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every plain of heaven, and inscribe While gratitude and truth remain, the them all over with the story of the name and the love of Jesus shall vever manger, the garden, and the cross. be forgotten.-pp. 22, 23.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
The first Number of the American they have our sincerest good wishes. Quarterly Review, was issued from the We bid them God-speed. press of Messrs. Carey & Lea Philadelphia, on the first of March, and is, Reformed Commercial Paper-A we believe, well received. Its plan new daily paper is about to be commenand appearance are the same as those ced in New York, under circumstances of contemporary publications of the which we trust will secure for it a fasame class.
vorable reception. Among all the dai.
ly papers in that city, there was not Freedom's Journal.--The Editors of found one, it scems, which had not this new publication, Messrs. Cornish wholly lent itself to theatres and lotte& Russwurm, are men of color, and ries. Men of sense and virtue had the paper is devoted to their brethren become disgusted with their sickly of the African race. If we may judge puffs and gaudy advertisements; and from the first and second numbers, it is with one consent demanded a paper likely to be conducted with ability and which should not perpetuallyobtrude upin a good spirit. The design of the on themselves and families, these great editors appears to be, not to awaken corrupters of the public morals. The feelings of resentment, or to breed dis- connexion between the theatre and the content in the minds of the coloured corruption of the public morals, is not people, but to incite them to industry, less obvious and demonstrable than the sobriety, and self-improvement, and connexion between public virtue and thus to teach them, by elevating the safety of our republican institu. themselves, to shame the prejudices of tions ; and if the New-York Editors the whites.
wanted either wisdom to perceive, or The object of Messrs. C. and R. is principle to regard these relations, it one of much interest ; their task is was time they were left to the bloated also a delicate one; and while it will patronage which they had shown constantly lead them to contemplate themselves so anxious to enjoy. the wrongs their race have suffered, and continue to suffer, it will require Seminary for Teachers.-Four thou. in them no ordinary share of prudence sand dollars have been subscribed in and Christian magnanimity. We Shrewsbury, Mass. for the purpose of hope all who are the friends of the Af. enabling Mr. J. G. Carter to establish rican cause, will aid them in the circu- a Seminary in that town, for the inlation of their paper among those for struction of school-masters. whom it is designed. For ourselves,
Errata.-On page 105 of the last Number, the word dissent should be descent. Gibrah and Gilbeah, should be Gibeah.
New PUBLICATIONS, MONTHLY RECORD, and ORDINATIONS, deferred for Yant of room.
WHEN DOES THE SABBATH BEGIN? ongs to the Sabbath, then every
one, who wishes to take the Bible The question when the Sabbath as the standard of his faith and begins, or whether Saturday or Sab- practice, will carefully compare bath evening belongs to the Sab- these passages together, and canbath, is a question of no little im- didly enquire which afford the portance. The difference of opin- greater weight of evidence ? ion and practice among professing The first argument in favor of Christians as to the time when observing Saturday evening as holy the Sabbath begins, doubtless has time is drawn from Gen. i. 5, &c. influence in weakening in the minds “The evening and the morning were of people, a reverence for that the first day.” As the evening is sacred day. They observe profes- mentioned first, it is inferred that sors conversing about the world, the day began with the evening preand attending to their secular con- ceding, and included the night and cerns on both Saturday and Sab- the following day; though in this bath evenings. And those who ob- same verse the day is mentioned serve different evenings will inter- before the night. "God called the rupt each other in their devotions light day, and the darkness he caland lead one another into worldly led night.” And therefore accordconversation, and insensibly lessen ing to this mode of reasoning, we their respect for the holy Sabbath. might infer that the day preceded
How desirable then that there the night. The evening and mornshould be, in this respect, an agree- ing include twenty-four hours.-ment. And is there not sufficient Consequently, if the evening began light on the subject in the scrip- at sunset, it must have extended to tures to settle the question, if ex- sunrise, and the morning from sunamined carefully and impartially ? rise to sunset. But it is contrary There are three passages in the Bi- to scripture and universal practice ble which are generally adduced to to call the time from midnight to prove that Saturday evening belongs sunrise evening, and from noon to the Sabbath. And though doc- to sunset morning. The time betrines and duties are usually taught fore sunrise is often called mornin more numerous places; yet, if ing. See Gen. xix. 15, 23, 27. these three are explicit and une Ex. xii. 294-33, 42, compared with quivocal, they ought to decide the verse 22. Ex. xiv. 24. Ruth iïi. point. But, if it is doubtful wheth- 14. 1 Samn. xxv. 22, 34. Ps. cxix. er they do afford the supposed 147. Dan. vi. 19. Mark i. 35. But proof, and there are many more if the evening begins the day and passages, which seem to teach that extends to sunrise, then the time the evening following the day be- before sunrise is not morning, but · Vol. I.--No, V.
