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shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.” Again, the devil taketh him up 8 into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them, and saith unto him: All these 9 things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then 10

conduct through his ministry. He 9. If thou wilt fall down and wortempted not God, put his power to ship me. Obeisance, and also reno proof, by rashly exposing him- ligious worship, in the east, were self to danger and death; but exer- performed partly by prostrating the cised the greatest prudence, avoid- body upon the ground. This was ing peril when he could consistently the base condition, on which Jesus with his duty, and never exercising might become the master of the that miraculous energy in his own world, and mightier than the Alexbehalf, which he so often and gene- anders and Cæsars who had fought rously employed for the relief of for its sovereignty. He must himothers.

self become the slave of Ambition. 8. The third temptation is that He must ignobly surrender up the of Ambition. Three great classes of birthright of the free, illimitable enticements from duty are grouped spirit, for the sake of this external together in this history of Jesus' rule over men. The great heroes temptations; those of Appetite, or of the earth, so reputed, have althe sensual nature; those of Vani- ways been really as much in servity, or the gratification of Self-conse- tude, as the meanest follower in quence;

and those of Ambition, the their retinue. Their spirits have love of fame and dominion, which been in “chains, slavery, and death." Milton calls “the last infirinity of Their passions have ruled them noble minds.” It has been observed with a cruel sway. They have that this order is the natural order “worshipped and served the creain the spiritual development of ture.” “Sin has reigned in their human nature. The first step is to mortal bodies," and over their imsubdue and keep the body under, mortal spirits, and they have“ obeythe last to conquer the mind itself, ed the lusts thereof." Slaves they and bring thought, hope, and the have been indeed, to the lowest nobler powers all into captivity to point of degradation. Jesus saw Christ, which is true Freedom.- the dazzling picture of worldly amTaketh him. See ver. 5.-All the bition, “the kingdoms, and their kingdoms. The world with its glory," and their bravery, but he crowns and sceptres passed before saw also wliat he must fall down to his mind. Mighty cities with all worship, in order that the glittering their magnificence stood present to prize might be secured. He knew his eye. Earth and her inhabitants, that he came to be the Spiritual her riches, and honors, and pleas- King of mankind, not the servant ures, lay at his feet. Going forth of his own appetites and passions, as the Messiah, would not his path The glorious vision that had dazlead directly to universal dominion? zled the imagination faded. The Were not the Jews ready to take words of divine truth came to his him and make him King? How memory. Ambition was foiled, and seductive was the blandishinent the Satan fled. thus spread before his mental vi- 10. Get thee hence, Satan. Or, get sion!

thee behind me. An expression of

saith Jesus unto him: Get thee hence, Satan; for it is written : “ Thou

shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." 11 Then the devil leaveth him; and, behold, angels came and ministered

unto him.

when weary

rebuke and condemnation. Far the spirit was willing. But the from me be such wickedness. Mat. tempter was again met and put to xvi. 23.-Thou shalt worship the flight, and Jesus_submitted to do Lord thy God. Deut. vi. 13. God and suffer all his Father's holy will. is the supreme object of worship The impersonality of the tempter and service. All other things must in the last case, taken in connection be subsidiary to the soul's devotion with Luke's language, chap. iv. 13, to him. The Saviour felt this in furnishes a considerable presumpentering upon his mission. He re- tion in favor of the theory adnounced himself, suppressed Appe- vanced in this chapter, that the tite, Vanity, and Ambition, put to devil here spoken of is a personifi. flight every seductive tempter that cation of evil, not a conscious became into his mind, and surrender- ing.Angels came and ministered ed himself up to the purposes of unto him. Either divine messenGod without qualification or reser- gers appeared, and satisfied his vation; a living, spotless sacrifice, wants, or the cheering thoughts and “ he offered up himself” upon the happy feelings which sprang up in altar of God for the sake of the his own bosom at having resisted world. Our admiration of this temptation successfully, and held wonderful being will be more in- fast his integrity, ministered as it creased, the longer we dwell upon were to him, satisfying his wants, the perfect self-devial and self-sa- Upon another occasion, crifice he exercised against the and thirsty, he stopped for refreshtemptations which beset him at this ment at Jacob's well in Samaria. period of his life.

