated by the Reverend Dr. Cleaver, Bishop of Chester.

We have now to view him in a situation where his conduct was well fitted to excite our admiration ; and here his ministry was blessed in a most remarkable manner. Of him, indeed, it might be justly said, as St. Paul has expressed it, “to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.” The propriety of this application was fully demonstrated in his doctrine and in his life. It was his delight to set forth our Lord Jesus Christ in all the matchless glory of his person, and

in all the greatness and extent of his salvation. He exhibited him as the only begotten of the Father, the very and eternal God, the Creator, Preserver,and Upholder of all things. Like St. Paul, he made him the foundation of all our hopes; and in order to shew our need of this Saviour, he faithfully declared our fallen state, not crying up the dignity of human nature, but laying man low as a sinner before God, indebted to God for every blessing, and relying for salvation upon Christ alone, who is made of God, unto the believer, “ wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.” He steered clear of Antinomianism on the one hand, and Pharisaism on the other; constantly insisting upon the fruits of righteousness as an indispensable evidence of faith in Christ. And in bringing these subjects home to the consciences of his hearers, he never failed earnestly to urge the necessity of the Divine influences of the Holy Spirit, to enlighten their minds and to cleanse their hearts, and also to witness with their spirits that they were the children of God. This scriptural method of instruction rendered his ministrations peculiarly successful in the couversion of sinners, and in the edification of believers. The effects of these doctrines were seen in the largeness of his congregations, especially in the number of the communicants, which generally amounted to between five and six hundred persons. But it was not only to Dr. Bayley's doctrine and manner of preaching, but also to his life, that the words “to me to live is Christ” might with truth be applied. He was humble, notwithstanding his great attainments as a scholar; in company never claiming any superiority over others, but in all his deportment appearing to esteem others better than himself. His meekness was also remarkable: he had learned to be gentle towards all, and not to render evil for evil to any. His charity to the poor and distressed of every description was constant and liberal.

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