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and the reviewer is one among oth- the power of choosing, is the founders. Yet while put on so delicate ation of divine government. That a question, I would fain look around distinguished prelate and profound me to discern in what company I reasoner, Bishop Butler, in his have placed myself by this mode of Analogy and other works, has, most reasoning; and inquire, who there distinctly, reasoned in the manner are, among contemporaries or pred- I have done; and some of his reecessors, to give it the weight of marks are so strikingly pertinent, their authority. I have reasoned that I cannot forbear quoting them from the constitution of the crea- to your readers. In his dissertation ture to the design of the Creator: on the nature of virtue, after alfrom the fact that we are so con- leging many considerations which stituted by the Creator as to be prove that we have a “moral apincapable of emotions of remorse, proving and disapproving faculty," or a feeling of ill desert for any thing he goes on to observe that “ the beside our own voluntary acts, that object of this faculty is actions," his moral government over usis foun- premising that will and design conded upon such a principle. Am Ia- stitute the nature of actions as dislone in this reasoning ? Among re- tinguished from events. “ Acting, cent authors I find the acute reason- conduct, behaviour, abstracted from er, Dr.Brown, late Professor of Mor. all regard to what is, in fact and al Philosophy in the University of Ed- event, the consequence of it is itself inburgh, my firm associate. He has the natural object of the moral discertainly analyzed our moral emo- cernment as speculative truth and tions into susceptibilities with which falsehood is of speculative reason." we have been endowed by the Crea- “ We never in the moral way aptor, and placed the very basis of the plaud or blame either ourselves or moral government of God on this others for what we enjoy or what part of our constitution, that is, our we suffer, or for having impressions perceptions of obligation in regard made upon us which we consider to an agent acting. Even in the as altogether out of our power ; but somewhat varying systems of Paley, only for what we do, or would have Clarke, and Wollaston, who ground done had it been in our power, or moral distinctions severally on util- for what we leave undone which we ity, on fitness, and on truth, the might have done.” The conclufundamental position respects con- sion to which he comes respecting duct, and the acquiescence of the the moral government of God is human mind in some ultimate ob- this : “now if human creatures are ligation. The most enlightened of endued with such a moral nature heathen moralists, Cicero, asserts as we have been explaining, or with of the law of nature, “ It requires a moral faculty, the natural object no commentator to render it dis- of which is actions, moral governtinctly intelligible, nor is it differ- ment must consist in rewarding ent at Rome, at Athens, now, and and punishing them for so doing”in the ages before and after, but in that is, following or neglecting the all ages and in all nations, it is, and rule of action suggested by this has been, and will be, one and ever- moral faculty. In his Analogy likelasting-one as that God its great wise, he reasons in the same man. author and promulgator, who is ner. “His having annexed to some the common sovereign of mankind, actions an inseparable sense of good is one." The enlightened, and de- desert, and to others of ill, this surevout Doddrige, refers specifically ly amounts to declaring upon whom to the operations of conscience and his punishments shall be inflicted, the execution of laws among men, and his rewards be bestowed. For as evincing that natural liberty, or he must have given us this discernment and sense of things, as a pre- to set my meaning clearly before sentiment of what is to be hereafter; your readers. that is, by way of information be- The reviewer next rejoices to see forehand what we are finally to ex- me coming forth to the light of “a pect in his world.” But I find one purer theology” “ than that which of greater authority than all philos- has long prevailed among Congreophers, moralists, theologians, and gationalists, and still continues, not prelates, ancient or modern, who is only in that order of Christians, but associated with me in this reason- also among our own divines.” The ing—the apostle Paul. In his epis- reviewer pours forth this joy over my tle to the Romans, ii. 15, he ap- denial of the literal imputation of the peals to this very manifestation of sin of Adam. How far that tenet the sentiments of men in their ac- is held among Episcopal divines at cusing and excusing, 'as showing this day, I pretend not to know; but the work of the law written in that it is not held to any extent by their hearts : evincing a sentiment the Congregationalists of this State, of nature within them—a feeling and that my public denial of that implanted within their breasts by tenet is not emerging forth to any their Creator, which of itself indi. clearer light than that which has cates the nature of his moral gov- blessed my brethren, I do know. ernment. Am I then alone as a There is but one subject more reasoner? or have I placed myself touched upon by the reviewer, of in creditable society ?