evening. As the evening is the ning can be drawn from the circumclose of the day, there could be stance that in Gen. i. 5, the eveno evening before there was a ning is mentioned first. day. And the evening succeed. 2. Lev. xxii. 32, “ From even to ing the day, properly belongs to even shall ye celebrate your Sabthe day; and is so reckoned in bath,” is adduced to prove that the the scriptures, as I shall presently weekly Sabbath begins at sunset, show.
though it has no reference to the If in Gen. i. 5, it had been said weekly Sabbath, which is enjoined the morning and the evening were verse 3d, but to the great day of the first day, I presume no one atonement. But if one evening would have thought of beginning the only is here included, which is it? day at sunrise, and extending the Does from one include that, any morning to sunset, and then extend- more than to the other includes ing the evening from sunset to sun that? In this chapter several sorise. But they would have consider. lemn feasts are enjoined, which are ed the day as beginning at midnight, called Sabbaths. And as the time and the morning as extending from for celebrating none except this is midnight to noon; and the evening thus mentioned, does it not seem to as extending from noon to midnight, imply that the appointed time was as we all reckon. All call the time peculiar to this ? As if it had been from midnight to noon morning, and said, “ from even to even shall ye from noon to midnight evening.- celebrate this Sabbath.” As the And how much stress ought to be day of atonement was a peculiarly laid on the mentioning of the eve- solemn day, in which the people ning first, when the order of time is were to “afflict their souls,” it is often inverted in the scriptures ? It probable that both evenings were is said that Noah begat Shem, Ham, observed, which is the opinion of and Japheth. And Japheth was some commentators, who say that the elder; and Ham the younger; it was kept from sunset to midnight Gen. v. 32, and ix. 24, and x. 31. of the next day. That both eve. In Acts v. 30, and x. 39 it is nings were included appears from said, the Jews slew Christ, and similar expressions in this chapter hanged him on a tree, which ac. and other places. In verses 15 and cording to this argument would 16, the children of Israel were diprove that they slew him before rected to count from the morrow they hung him on the cross. 2 after the Sabbath seven Sabbaths Tim. i. 9, “Who hath saved us and complete, even into the morrow afcalled us." Here salvation is put ter the seventh Sabbath-fifty days. before effectual calling or regene. Now unless both of these morrows ration. Jude verse 1--sanctified- be included it will not make fifty preserved in Jesus Christ, and cal days. Ex. xii. 15, “Seven days led. Here sanctification is put be- shall ye eat unleavened bread;fore regeneration. In 1 Cor. vi. from the first day until the seventh 11, sanctification is mentioned be- day. Here both days are included fore justification. Upon which Dr. to make the seven days. In verse Scott remarks, “the arrangement 11th, until the fourteenth day incluof the expression in the 11th verse ded that day; because the paschal shows that no argument can be lamb was killed and eaten on the drawn merely from that circum- evening following the fourteenth stance in respect to controverted day, as I shall show beyond all points of doctrine.” If this re- doubt. In verse 18th until the one mark be correct, then no argument and twentieth day includes that day. in favour of keeping Saturday eve. And in Lev. xxiii. 32, the very verse
containing the supposed argument avoid the intense heat of the sun, which we are examining, the eve- which Jahn in his Archaeology says ning preceding the tenth day is is often very oppressive. Mr. Goodcalled the evening of the ninth day. ell, one of our missionaries in PaThe Israelites were to celebrate lestine, to avoid suffering from the the tenth day as the day of atone- heat, “took care to keep himself ment; but were to begin on the quiet and within doors from sunrise evening of the ninth day and keep to sunset.” And they left their the evening of the ninth day, and lodgings in the evening, travelling the following day. So that this all night to avoid the heat of the affords no evidence that the weekly sun.” Now, if the last clause conSabbath begins Saturday evening. taining the reason of their travelling
3. It is urged that the Jews in the evening and night, had been brought their sick to Christ to be omitted and only the fact had been healed when the sun was set Sab. stated, as it is respecting the Jews' bath evening, because they consid. bringing their sick to Christ when ered it unlawful to heal on the Sab. the sun was set, might it not be bath, and because the Sabbath end- urged that it was the Sabbath and ed at sunset. See Matt. viii. 5- they kept Saturday evening and 18. Mark i. 21-34. There is how would not travel till the evening was ever no intimation that they viewed come, and the Sabbath ended? But it unlawful to heal on the Sabbath, if our missionaries in the same coun. but the contrary, and no intimation try travelled in the evening out of that they brought their sick when regard to their comfort, is it not the sun was set, because the Sab- reasonable to suppose the Jews bath was ended; but it is a mere brought their sick to Christ out of