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of the twelve apostles are these: the first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John

2–4. Parallel to Mark jji. 13 or Thaddeus, and Simon Zelotes. 19. Luke vi. 12-16.

Seven out of the Twelve were thus 2. Names of the twelve apostles in three distinct sets of brothers. are these. We have four lists of Is there no type here to an imagithis band, one by Matthew, one by native soul of that grand truth of Mark, and two by Luke, one in Human Brotherhood, wbich perhis Gospel, and one in the Acts, i. vades Christianity as one of the 13. The same order is not always component_elements of its vital observed, and there is a variation strength ? Peter and Andrew were as to the names, which, however, is sons of John, or Jona, or Jovas. easily reconciled. The word Apos- John i. 42. xxi. 15. Hence Peter tle signifies one sent, a messenger, was called Barjona; Bar, a Syriac and was thus used in Jewish and word, meaning son. Mat. xvi. 17. heathen authors. It is now limited He was also called Cephas, a Heto those employed by Christ in brew word, which in Greek is Pespreading the Gospel, to the Twelve ter, and English is Rock. By this first selected, and to Matthias and appellation Jesus marked biin out Puul. The original corresponds to as one fitted by his energy and resoour word missionaries, in its sense. lution to aid in establishing his re-The first.

This means the first ligion upon an indestructible basis. in order, not in authority, or digni- It was common, in ancient as well ty. It is merely a word of intro as modern times, for persons to be duction to the list, and not a dec- called by surnames. Andrew was laration of Peter's superiority to honored by being the first called, the other Apostles, as some have John i. 40, 41, or as confessing Jecontended. --Simon, who is called sus to be the Messiah. They had Peter, and Andrew his brother. We been disciples of John the Baptist. learn froin Mark vi. 7, that they John i. 35, 40.James the son of were sent forth by two and two, Zebedee. His mother's name was and hence there was a reason for Salome, who was an attendant on their being registered in the same Christ's ministry. Mat. xxvii. 56.

It is a pleasant thought Mark xv. 40. He was called James that several of the Apostles were the Greater, to distinguish bim near relatives, brothers one of an from James the Less, in respect to other, and some of them related to age or size. He was put to death Jesus, and that the affections of by Herod Agrippa. Acts xii. 2.kindred mingled in their spiritual John. Termed the beloved disciheroism.

The home sentiments ple, He wrote the Gospel called keep the character true and bal- after his name, three Epistles, and anced, as the history of all reform- the book of Revelation, although ers testifies. The Apostles could in respect to two of the Epistles not have been fanatics, or enthu- and Revelation there is some siasts, or impostors, or dupes, for doubt entertained. The four discithey were brethren. Peter and ples mentioned above were all fishAndrew were brothers; also James ermen, Mark i. 16, 19, and probathe Greater, as he was called, and bly others also of the Twelve. John; also James the Less, Jude, James and John were called Boa


his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the 3 publican; James the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus; Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also 4 betrayed him. -These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded 5 them, saying: Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city

nerges, Mark iij. 17, sons of thun- Zealot, so called from belonging to der, either on account of their Cana in Galilee, or on account of warm terpers, or glowing elo- bis zeal, the word in the original quence, or on account of an inci- having such an import. This latter dent related in Luke ix. 54.

view is corroborated by the epithet 3. Philip. Philip, Peter and An- used by Luke vi. 15, Acts i. 13. drew, James and John, were in- Some suppose that he belonged to babitants of Bethsaida. Mat. iv. a Jewish sect called Zealots.-Ju21. John i. 44. Little is known of das Iscariot, i. e. Judas of Kerioth, Philip except from the few notices or Carioth, a city of Palestine. in the New Testament.--Bartholo- Judg. v. 25. His crime and his mew. Supposed to be the same as fate are recorded in the Gospels Nathanael. John i. 45. xxi. 2. and Acts. He was enrolled among The word means the son of Tol- the Twelve. The unblemished conmai, as Barjonas means the son of duct and character of Jesus were John, or Jona. He was of Cana. the more substantiated, inasmuch John xxi. 2. Jesus pronounced as this bad man had nothing whereupon him the memorable eulogium, of to accuse him, but declared him “ Behold, an Israelite indeed, in innocent. Mat. xxvii. 4. whom is no guile.”—Thomas. Call 5. Into the way of the Gentiles. ed Didymus. John xxi. 2. Both Rather, into the way to the Genwords signify a twin, which he tiles. This prohibition was made haps was.—Matthew the publi- that the Gos ght be first offer

