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to Jerusalem, it is said, “ Paul had de- the sentence affirm that the man whose termined to sail by Ephesus." This ear Peter cut off was kinsman to the sentence with a moderate stress on high priest, which was not the fact. Ephesus, implies that the apostle meant But a stress upon his, makes this serto stop there; just as a common phrase, vant, kinsman to another man, who re“ the ship is going to Holland by Liv- ceived the wound. erpool," implies that she will touch at One more example may suffice, on the latter place.
this point. When our Saviour said to Now what was the fact in the case Peter;" Lovest thou me more than of Paul? The historian says, “he these?"-he probably referred to the hasted to be at Jerusalem, on the day confident professions of his own attachof Pentecost." Therefore he could ment to Christ, which this apostle had not afford the time it would require to presumed would remain unshaken, visit his dear friends, the Ephesian though that of his brethren should fail; church, and he chose to pursue his voy- but which professions he had wofully age without seeing them. But can the
violated in the hour of trial. If this words be made to express this sense ? is the spirit of the question, it is a tenPerfectly ;-and that with only an in- der but severe admonition, which would crease of stress on one particle. “ Paul be expressed by emphasis, thus; “ Loyhad determined to sail by Ephesus.” est thou me, more than these?” that
Another example shows us a suc. is, more than thy brethren love me? cession of small words raised to impor. But respectable interpreters have tance, by becoming peculiarly signifie supposed the question to refer to cant. In Shakspeare's Merchant of Peter's affection merely, and to conVenice, Bassanio had received a ring trast two objects of that affection; from his wife, with the strongest pro- and this would change the emphasis testation that it should never part from thus;-“Lovest thou me more than his finger; but, in a moment of gen
these?”—that is, more than thou loverous gratitude for the preservation est thy brethren ?-pp. 73–75. of his friend's life, he forgot this promise, and gave the ring to the officer to On the most important point unwhose kind interposition he ascribed der Emphasis, the Rev. Professor that deliverance. With great morti. hos hes
has been forced to dissent from fication at the act, he afterwards made the following apology to his wife, an un
Walker. Walker lays down the emphatic pronunciation of which leaves
universal proposition, that “ Wherit scarcely intelligible; while distinct ever we place emphasis, we suggest emphasis on a few small words gives the idea of contradistinction ;” in it precision and vivacity, thus : other words, that emphasis always
implies antithesis. But this is If you did know to whom I gave the ring, shown to be plainly incorrect. ConIf you did know FOR whom I gave the ring, trast, being a principal source of And would conceive for what I gave the emotion, is a very important ground
ring, And how UNWILLINGLY I left the ring,
of emphasis, but it is not the sole When nought would be accepted but the ground.
ring, You would abate the strength of your dis
There are other sources, besides anpleasure.
tithetic relation, from which the mind
receives strong and vivid impressions, In the case that follows too, we see which it is the office of vocal language how the meaning of a sentence often to express. Thus exclamation, aposdepends on the manner in which we ut. trophe, and bold figures in general, deter one short word. “One of the ser- noting high emotion, demand a coriesvants of the high priest, (being his kins. pondent force in pronunciation; and man whose ear Peter cut off,) saith, that too in many cases where the emdid not I see thee in the garden with phatic force laid on a word is absolute, him?" Now if we utter this as most because the thought expressed by that readers do, with a stress on kinsman, word is forcible of itself, without any and a short pause after it, we make aid from contrast. Of this the reader
VOL. I.--No. VII.
may be satisfied by noting such ex- be distinguisbed from others with amples as these :
which it is connected. And if we place
the stress on false or on neighbour, still Up! comrades,-up !
an antithetic relation is suggested, Wo unto you, Pharisees !
which does not accord with the design Hènce !-home, you idle creatures,-.. of the precept. Now let it be obAngels ! and ministers of grace,-de served, that here is a series of precepts fend us.
forbidding certain sins against man,
our neighbour. Each of these is introAgain, our author dissents from
duced with the prohibitory phrase, Walker in his theory of emphatic " thou shalt not," and then comes the inflection. " The grand distinct- thing forbidden; in the sixth, kill; ion,” says Walker, “ between the in the eighth, steal ;--in the ninth, two emphatic inflections is ; “ The
“ bear false witness." This shows the falling inflection affirms something
point of emphatic discrimination. lo
the latter case, the stress falls not on a in the emphasis, and denies what is
single word, but on a clause, the last opposed to it in the antithesis ; while
word of this clause, however, in the the emphasis in the rising inflection,
present case, demanding more stress affirms something in the emphasis, than either of the others. without denying what is opposed to it in the antithesis.” “ The a- In the chapter on modulation mount of more than twenty pages there are many valuable practical redesigned by Walker to illustrate marks. The term modulation is this position,” says the Professor used to denote « that variety in “ is simply this ; When affirmation managing the voice, which appears i's opposed to negation, the emphatic in the delivery of a good speaker." word or clause which affirms, has This subiect is discussed under the the falling inflection, and that which heads of Faults of Modulation, denies, the rising.” This, however, their Remedies, Pitch of Voice. it is remarked, applies only to
Quantity, Rhetorical Pause, Comstrong affirmation ; in qualified af- pass, Transition, Expression, Repfirmation, the affirmative clause
resentation, and the Reading of takes the rising slide or circumflex.
