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king; but the bishops not approving it, as not sufficiently ecclesiastical, the surveyor was ordered to amend it, and at length produced the scheme of the present structure, which
was Sir John Monson, £. $. d. Dr. Rainbow, late 2. s. a.
Kt. and Bart 60 0 0 bishop of Carlisle 150 0 0 Dr. Meggot, dean of
Dr. Reynolds, late Winchester
50 0 0 bishop of Norwich 44000 Morecroft 100 0 O Lord Roberts
100 0 0 The Hon. Dr. Mon
550 0 tague 100 0 o Lady Row
800 0 0 Lord keeper North 50 0
o Tobias Rustat, Esq. 1000 0 Dr. Nicholas Warren,
James Ravenscroft, Winton College 50 0 0 Esq.
100 Q R Mr. Barnabas Oley,
Sir Peter Rich, Kt. 55 clerk
100 0 O Dr. Sheldon, late Mr. John Oliver
0 archbishop of Dr. Prichard, late
Canterbury 2000 0 0 bishop of Glocester 50 O Dr. Stern, late archDr, Pearson, bishop
bishop of York 1850 0 0 of Chester 250 0 D Dr. Sancroft, arch. Sir Tho. Page, prov.
bishop of Canterof K. Call. 100 0 0 bury
• 1 400 0 0 Mr. Pennyman, preb.
Dr. Smith, bishop of of York 50 0 0 Carlisle
100 OQ Dr. George Parish,
Dr. Sprat, bishop of preb. of York 50 00 Rochester
100 0 0 Sir Fran. Prugean, Kt.
Dr. Sparrow, late M. D.
50 0 0 bishop of Norwich 40000 Sir John Penruddock,
Mr. John Sefton, Knight 50 00 clerk
40 00 Dr. Robert Pory 100 0 O Edw. Swift, of LinLewis Paddy of Lon
colns Inn, Esq. 1000 0 0 don, Esq.
0 0 John Snell, Esq. 50 0 Sir Charles Pitfield,
Sir Edmund Sawyer,
100 0 0
50 0 0 Dr. Pearce, dean of
Ralph Snow, Esq. 50 0 0 Sarum
70.0 o Mş. Ephraim Skinner 50 0 0 Dame Mary Parry 50 0 O Dr. Sudbury, dean of Dr. Parker, bishop
200.0 of Oxford 100 0 0 Sir Roger Stanley 50 0 0
was honoured with bis majesty's approbation. The first design, however, which was of one order only, the Corinthian, like Șt. Peter's at Rome, Sir Christopher set a higher value upon than any other he ever drew, and what he would have put in execution with more chearfulness, than that which he erected. This original model, for which he received one hundred guineas, is still preserved in one of the upper apartments of the cathedral,
All difficulties which arose from the objections of incom petent judges having at length been surmounted, in the year 1675, Sir Christopher began to prosecute the work.
In digging the foundations of the new church, he made
Dr. Stone, chancellor £. So d. Dr. Wood, bishop of £. S. de of York
50 0 0 Lichfield and Co. Dr. Samway, preb.
250 00 of York
40 0 O Dr. Seth Ward, bishop Dr. Stiltingficet, bishop
- 260 0 0 of Worcester
100 Q O Sir William Wild, Kt. Mr. Charles Smith,
50 0.0 archdeacon of Col.
Dame Williamson of chester, in plate 205 0 0 Hales hall 2620 00 Dr. Fr. Turner, lord
Thomas Watson, D.D. 50.0 1 bishop of Ely 2000. Q Sir Chri-topher Wren, Thomas Took, Esq. 100 0 0 Knight
60 00 Mr. Fra. Tyon 100 o O Lady Wild
100 00 Sir Edm. Turner,
Sir Philip Warwick, Knight 100 0 Knight
100 0 0 Madam Turner 100 O Q Mr. Ch. Willoughby 50 0 9 Dr. Turner, master
Dr. Watson, fellow of of St. John's col
St. John's, Camlege 100 00 bridge
500 g Dr. Womack, bishop
Dr. Wickham, dean of St. David's 100 0 0 of York
100 00 Dr. Warner, late bi.
Dr. Watson, bishop shop of Rochester 500 o of St. David's 100 0 0
Which donations amounting to 371371, Os. 3d. besides seven hundred and four other benefactors, who gave under 40l. each averaged at 201. each, is 140801.--the gross sum amounted to 512171. Os. 3d.
