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expense, every way becomes the followers of a lowly-hearted Saviour. We are therefore engaged to press it upon our young friends just setting out in life, to beware of needless expense in the surniture of their houses, and in their general domestic habits. Even those who think their property may entitle them to abundance or to elegance, by undulging in costly habits are setting but an ill example to those of more contracted means; and as we are but too apt to copy that which coincides with our natural disposition, our want of circumspection may prove an incitement -

to extravagance in others, and prompt them to use exertions for supporting an appearanoe which may divert them from the true business of life—the daily study to be approved in the sight of God.” We subjoin one passage more.

• * Although the infamous traffic in slaves has been abolished by law, we desire friends not to forget that slavery still exists within the British empire, and to suffer their sympathy still to flow towards its oppressed victims.”

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- SPAIN.

IN our last number we traced Lord Wellington's progress to the 4th of August, when his head-quarters were at Cuellar. His lordship having ascertained, that the army of Marmont (who it seems is not dead, as was reported), which had retired on Burgos, would not be in a condition to take the field again for some time, determined on advancing to Madrid. He moved from Cuellar on the 6th of August, reached Segovia on the 7th, and St. Ildefonso on the 8th. In passing through the mountains, no opposition was experienced; near Magalahonda on the 11th a large body of French cavalry was driven off, but afterwards returned. The Portuguese cavalry were ordered to attack them; but as they advanced, they appear to have been seized with a panic, and turned back before they reached the enemy. Their flight was arrested by a body of German cavalry, who likewise stopped the farther progress of the enemy, though with some loss to themselves; and some more of our troops appearing in sight, the French cavalry finally withdrew. On the 12th, the army moved forward and entered Madrid. Joseph Bonaparte retired with his army towards Toledo, leaving a garrison in the Retiro. On the evening of the 13th, the Retiro was completely invested, and preparations were inade for an attack on the succeeding morning, when the governor offered to capitulate. The garrison, to the number of 2,500, surrendered as prisoners of war, and were allowed its honours and their baggage. The stores found in the place were immense; 189 pieces of brass ordnance in excellent condition, 900 barrels of powder, 20,000 stands of arms, the eagles of two re

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

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giments, and very large magazines of cloth, ing, provisions, and aminunition. Lord Wels lington says, it is impossible to describe the joy manifested by the inhabitants of Madrid on the arrival of his army. Our loss, in all these operations, did not exceed sixty killed, and about one hundred wounded. On the 18th, Lord Wellington was still at Madrid. Joseph's army had at that date abandoned Toledo, which was taken possession of by a party of Guerillas, and was on its march apparently to Valencia. In the mean time, General Maitland, with the army from Sicily and Minorca, had effected his landing at Alicante, and was in communication with Lord Wellington. The event which stands next in point of importance to the capture of Madrid, is the raising of the siege of Cadiz, which took place on the night of the 24th, and the morning of the 25th of August. The enemy left behind a very numerous artillery, and a large quantity of stores and powder, most of which, however, was rendered useless; and he appears to have retreated with very great precipitation. Col. Skerrett, with a body of troops, both British and Spanish, had previously landed at Huelva, with the view of distracting the attention of Marshal Soult, and he has since taken possession of Seville. Soult's motions, and those of General Drouet, are closely watched by General Hill, who had advanced northward of the Sierra Morena. Astorga, Bilboa, Tordesillas, and Guadalaxara, have fallen into the hands of the Spaniards. It appears, however, that the Spanish army of Murcia, commanded by General O'Donnell, had sustained a severe

deseat on the 21st of July, from a body of French troops inferior in number. The Cortea had determined on bringing this General to trial.

The French appear to be making great efforts to retrieve their losses in Spain. Massena is said to have marched across the Pyremnees with 10,000 men, to reinforce Marmont's shattered army, and to resume the chief command; and a part of this army has already been making advances as far as Walladolid. The troops employed in the siege of Cadiz will make a large addition to the forces under Soult and Drouet; Joseph's corps will probably connect itself with Suchet, and the garrisons in every part of Spain will be drained to swell the numbers of these different armies. We have, however, a strong confidence, that, with the blessing of Providence continued to our arms, we shall yet succeed in defeating this fortuidable combination of hostile means; though perhaps, after all, the question, whether Spain will be finally freed from the yoke of Bonaparte, may turn as much on the result of the campaign in the plains of Muscovy, as on that in the Peninsula.