which I wish to say any thing. I alWere it courteous now to retort, lude to that which he calls “ strange might I not call upon the reviewer language for an intelligent divine, to inform me whether it be credit. the pastor of an intelligent flock able in him to state in his first par- like that at Yale College ;” and agraph that the proposition which which he characterizes as conveyis asserted in the Discourses is one ing the doctrine of fatalism, viz. : which “ the common sense of manthe certainty of which I speak, kind will uphold and the whole that the descendants of Adam will spirit of the gospel will defend ?” be sinners. If he call this lanWhat has common sense to do with guage strange with reference to proving its truth, unless he resolves Yale College, as being unprececommon sense into those plain and dented there, he may take from his uneradicable dictates of conscience shelf the volumes of Dr. Dwight, of which the discourses speak ? and read his discourses on the deAnd how, after taking such a posi- crees of God, and on the depravity tion, will he defend such a bald as- of men, and gain a better informasertion, as he makes in the direct tion. If he call it strange for any face of it, on the following leaf: man of intelligence to assert, then “ there may be a thousand reasons, may he call those who framed the for any thing we can know, why articles of his own church and all God should reckon as sinful in any who have maintained those articles, being, many other things, than his destitute of intelligence. If he own personal violations of law ?” Is think it conveys a dangerous fatalnot this to declare with one breath ism, which is destructive of free that common sense and the spirit and responsible agency, his opinion of the gospel will uphold a truth, is unwarranted by the language. and yet there may be a thousand His,' own language“ irresistibly reasons for aught we know that it propels” “ irresistible influence," should not be true? But I forbear : “ without the possibility of resistit is not my object to have recourse ance,” refers to a cause of sin which to uncourteous retorts; but barely is irresistible in its nature, a cause which with physical necessity pro- that each descendant of Adam will duces its results. I have asserted partake in this character-the very no such thing. I maintain no such certainty in view of which the Lord, thing. I selected my language the messenger of the covenant, has with the very intention of distin- visited his temple, with the annunguishing moral causes from physi- ciation of recovering grace to the cal, and the certainty of free ac- Jew and the Gentile; and with the tions from a blind necessity. For threatening to the despisers of this who that holds that moral agents grace of irrevocable plagues beyond are themselves the immediate au- this life. This certainty I have thors, the immediate antecedents endeavoured to trace up to a cause. of their own actions, can allow (so far as an influential cause might other things to hold any other rele- be found in the system of created vance to their actions as causes, things,) existing in the very constithan as grounds of certainty, or in- tution which as moral beings we fluential causes, -I mean other inherit from our original and sinthings within the range and system ning ancestor. Whether this be of created things ?
among opinions which the reviewer In regard to the certainty of hu- would characterize as “old fashionman conduct itself, have I asserted ed and profitless,” or not, I see no any thing more than even the review- reason for discarding it from the er himself will acknowledge to be articles of my belief. Old fashiontrue ? He allows, I presume, that ed it may be ; for truth herself is God at least foresees how men will old, the attendant on all time, the conduct themselves : and the fore- daughter of eternity, the eldest on knowledge of their conduct in- her embassy from the throne of volves its certainty. Or is the cer- God. Profitless it cannot be if tainty of sinning which I have at truth proclaims it : for on her emtributed to men, a certainty which bassy of light she is sent to vindihe will not acknowledge to exist ?cate the conduct of her God to the But I have applied the certainty no world, and invite the erring and further than I apprehend it to ex- the lost to a place in his family of ist, from the facts which are ex. love.
E. T. F. hibited to me in the history of the world and the infallible record of divine knowledge; not as a cer
ADDRESS AT THE GRAVE OF M. VIN
CENT DE ST. LAURENT.* tainty which at all excludes the concomitant ability of obedience; Address delivered on Saturday, May which excludes the power of break 7, 1825, in the Cemetery of l'Est, ing off from iniquity by returning over the grave of M. Vincent de to God; or which excludes the Saint Laurent, one of the Vicecertainty of " multitudes whom no Presidents of the Protestant Bible man can number” actually return
Society of Paris, in the name of the ing to the Lord on earth, through
Committee of said Society, by J. J. the influences of his Spirit, and praising Him with the celestial * M. Jacques Vincent Saint Laurent hosts before his throne in heaven. was born at Nismes in the department of
Gard, January 9, 1758, and died at Paris, In the bosom of the church catho
May 6, 1825. He was a member of the lic, before her altars of devotion,
consistory of the reformed church of Paand out of the records of her faith, ris, honorary member of the committee have I learned the truth that man of its schools, member of the Royal Sois exceeding corrupt and “ very far ciety of Agriculture, and correspondent
of the Institute of France, and of the gone from original righteousness."
Royal Academy of Inscriptions and BelI take it for an undoubted certainty, les Lettres.