He was also called Levi, ed to the Jews, to whom it was Mark ii. 14, the son of Alpheus. promised, Acts iii. 26, and if rejected He wrote this Gospel to which we by them, ihen preached to the Genare devoting our attention.-James, tiles and Samaritans. It was to be the son of Alpheus. Or, of Cleophas supposed that the Jews were better and Mary. John xix. 25. Luke prepared for Christianity than other xxiv. 18. He was brother to the nations, and they were to be its two next, Thaddeus, or Jude, and bearers to the rest of the world. Simon. Compare Mark xv. 40. In the short time the Twelve would John xix. 25. Gal. i. 19. Luke have opportunity to labor during vi. 16. Mat. xiii. 55. Mark vi. 3. the mission upon which they were He wrote the epistle called by his now sent out, they would name, and was martyred at Jerusa- plish more in confining their exerlem.---Lebbeus, whose surname was tions to Judea. Jesus came in an Thaddeus. Thaddeus and Jude official character, as the Messiah of are the same names, in derivation the Jews, and to them therefore he and rneaning. Luke vi. 16. Mark ought first to be announced. He vi. 3. He was the author of one confined his ministry, with slight epistle in the canon of the New exceptions, among the Jews. The Testament.

command now given was after4. Simon the Canaanite. Or, wards superseded by another: “Go



6 of the Samaritans enter ye not. But go rather to the lost sheep of the 7 house of Israel. And, as ye go, preach, saying: The kingdom of 8 heaven is at hand. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, 9 cast out devils; freely ye have received, freely give. Provide neither 10 gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your purses; nor scrip for your journey,

and teach all nations.” Mat. xxviij. and by a moral and spiritual awak19.-Samaritans. Samaria lay be- ening of the soul, prepare men to tween Judea and Galilee. Its popu- admit the claims of Jesus to the lation at this time was a mixed one, Messiahship. In this respect their springing from a colony of heathen office resembled that of John the foreigners, and remnants of some Baptist, and the commencement of of the Jewish tribes settling there Christ's ministry. Mat. iii. 2. iv. after the Babylonish captivity. 17. They seceded from the worship at 8. Raise the dead. This clause Jerusalem, and built a temple on is believed by many to be an interMount Gerizim. They were in a polation.—Devils, i. e. demons. Jestate of deadly hostility towards sus delegated to his disciples the the Jews, and had no friendly deal same miraculous gists with

which ings with them. John iv. 9. viii. he had been endowed. Though 48. It was prudent therefore to but partially acquainted with the appeal first to the Jews, and not spiritual aiins of his religion, though excite their jealousy by preaching still cherishing, as is manifest by among the Samaritans.

their subsequent conduct, the delu6. The lost sheep of the house of sion of a worldly kingdom, weak Israel. A figure of frequent use in in faith, they yet are empowered, the Scriptures. The Jews were in equally with their divine Master, to å truly pitiable state. Misled by work the most astonishing deeds, their religious teachers; oppressed and thus attest the godlike authoriby their foreign conquerors and ru ty of their mission.-Freely ye have lers; too corrupt to welcome the received, freely give, i. e. gratujonly one who could have redeem- tously, without inaking a trade or ed them; too proud to acknowledge gain of their powers, as the Jewish their unhappy condition; well exorcists were wont to do, for their might the Saviour have compas own emolument. Acts iii. 6. viii. sion on them, and send forth his 18, 20. This was not a prohibition, disciples to gather these wanderers however, against receiving a suphome into the true and safe fold. port from those among whom they House. Posterity, nation.

labored. Luke x. 7. 7. The kingdom of heaven is at 9-15. Parallel to Mark vi. 8-11. hand. The Apostles were not sent Luke ix. 3—5. See also Luke x. forth to preach that Jesus was the 4—16. Messiah, but to proclaim the ap 9. Gold, nor silver, i. e. money proach of his kingdom. They made of these metals.-Brass. The were to prepare the way of the metal now called by this name was Lord, and, going into different parts invented by the Germans, and is of the land, to spread everywhere different from the ancient composithe hope of the speedy establish- tion. The coin here mentioned ment of the reign of God, in the was a copper one.-Purses. Girperson of his Son and Messenger, dles. The people of the east

neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves. For the workman is worthy of his meat. And into whatsoever city or towe ye shall enter, 11 inquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence, And 12 when ye come into an house, salute it. And if the house be worthy, 13


dressed in full flowing garments. some articles, but go forth as they Therefore belts worn around the were, throwing themselves on the waist, while walking or exercising, generosity of those for whom they

necessary to secure their labored. The workman is worthy of clothes. Hence the figure—"gird his meat. Is worthy of his support. up the loins,”—to express prepara- Meat is here used for sustenance in tion for labor or action. In these general. Those whò labored for girdles were places provided to the spiritual good of mankind were be used as purses, which were entitled, not in the character of a safe and convenient. Hence zone, gift, but of a recompense, to their or girdle, and purse are used sy- living. They were deserving of a nonymously. The Apostles were to supply for their temporal wants. go forth trusting to the hospitality 1 Cor. ix. 14. 1 Tim. v. 18. of the people among whom they 11. Inquire who in it is worthy. labored, and their reliance did not Seek out a candid and good man, prove unavailing. Luke xxii. 35.