WAR IN THE NORTH.

Since our last number went to press the series of French Bulletins from the 13th to the 17th, inclusive, have been received in this country. The first of these announces the capture of Smolensk, after a long and sanguinary contest, in which each side, with the customary proneness to exaggeration, affects to have obtained great advantages over the other. The loss of men was probably equal, the ground having been well contested, and the Russians retiring without disorder. The fruits of victory, however, were, without doubt, reaped by the French. They entered as conquerors into Smolensk, but not till the magazines, and indeed a great part of the town, had been destroyed. On the day after the evacuation of Smolensk, Bonaparte made a great effort to turn one of the wings of the Russian army, as it was retiring. His purpose, however, was frustrated, and a severe contest ensued, in which it is evident, from Bonaparte's own bulletin, that no luaterial advantage was obtained by him. The Russiaas retired unbroken and without losing a gun. The French general, Gudin, who commanded, was killed, and the bulletin admits a loss of 3200 men in killed and wounded. A loss of about 4000 had been admitted in the battle of Smolensk. The Russians in their account make the French loss amount to 20,000 men. After this affair,

down to the September, when the 17th Bulletin is dated at Ghjat, about half way between Smolensk and Moscow, no battle of any moment had taken place. The Russians continued their retreat to Moscow, destroying the magazines iu their way; the French advancing in pursuit. The Russians are said to be preparing for a vigorous stand at Moscow. Should any reverse overtake Bonaparte at this point, he will be placed in very perilous circumstances indeed: winter will have commenced, with an inuinense extent of hostile territory in his rear. Battles have occurred in other parts of Russia, in which both sides claim the victory. In one sought at Polotsk, the French general, the Duke of Reggio, was severely wounded; and from the French not having since advanced in that quarter, it may be presumed the Russians had the advantage. The siege of Riga has not yet commenced. The conduct of Sweden has hitherto appeared dubious and vacillating. . It is at length said to have been decided, at an interview between the Emperor Alexander and Bernadotte, at Abo, in Finland, at which Lord Cathcart assisted, that Sweden should take part in the war against the French, and that a body of Swedish troops will be forthwith landed in Germany.

SICILY.

The constitution of the government of this island, has undergone an entire change. A parliament assembled at Palermo on the 20th July, which has adopted the constitution of Great Britain for its general model, and has abolished the feudal laws and baronial rights and monopolies. This favourable chauge has been owing principally to the moderation, good sense, and firmness of Lord William Bentinck, who is both our ambassador and commander in chief in that island.

UNITED STATES.

The news of the repeal of the Orders in Council had been received in America, but was not likely to produce those conciliatory effects which were by some so confidently anticipated. The National Intelligeucer, the organ of the Government, declares, that this repeal will not satisfy the just expectations of America. They must have indemnity for the past, and security for the future. What is the nature of the indemnity they require is not stated; but we presume it to be pecuniary payment for all the losses incurred under the Orders in Council. They leave us in less doubt as to the nature of the security which must be given as the price of peaces

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the flag of the United States is hereafter to protect every person and every thing over which it waves. No right of search, no intpressment of English seamen, no examination as to the contraband nature of the cargo or its hostile character, is hereafter to be allowed. The American merchantman on the high seas is to be as sacred as the altars of old, which served to screen the criminal Irom the hand of justice. The intination of such extravagant expectations on the part of the American Government, assuming it to express the mind of the Government, proves incontestably the inveterate hostility of that mind towards Great Britain, and the entire coincidence of its views with those of Bonaparte. They now adopt his language, and urge his extravagant pretensions in regard to muaritime rights, as the gage for which they are to continue a war, avowedly begun on grounds which have since been removed by the concessions of Great Britain. If, then, we must have war with America, notwithstanding the revocation of those Orders in Council which had loug been proclaimed by Anerica, and by the triends of America in this country, as the only obstacle to the return of a state of persect amity between the two nations; if we must have war with her solely in the defence of those unaritime rights on which our very existence as an independent power is allowed by all our political parties to depend; we shall at least have the satisfaction of thinking that there will uot be one dissenting voice in our senate as to the justice on our part of such a contest. On this ground the language of Mr. Pon

sonby, Mr. Whitbread, and Mr. Brougham, has been as strong as that of Lord Liverpool, Mr. Canning, and Mr. Stephen. All are equally convinced of the vital importance of the question which now seems to be at issue; and here, if ever, they will all agree that Toto certandum est corpore regni.