Goepp, Pastor of the Christian dom, the ardent love of virtue, and Church of the Augsburg Confession the enlightened piety, that they at Paris, one of the Vice-Presidents have seen him display in all the reof the Bible Society. Translated lotions of life and of which my re.
lations of life, and of which my refor the Christian Spectator, from the Thirty-seventh Bulletin of the Pro
spected brother, M. Juillerat Chastestant Bible Society of Paris. Mau. seur, has drawn a touching picture, 1825, by Jacob PORTER.
these he has likewise displayed, in
a most distinguishing manner, in 66 Why, my brethren, at a cere the sacred work of disseminating mony like that which now calls us our divine books. together in this solemn place, over Being perfectly acquainted with the grave of so worthy a citizen as the spiritual wants of the Protesthim whom we deplore, in the ants in France, and bearing tomidst of so many more capable wards them a lively and tender afthan myself, of honouring his mem- fection, M. Vincent de Saint Lauory, -why should it be that my rent was among the first who defeeble voice must be heard on so sired the establishment, in the melancholy an occasion ? Why did capital, of one of those societies the committee of the Bible Society by which the gospel of the Saviour of Paris, in whose name I now ad- of the world, with its heavenly dress you, choose so feeble an or- light and cheering consolations, is gan to express its regret on occa- spread, not only in the palaces of sion of the death of one of its most the rich, but above all in the cotdistinguished members, of one tages of those that bear the fatigue who was so dear to us all ?
and heat of the day; among the Alas! brethren, were there any first who laboured for it ; and when one that is not painfully affected his wishes were crowned with sucwith every thing that a beloved cess, when the government, conchurch, with which we love to vinced of the utility of such a socimingle our interests, deplores in ety, had authorized its formation, the person of M. Vincent de Saint with what zeal did he assist in all Laurent; any one, that is not feel its labours, in its progressive deingly alive to every thing that our velopement, in its ever beneficial society owes to this respectable operations ? During the six years man, to all the services that he has of its existence, a great part of the successively rendered it in quality time of our venerable colleague was of one of its founders, of one of its consecrated to its benevolent consecretaries and vice-presidents; to cerns. The greater part of its duevery thing that it loses in finding ties, and those precisely that requiitself henceforth deprived of his red constant labour, devolved on intelligence and his zealous con- him, and found him invariably decurrence ; such an one doubtless voted in his indefatigable co-operawould acquit himself no better tion. When, above all, his health than I. But how much soever I become more and more feeble,am touched with the merits of this should have diverted him from its worthy member of our pious asso- affairs, it was not possible for him ciation, and how little soever I may to give himself that repose which be able to avail myself of them at his situation seemed to require,-this time of mourning, happily that of being no more employed on those among us, who were wit- an object, to which he attached the nesses, have preserved and will al- highest importance, so that, even ways preserve, as well as myself, to the time of his last sickness, the grateful remembrance; to oth- which has brought us to this scene ers I will say that the exalted wis- of mourning, we had the happiness
of seeing him seated in the midst of ercised so happy an influence, his us, of profiting by his counsels and absence will be deeply felt, as well the wisdom of his directions. Af- as in his church, in the circle of his ter the example of the Saviour, friends, and in the bosom of his famwhose footsteps he loved to follow, ily. “I must,” said he,“ do the works But, brethren, in regretting the of him that sent me, while it is day; good, that has escaped us, having the night is coming when no one the delightful persuasion that qualcan work."
ities such as we have admired in Alas! brethren, it is come, that our dear brother, cannot become night, which has brought to a close the prey of the sepulchre; that, in the terrestrial activity of our belov. a new and better world his noble ed friend, it is come, too soon for his faculties will be unfolded in a nobler family and his friends, too soon for manner, and take a more brilliant us, his colleagues in the Biblical and rapid flight, we moderate our work, too soon for all those who grief; we accompany with our bleshad opportunity to appreciate his sings, before the throne of Jehonoble character, his elevated sen vah, the righteous man, from whom timents, his constantly liberal ef- death has separated us for a moforts. An excellent life was ex- ment, we preserve the rememtinct ; a mind rich in rare and most brance of him, we preserve it as a precious qualities, a mind endowed precious heritage, that he bequeathwith eminent faculties left this world ed us on quitting this earthly scene, when our brother closed his dying and by which we may still profit ; eyes to the light of day. We can- and over his grave we form the resnot but be penetrated with the keen- olution to follow his excellent exest sorrow at such a death. In ample, to imitate his ardent zeal, by our deliberations, over which his doing good without weariness, so upright spirit, his various knowl- that, in due time, if we do not grow edge, his powerful eloquence, ex- remiss, we may reap the fruit.'
SPECIMENS OF CHINEZE LITERA Professor Norton says of Mrs. TURE.
Hemans, that she is “ eminently a
female writer.” I trust therefore In looking over, a few years since,
it will seem neither solecistical nor some Numbers of the Indo-Chi
unintelligible for me to say of these nese Gleaner,” published by the
extracts that they are eminently missionaries at Malacca,some trans
Chinese. There is about them, lations from the most celebrated
generally, the same incongruity and Specimens of Chinese Literature,
bad taste which we see in the pic. struck my mind so forcibly that I
tures on Chinese porcelain. Some was induced to make a few extracts.
sentences are at once instructive Within a few days, these extracts,
and truly beautiful. Others, deafter having slumbered among a
signed to be equally beautiful and mass of old papers, have met my
equally instructive, only divert us eye once more. It occurred to me
by their oddity. that they might make å “page for
In a few instances the coincithe idler" in the Christian Spec. dence in thought and illustration. tator.