and be his guest. He will most 10. Nor scrip. This was a travel. readily award you a hospitable reling bag or a wallet, usually made ception, and be most competent to of leather, and employed to hold further your high objects. There provisions for a journey.—Two abide till ye go thence. Or, accordcoats. Two tunics; garments more ing to Luke x. 7, in the directions like gowns than coats. They were to the Seventy,“ Go not from house not to put on two tunics, as was to house.” As long as they remaincustomary for a journey. Mark vi. ed in one town or city, they were 9.-Shoes. Shoes and sandals con to lodge at the same house. This sisting simply of a sole tied with

course possessed obvious advanthongs to the foot were both in use tages, in preventing their time being among the orientals. The direc- wasted, or offence being given to tion here appears to be that they their host by withdrawing as if disshould go forth accoutred as they satisfied; or their being exposed to were, without anxiously providing destitution and insult; or their havany new articles of dress. Or, they ing the appearance of vagabonds, were not to use the shoes, or short with no regular abode and imporboots, worn in travelling, but san tant business. The prudential regudals. Mark vi. 9.–Staves. Gries- lations given by Jesus for the conbach reads, staff. Mark, vi. 8, says duct of his disciples are admirably that they might carry a staff. There adapted to their situation, and prove is no real discrepance. Matthew that the preacher of the Gospel, says they should not provide staves though going forth on a great erif they were without them. Mark, rand, is not to neglect the propriethat they might take a staff if they ties and advantages of common already possessed one. The force life. of the whole passage is that they 12. Salute it. Judg. xix. 20. 1 should not solicitously spend time Sam. xxv. 6. It was customary in to equip themselves with burden- the east, for those who entered a

let your peace come upon it; but if it be not worthy, let your peace 14 return to you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your

words, when ye depart out of that house or city, shake off the dust 15 of your feet. Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for

the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgnieni, than for 16 that city.-Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves.

house, to salute the family with, ance with the public sentiments of “Peace be to this house." Peace the Jews. The Scribes taught that was deemed a summary of all even the dust of a heathen land blessings. Jesus would not permit would desecrate their holy soil, and his disciples to violate any of the that it was therefore to be shaken usual courtesies of life, or suppose from the feet. The injunction of that on account of their great office Jesus was literally obeyed by his they were above the performance disciples, who by this act declared of the humblest duties. Well would that they placed those who did not it have been if all his ministers in receive and hear them on a level every age had borne this truth in with the heathen. Acts xiii. 51. mind, and demeaned themselves xviii. 6. For a parallel idea, see humbly, gently, and courteously. Mat. xviii. 17. How little understood, and less 15. Sodom and Gomorrah. An practised, is the beautiful principle account of the destruction of these of Christian politeness!

places is found in Gen. xix. The 13. House, here, and in the country about the Dead Sea, where context, means family.

In some those cities were situated, bears gecases it means nation; verse 6. ological evidence to the present day John iv. 53. 1 Cor. xvi. 15. The of the appalling catastrophe. They expressions in this verse are He are often adduced as instances of brew forms of speech. The sepse the judgment of Heaven.- In the is this: If the family return your day of judgment. There is no the greetings, and receive your message in the original. No particular day with candor and attention, your in- is referred to, but judgment, retrivocation of peace upon thein will bution, whenever it should come. not be in vain, the peace of God Some have supposed allusion is will abide with them. But if they made to temporal calamities, soon prove to be the reverse, and treat to descend on the Jews for their you and your errand with coldness, sins. As mankind are accountable or indignity, then your good wishes in proportion to their light and will be fruitless; the dove which privileges, a severer condemnation you sent forth will return, bearing would be visited on those who rethe olive branch of peace in her jected Christ and his Apostles than mouth, having found no rest for on those who had neglected the the sole of her foot. Ps. xxxv. 13. example and warnings of Abraham Is. lv. 11.

and Lot. 14. Shake off the dust of your feet. 16. As sheep in the midst of wolves. A symbolical action, to express very

We notice here how entirely open strongly the criminality of refusing and frank our Lord was in speakthe Apostles a hearing or recep ing of the dangers before them. tion. This illustration is in accord- He permits them not to go unwarn

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