assumption. He had cast out an regard to their comfort ? unclean spirit, and healed two that 4. It is urged that the Jews obday, viz. the centurion's servant and served the evening preceding the Peter's wife's mother, both by re. Sabbath as belonging to the Sab. quest, and the servant, by the ur- bath. What was their practice gent entreaties of the elders of the while they were God's professing Jews, (Luke vii. 3, 4,) and without people, we must learn from the any complaint from any one. On scriptures. And since their rejecthe contrary they spread abroad his tion, awful blindness and wicked. fame. But did they spread abroad ness and disbelief of the New Tes. his fame for breaking the Sabbath? tament, it little concerns us, in de. That the Scribes and Pharisees and ciding upon the institutions of our chief priests did not view his heal. holy religion, to know what their ing on the Sabbath a breach of the opinion and practice have been in Sabhath, is manifest, notwithstand-' their dispersed and unbelieving ing their malignant cavils. For by state. But his reply he put them to shame, 5. It is said that most commen. Luke xiii. 10–17. The breach of tators admit that the Jews kept the the Sabbath was death. Ex. xxxi. evening preceding the Sabbath as 15. And if they had believed that holy time. Christ broke the Sabbath by heal. I was once of the same opinion. ing on it, they need not have sought And I founded it upon the passafalse witnesses to put him to death. ges, which I have been examining. For they could easily have proved And others have done the same. that he healed on the Sabbath. But I am now willing to submit it Why then did they wait till the sun to the candid and judicious, to de. was set before they brought their cide whether these passages do af. sick at Capernaum ? I answer, to ford evidence that the Jews observed the evening preceding as be- day. But in Num. Xxxij. 3, it is longing to the Sabbath. The learn- said they left Egypt “ on the fif. ed Pool in his Synopsis, says, “ As teenth day of the first month : on the Jews extended the preceding the morrow after the passover.” day to midnight, so they began the Thus manifest is it that God even morning of the following day at when speaking of solemn feasts, midnight.
reckoned the evening following the I will now adduce direct proof day as belonging to the day. And that the evening succeeding, and in 1 Sam., xxx. 17, the Holy Spirit not the preceding, belonged to the calls the evening following the day Sabbath.
the evening of the day. “And Da1. God expressly toaches that vid smote them from the twilight the evening succeeding the day be- even unto the evening of the next longs to the day. If the Sabbath day.” Hence as God reckons the began at sunset, then every other evening following the day as beday began at the same hour, and the longing to the day, and as I can no evening preceding always belong where find a different reckoning, I ed to the day. But we shall find feel safe in inferring that the evethat God reckoned the evening fol- ning following the day belongs to lowing the day as belonging to the the Sabbath. It would be truly day. The day of atonement was to unaccountable, if the evening prebe observed on the tenth day of the ceding the day belonged to the day, month, Lev. xxiii. 27. But the that God himself should not reckon evening preceding is called the so, but should call the evening folevening of the ninth day, verse 32. lowing the day the evening of the But if the day had begun at sunset, day. the evening would have belonged 2. In Nehem. xiii. 16-19, we to the tenth day. The children of find that to prevent the profanation Israel were commanded to kill the of the Sabbath by the sale of fish, paschal lamb "at the going down &c. by the men of Tyre, “when the of the sun," and to “ eat it on the gates began to be dark before the fourteenth day of the same month” Sabbath, Nehemiah commanded at even, and to eat unleavened that the gates should be shut.” bread seven days unto the one and As they were not shut till it began twentieth day at even-Deut. xvi. to be dark they were not shut be6. Ex. xii. 6, viii. 18. Lev. xxiii. fore the Sabbath, if the Sabbath 5,6. But if the fourteenth day be- began at sunset. And yet it is said gan at sunset, then the evening they were shut before the Sabbath. would be the evening following the And undoubtedly such a zealous thirteenth day, and the first day of reformer as Nehemiah would comunleavened bread would be the mand the work of shutting the fourteenth day. But it was the gates to be done before and not affifteenth day-Lev. xxiji. 6. Num. · ter the Sabbath began. If it be inxxviii. 17. Hence the evening fol- quired why the gates were shut at lowing the fourteenth and twenty- dark if the Sabbath did not begin first day is called the evening of the till midnight, I answer, had the fourteenth and twenty-first day. Syrians been permitted to enter af
The children of Israel went out ter dark, they could not have sold of Egypt on the morrow after the their wares that night, and would passover, which would have been have lodged in the city, and sold on the fourteenth day, if the four them on the Sabbath, and the evil, teenth day had began at sunset, and which Nehemiah designed to remthey had eaten the passover on the edy, would still exist. evening following the thirteenth 3. In Matt. xxvi. 17, and Marks