He was so spiritually exhilarated 11. Then the devil leaveth him. in his interview with the woman Luke, iv. 13, says that “he departed there, that hunger and thirst vanfrom him for a season,” which im- ished, and when his disciples replies that he returned again at some turned and pressed him to eat, he future period. Here is one cir- replied: "I have meat to eat that yo cumstance which goes to corrobo- know not of. My meat is to do rate the interpretations above pre- the will of him that sent me, and sented. The devil leaves Jesus for to finish his work." 6 When the a season, and returns again. But great struggle was over, and the returns in what manner? in a bodily tempter had fled, and the bosom of form? No; it is not so said, but in Jesus, no longer darkened by evil the same manner in which it comes shadows, was filled with the serene to all spiritual beings; in desires, triumph of moral vietory, and enfears, imaginings. În the garden dowed with new force wrought out of Gethsemane, the evening before by the recent strife, then the ineffathe crucifixion, the tempter came. ble light of God, beaming within, It is not described as a person. It irradiated every thing around him, cano in the shape of fear and re- and the desert smiled, and the sun luctance at the terrible fate before grew brighter in the heavens, and him. The flesh was weak, though grace and beauty invested the

Now when Jesus had beard that John was cast into prison, he de- 12 parted into Galilee. And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Ca- 13 pernaum, which is upon the sea-coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the 14 prophet, saying: “ The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, 15

meanest things, until they over- Capernaum. Though Jesus had flowed with a divine presence and lived there many years with his spirit, and seemed to be living, parents, yet the unbelief of the speaking ministers of God. In people, and their abusive treatment this divine frame he quitted the des- of him personally, probably induced ert, and returned in the power of him to remove and fix his abode at the spirit to Galilee.” Luke iv. 14. Capernaum. Mat. xiii. 58. Luke The temptation of Jesus proves iv. 16–30.-Dwelt, that is, made it that he was not God, for « God can his principal abode; yet he was abnot be tempted with evil.” James sent much. Perhaps his mother i. 13.

and fainily moved thither. It was 12—25. For the parallel pas- afterwards called his city. Nazasages, see Mark i. 14—20. Luke reth lay near the middle of Lower iv.14. v.1-11. An interval of seve- Galilee. Capernauin was situated ral weeks, or months, elapsed be on the north-western shore of the tween the Temptation and the Sea of Galilee. Its precise situaevents related in verse 12. Many tion cannot now be determined.important incidents of Christ's min- Which is upon the sea-coast, i. e. istry, occurring at this time, are re the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Jated in the first nine chapters of In the borders of Zabulon and NephJohn, excepting the sixth.

thalim. In the Hebrew language, 12. John was cast into prison. these tribes of Israel are called ZeFor an account of John's imprison- bulun and Naphtali. Gen. xlix. 13, ment, and its causes and results, 21. The portion of country assee Mat. xiv. 3—12. Mark vi. signed to them was located west 17—29. Luke iii. 19, 20. This and north-west of the Sea of Gali

reason why Jesus lee, according to the division made should leave the country of Judea by Joshua. Josh. xix. 10–16, 32 and withdraw into Galilee, then -39. The word borders here under the jurisdiction of Philip, means boundaries. where he could pursue his work 14. Fulfilled. Verified.—Esaias with less molestation from the the prophet, i. c. Isaiah. See Is. ix. Scribes and Pharisees, who had 1, 2. The prophet wrote during the become highly excited against him, irruption of the king of Assyria, and gather around him a band of and a short time before the ten disciples, who should be the preach- tribes were carried away captive to ers of his religion to the world. Babylon. Looking beyond the dark The ministry of his Forerunner present, he predicts the golden age was completed, and he now pursues of the Jews, when the oppressed his own with more activity, and and benighted would be enlightenmakes preparation to perpetuate it ed and redeemed by the Messiah. after his death, through the instru- Matthew quotes the passage probamentality of the Apostles.

bly by way of accommodation, rath13. Leaving Nazareth, dwelt in er than of literal accomplishment.


was a

16 by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles, the

people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat 17 in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.”- -From

that time Jesus began to preach, and to say: Repent; for the king

dom of heaven is at hand. 18 And Jesus, walking by the Sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon

The quotation is not exact, and gions and the sun, apd casting a seems to have been made from long, dark, and baleful shadow memory, but the sense is mainly abroad on the face of the nation, preserved.