Hostilities have feebly commenced on the part of America, by the advance of a body of troops within the Canadian lines. The details of their operations are somewhat ludicrous. They vaunt their entrance into Canada, as if it had been achieved by the most brilliant victories; and yet the facts turn out to be, even on their own shewing, that all the losses incurred have been incurred by themselves, and that their army has been in great peril of starvation. They have been several times repulsed in an attack on Fort Malden. On the other hand, Michillimakinac has surrendered to our troops. A number of captures continue to be made at sea by the ships of both countries. An American sloop of war has been captured by the Shannon frigate; and an English sloop of war is said to have been taken by the American frigate Essex. A great many American privateers have also been taken. We presume, as soon as it is ascertained that the United States are not to be propitiated by the sacrifice of the Orders in Council, that our Government will deem it incumbent on them to pursue a more vigorous system of warfare than they have hitherto thought it right to adopt.

GREAT BRITAIN.

The only point in our domestic policy which it is necessary for us to notice at present, is the expected dissolution of Parliament. We believe that there is now little doubt of the near approach of that event; and in the view of it, we cannot but feel anxious that all who bear the Christian name should acquit themselves on that occasion as becomes their sacred profession. We need not now enter on the various obligations which belong to the situation of British electors. We have often adverted to them. At the present moment, however, it seems peculiarly incumbent on them to fix their choice on men of uprightness and independence; on men who, unbiassed by the warmth of political animosity, will consider only how they can best discharge their duty to God and to their country, in the exercise of their delegated trust. Nothing can be added to the recommendation which was given, on a similar occasion, to the leader of God's chosen people

by his judicious relative: “Thou shalt provide vul of all the people able MEN, such As rean God, MEN of Truth, marino covetousness",” except it be, that they should also be men who have time to give to the discharge of their parliamentary duties. If the electors cannot every where find men who exactly correspond to this standard, they should at least look for them, and prefer those who approach to it the most nearly. We assume, that all who have any claim to the title of Christian, will strenuously set themselves against every kind and degree of immorality, whether it take the shape of intemperance, or undue influence; of misrepresentation, or outrage; and that, however such things may have the sanction of the world's ordinary practice, they will sheythemselves in this, as in other respects, not to be of the world.-We have often endeavoured to expose to our readers the insidious

* Exod. xviii. 21.

pretensions of certain candidates for popular favour, who flatter but to mislead, and whose recorded proñigacy agrees ill with their public professions of purity; and we are desirous, on this important and critical occasion, to repeat the warning: Those will prove but indifferent national reformers, who neglect the work of reformation at home. Besides, there is a much fairer prospect of correcting what is amiss in the administration, by a teinperate, conciliating, and loyal, yet firm and immoveably upright conduct, than by inflammatory harangues, or by bitter and contemptuous treatment of the government. For some farther remarks on the duties both of candida'es and of electors, we beg to refer our readers to our volume for 1806, p. 651, and to many other preceding parts of our work. We will a present confine ourselves to reminding them, that the next parliament will not only have many arduous duties to fulfil, arising out of the singular situation of external peril and internal difficulty in which the aaoon is placed, but many also which unavoid-bly connect theiuselves with our best Christian feelings and sympa*hies. Our enemies are, indeed, numerous and powerful; our financial embarrassments are great and increasing, and not likely, in our view, to admit of any very efficient reunedy, without an entire change in the system of our currency--a change also, which, we admit, it becomes every day more difficult to effect".