considerable discoveries of the antient state of this city.* Having begun at the west end, and proceeded to the east end, as he was extending his lines to the north-east, where nothing was expected to interrupt him, he fell upon a pit, where all the hard crust of pot-earth that has been mentioned had been robbed by the potters of antient time, and the hole filled up with broken fragments of urns, vascs, and rubbish, to bis unspeakable mortification; he wanted but six or seven feet to complete his design, yet there was no remedy but digging through the sand, and building from the solid earth, that was forty feet deep at least. Piling was proposed; but that he utterly rejected as liable to decay; for his endeavours were to build to eternity; he therefore sunk a pit eighteen feet wide (though he wanted at most but seven) through the various strata, and laid the foundations of a square pier of solid good masonry upon the hard sea-beach that covered the original clay, which he carried up till he came within fifteen feet of the present surface; and then turned a short subterranean arch to the level of the stratum of hard pot-earth, upon which arch the north-east quoin of the choir of St. Paul's now stands.t
This See Vol. I. + In taking down the walls of the old huilding, Sir Christopher was obliged to have recourse to art; for the height of the tower so terrified the workmen that they absolutely refused to undertake it. Thus circumstanced, he caused a hole of about four feet wide to be dug in the foundation of the north-west pillar, the tower being supported by four pillars, each fourteen feet diameter; and then wrought a hole two feet square into the centre of the pillar, in which he placed a little deal box, containing eighteen pounds of gun.powder. A cane was fixed to the box with a match, and the hole closed up again with as much strength as possible. Nothing now remained but to set fire to the train, and Sir Christopher was curious to observe the effect of the explosion, which was wonderful; for so small a quantity of powder not only lifted up the whole angle of the tower, with two arches that rested upon it; but also the two adjoining arches of the aisles ! This it seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking tbe walls to the top, and lifting up visibly the whole weight about nine inches; which rumbling back again suddenly, dropped into an enorinous heap of ruins, without scattering! It was half a minute before this huge inountain, opening in two or three places, emitted smoke. The shock of so great a weight from a height of two hundred feet,
This difficulty surmounted, and the foundations laid, the next consideration was the completion of the superstructure. Portland stone had been chosen for that purpose on several accounts, but chiefly on account of the largest scantlings which were to be procured from that island; yet these could not be depended upon for columns exceeding four feet in diameter. Such objections determined Sir Christopher to make choice of two orders of architecture, and an Attic story, similar to that of St. Peter's at Rome, in order to preserve the just proportions of his cornice; otherwise the fabric must bave fallen short of its intended height.
Bramante, in building St. Peter's at Rome, though he had the quarries of Tivoli at hand, where he could procure blocks large enough for his columns of nine feet diameter, yet, for want of stones of suitable dimensions, was obliged to diminish the proportions of the proper numbers of bis cora nice; a fault against which Sir Christopher Wren resolved to guard.
He was therefore compelled to make a virtuc of necessity, alarmed the surrounding inhabitants with the terrible apprehensions of an earthquake. A second trial of the same kind was made by a personi appointed by Sir Christopher ; but disobeying his orders, he put a greater quantity of powder, and took less care to secure it: Therefore, chough the desired effect was produced, yet one stone was shot as from the mouth of a cannon to the opposite side of the church yard, into a bookseller's balcony, to the damage of twenty shillings. The neighbours instantly made application to prevent the further use of gunpowder, and orders were issued to that purpose from the council at St. James's palace.
Sir Christopher was now reduced to the necessity of new experiments, and, among others, resolved to make trial of the battering ram; he there. fore caused a Itrong mast, forty feet long, to be shod with iron at the biggest end, and fortified every way with bars and ferrels, and having caused it to be suspended, set it to work. Thirty men were employed in vibrating this machine, who beat in one place against the wall a whole day, without any visible effect. He bade them not despair, but try what another day would produce; on the second day the wall was perceived to tremble at the top, and in a few hours it fell to the ground. It seems that the labourers were allowed 1s. 6./. per cubit foot for removing the antient foundations, and the company of carmen proposed to convey the Portland stone from Paul's Wharf to the church at sixteen pence per ton, provided each stone did not exceed three tons and a half in weight.
&nd proceeded in the work on these principles, to raise the Inagnificent monument of his ability, and lasting praise. A range of double pilasters, with their entablatures, of the Corinthian order, adorn the lower division of the building, and the Composite or Roman order ornament the upper : the spaces between the arches of the windows and the architrave are filled with great variety of curious enrichments. On the west front he erected a most magnificent portico, graced with two stately turrets and a pediment, embellished with sculpture. The entrance, to the north and south, is likewise by two magnificent porticos, and the east end is beautified by a noble piece of carving, in honour of his majesty king William III. Over all is a dome, terminated by a lantern, ball, and cross.
It has been asked, “ Why all the pilasters of the outside were doubled?” The answer is, " They serve as buttresses, and to give space to large windows between ; as also for adjusting the arcades within, and regulating the roof." The west portico has given offence, because the columns áre doubled, contrary to the usual mode of the antients: but it must be observed, in the portico of St. Paul's, two columns are brought nearer together to make greater intercolumns alternately, to give a proper space for three doors. The ancients, particularly the Greeks, in their temples, generally made the middle intercolumn wider than the rest; and as they shifted the coluinns of the portico for the better approach to one door, so at St. Paul's, for the same reason, where there are three doors, the two side doors for daily use, and the middle for solemnities, the columns are widened to make a more free and commodious access to each, and this falls out more gracefully by placing the pillars alternately wide and close.
Whatever objections may have been started concerning the faults committed in point of taste, such as incorporating the lesser pilasters with the greater, not elevating the vaulting within to a proper height, nor projecting the portico without to a pleasing distance; making the dome too large, and the fabric too small; yet the skill and ingenuity of the. Vol. II. No, 72.