denoting their great ignorance, sin, 15. By the way of the sea. Lying and woe. It denotes a dismal, along the sea-coast.—Beyond Jor- gloomny, and dreadful shade, where dan. This signifies in the vicinity death and sin reign, like the chills, of Jordan, on or along that river; damps, and horrors of the dwellingnot the country on the east side, as place of the dead." Job x. 21. the words usually mean.- Galilee of Psalms xxiii. 4. Jer. ii. 6. the Gentiles. This province was di- 17. Jesus began to preach. He vided into two parts, Upper and had already for a considerable time Lower. Upper Galilee was inhabit- been laboring in Judea, but he now ed in a considerable measure by began to preach in Galilee. John, the Gentiles, or other people than being imprisoned, was now unable the Jews, and bence was called to carry forward the reformation of Galilee of the Gentiles. This mix- the people, and prepare them for ture of a foreign population was the kingdom of the Messiah. Jesus occasioned by Solomon giving to takes up the great subject where he Hirain, in consideration of services left it, and thus points out to the done by him, twenty cities in the people that he was acting in conland of Galilee. 1 Kings ix. 11–13. junction with John, and was the These towns were in the neighbor- person whom the Baptist had prehood of Tyre and Sidon, and were dicted. Jesus did not immediately peopled by Phænicians, Egyptians, declare himself as the Messiah in and Arabians.

his preaching; for the popular feel16. Darkness, light. These terms ing, he would thus have aroused, are frequently used in Scripture for would have brought the Jews into ignorance and knowledge of true immediate collision with the Roreligion, respectively. As the peo- mans. By his labors and instrucple were heathen who dwelt in this tions he sought to open their prepart of the country, they were in- judiced minds to the important fact volved in that moral darkness, that the Messiah was to be a spiritwhich might without exaggeration ual, not a temporal King. See be called the region and shadow note on chap. iii. 7. of death, i. e, the darkest shadow. 18. Sea of Galilee. This body This was a vivid figure to describe of water went under the names of the desperate moral condition of the Sea of Galilee, Sea of Tiberias, the land. "A shadow is caused by Lake of Gennesareth, or Cinnereth. an object coming between us and It is included in Lower Galilee, and the sun. So the Hebrews imagined is situated east of north from Jerudeath as standing between these re- salem, at the distance of seventy

called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea;

for they were fishers. And he saith unto them: Follow me, and I will 19 make you fishers of men. And they straightway left their nets, and 20 followed him. And going on from thence, he saw other two breth- 21 ren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with

miles. The shape of the lake is employs events, trades, objects oval, its length about sixteen miles, around him, to illustrate and enits breadth about six. Its waters force spiritual truth. In classical are pure and sweet, and abound in authors, terms of hunting and fishfish. It is situated among bigh, ing are often used in relation to acsteep hills, and is therefore subject quiring adherents and disciples. to severe and sudden gusts of wind. Jesus calls not the rich, learned, Many flourishing cities once stood refined, or powerful, resorts not to on its romantic shores, as Tiberias, the schools of Jerusalem, but to the Bethsaida, Capernaum, Chorazin, fishing boats of Galilee, to obtain and Hippos. The Jordan flows his disciples and Apostles. Fisherwith so strong a current through men could better endure hardships. the lake, that its course can be seen. They had not been so deeply cor-Two brethren. It is an interest- rupted by worldliness, or spoiled ing circumstance, that several of by vain philosophy. They would, the Apostles were related to each being uneducated men, also make other, and also to Jesus, thus adding it more apparent to the world that the ties of kindred to the sympa- their doctrine was from heaven, not thies of religion, and securing union of men.—Almost all great moveand harmony.---Simon called Pe- ments in society begin in the humter, and Andrew. Peter is the same bler walks of life. as Cephas in Hebrew, and signifies 20. Straightway. They obeyed a rock. Mat. xvi. 18. John i. 42. the invitation without seeking to They were the sons of John, or excuse themselves, or waiting till a Jona. They were already acquaint- more convenient season.Followed ed with Jesus, as appears from him. They were probably ignorant John i. 35–42. This was a kind to some extent, at this time, of the of second call.-Net. A seine, or spiritual character of their Master. large drag net. The original word 21. James the son of Zebedee, and is not the same as that translated John his brother. James received nets in verse 21. The fishery of the title of James the Elder, or this lake afforded a subsistence to Greater, to distinguish him from a large number of persons.

James called the Less. John was 19. Follow me. Equivalent to the Evangelist, designated as the saying, Become my disciples." disciple whom Jesus loved. They Mat. viii. 22. ix. 9.Fishers of had probably seen Jesus at Jerusa

You shall collect men into lem, or elsewhere, for he was evithe kingdom of the Messiah, from dently no stranger to them.-Ship. the Jews and Gentiles. This pro Better, boat, or fishing vessel, or mise was abundantly fulfilled in the craft, such as were used on this inmultitudes which were converted land water.- Mending their nets. by the Apostles. This instance is These, according to the original, in harmony with Christ's general were small casting nets, and unlike method of teaching, by which he that used by Simon and Andrew,


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