* We have forborne of late pressing on the attention of our readers, our own unchanged opińions on the vital question of our currency; for certainly we deem it vital; because we were led to believe that people in general were only to be convinced by facts, of the truth which we wished to impress apon them, viz. the growing depreciation of our paper currency : and if we were anxious to impress tilis truth, it was with a view to an efficient remedy, which we also

The measures, however, to which we have now a more especial reference, are those which involve questions of high morelimportance;—the introduction of Christianity into our Indian dominiums; the more general diffusion of Christian education, and a betwer provision for an efficient establishment of active and laborious ministers of religion, and for the institution of adequate places of religious worship, both in Eueland and Ireland; 1he mature and dispassionate consideration of the claims of our Cathclic population; and last, though not least, the rectification of the enormous abuses still existing in our WalIndian Colonies". Neither our time, no our space, will permit us to enlarge on theo topics. We would anxiously press them. however, on the consideration of our reader"

believed to be practicable, and not for * purpose of exciting discontent ordespon” cy. But since we last touched on this subject, the evil has most alarmingly increa”. The price of gold; which ought to * 3.17s. 10}d. the ounce, and which was "hea 4.12s. is now 51. 10s. making an advano on the whole, as compared with our paper, of rather more than orty per cent. So o not advanced with the same rapidly: *** is now 6s.93. the ounce, which male * dollar piece equal to 5s. 10d. We have no intention of entering into any reasoning * this point at present, otherwise weshoek. “o that it is inaccurate to call the differeo in the nominal value of gold and silver." advance in the price of these articles,” it is neither more nor less than a depot" tion in the value of the paper curreary" that amount. Is it possible to conceal to ourselves this fact, that the weight of two guineas in gold bulliou will buy as ** corn, or any other article, as twenty-mo pounds in Bank notes will buy?

* Sec on this subject our last velo p. 428.

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T.Y.; A FRIEND ro Farns ess; Montron; and C. L.; will be inserted.

We very readily comply with Mr. Whyte's request to be allowed to publish the paper* Self-examination, which appeared in our Number for July last.

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X. Y.; are under consideration.

It is with great regret that we have been obliged to postpone the insertion of many into *ing articles of Religious Intelligence, particularly in regard to the institution of A* liary Bible Societies in different parts of the kingdom. The length of the papers in to

on the early part of this Number, has also obliged us to exclude several communicatio

• for which we had hoped to find a place.

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To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

S, sir, you wish to gratify your

readers with some useful and authentic information respecting the Ethiopic Christians, and seem to invite such communications, I here transmit to you what I have collected from various books; being part of a work I may hereafter publish, under the title of Ecclesiastical Collections, chiefly Oriental, &c. Y

T.

Abassinia is a vast and extensive country, situated on the eastern confines of Africa, where it is bounded by the shore of the Red Sea towards the Straits of Babelmandel. Its extent is computed at a million of square miles. It contains several principalities, subject to the same sovereign, of which one, called Tigri, formerly the seat of the Ethiopian kings, comprehends twenty-four provinces: these principalities are, in reality, so many petty kingdoms. Abassinia, distinguishes Christian from Pagan Ethiopia; which last is considerably more extensive, and comprehends a number of nations. Gondar, or, as it is called, Gondar a Catma; i. e. the City of the Seal; is the capital of , the empire, and the chief residence of the Emperor, and of the Abuna, or Patriarch, who has a handsome palace contiguous to ... the , patriarchal church. The city is three leagues in circumference, and contains a hundred Christian churches. Emfras, next to Gondar, from which it is distant a day's journey, is one of the most considerable cities of Abassinia, and the only one CMeist. Ogg FRV. No. 130.

where the Mahometans are allowed the public exercise of their religion, aud where their houses are intermixed with those of the Christians. The population and strength of the empire maybe inferred from the numerous armies they can raise in a short time, and at a small expense. They wage war with the pagans annually, for the security of their own dominions, and to prevent the growing power of their enemies, especially the kings of Galla and Changalla. Their armies are .very large: one commanded by the emperor in 1699, or 1700, consisted of between four and five hundred thousand men. In Europe, says my author, we have long been in an error about the colour of the Ethiopians; because we have confounded them with the Blacks of Nubia, who are their neighbours. Their natural colour is brown, or rather that of the olive; their stature is tall and majestic; they have good complexions, beautiful eyes, well-set noses, thick lips, and white teeth : whereas the inhabitants of Nubia, or Sennar, have flat noses, thick lips, and very black complexions. The language of the country is a dialect of the Arabic, called by some the Amharic tongue, and is probably no more than a corruption of the ancient. Ethiopic, formerly .spoken in the kingdom of Tigri. The Ethiopic is their learned language; and herein all their ancient writings are extant, and all books of prime note in the religion and laws of the empire continue to be written, because they esteem it a noble tongue. They pretend to have derived it from Chaldea, and therefore 4 L.

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