Poetry. The faults of modulation The general rule is “ the falling in- are happily and graphically descriflection denotes positive affirmation, bed, and the proper remedies sug. or enunciation of thought with en
gested. To mark transition a noergy ; the rising either expresses
tation is used, which is novel, but negation, or qualified and condi- intelligible and of easy application. tional affirmation.”—pp. 80–88. We believe no other writer has
Emphasis, however, sometimes adopted a device of this particextends to several words in a sen- ular kind except Wright, and his tence so as to constitute an emphat. notation is very imperfect. Its ic clause. The want of proper dis- utility is obvious to any one who tinctions as to this species of em
has attempted to teach elocution. phasis in the opinion of our author, The ability to mark a piece with occasioned the dispute between such visible signs as shall direct the Garrick and Johnson, respecting pupil in regard to the slides which the seat of emphasis in the ninth
sense and feeling require, and as commandment;
to the modulation which nature
suggests, must greatly facilitate the - Thou shalt not bear false witness
study of elocution. The fault of against thy neighbour.” Garrick laid
a pupil cannot be remembered by the stress on shalt, to express the authority of the precept ; Johnson on not,
the instructor till his declamation to express its negative character. But is concluded, or if they are recol• clearly both are wrong, for in neither lected, cannot be so defined by of these respects is this command to him, as to render them intelligible
With the potation furnished by this anxious to see a juster taste prevail, book, we see not why all the con- not only in the delivery of discoursiderable faults in the management ses, but in all public reading from of the voice may not be noted at the sacred desk. “ British wri. the instant, and rendered intelli- ters," says our author, “ have congible to the eye of the pupil. Such stantly complained of the dull, fora contrivance has long been a de mal manner in which the Liturgy sideratum, but it is now furnished and the sacred Scriptures are read to a considerable degree by the in their churches. And often, in modern improvement in this highly the pulpits of our own country, the important science. We admit that reading of the Bible is apparently it may be abused. The notation so destitute, not of feeling and demay be too frequent, and the stress votion merely, but of all just dislaid upon it by an instructor may crimination, as to remind one of the render his pupil a mere automaton. question put by Philip to the nobleAlmost the whole tribe of Walker's man of Ethiopia ; “ Understandest followers have erred egregiously in thou what thou readest ?" Our this respect. We have seen some Psalms and Hymns we would have school books issued lately from the read with something of the feeling American press, to which the re- by which they were prompted ; and mark is applicable. Every line as they are to be sung by the choir, was crowded with signs of the cir- to music of the first masters, we do cumflex, and rising and falling not wish the preacher to chant slides. We judged that either the them in his own extemporaneous editors of the books had misapplied tune, devoid alike of harmony and the new system, or that their own sense. voices had an unequalled degree of While on the subject of tones, flexibility. As we found ourselves we beg the privilege of mentioning not gifted with organs of speech to what we have often noticed with rehit these inflections, and as we gret, relative to the modulation of found our ear revolting when we voice frequently used in religious unfortunately succeeded in ex- conversation. Some people, (and pressing them, we concluded to their number is not too small for pass them by, as we do the Greek some of our readers to be embraced accents, without suffering them to in it,) however naturally they may influence our pronunciation. . speak on all other subjects, as soon
A few remarks are added to this as they begin to converse on relichapter on reading hymns ; and gion, change their tones, and conwhoever has been tortured by the duct their whole conversation in canting style in which hymns are the most dull and unwelcome acfrequently read from the pulpit, cents. A melancholy, heavy,unelasmust wish that these remarks were tic, drooping mode of expression is more extended and aimed deeper used, as if religion was one of the at the root of the evil. All the most ungrateful of all subjects. faults are not noticed ; some which Tones of gaiety and mirth are not are considerable are passed by in compatible with a subject so seri. silence. Perhaps the Rev. Profes. ous, but certainly tones and empha. sor would have treated this subject sis of cheerfulness and kindness are more fully, had he not felt that it most agreeable to the spirit of our would be in soine measure a de- religion. If we do not err, the parture from the general subject, hum-drum manner in which some to discuss particular faults in read- Christians converse on this most de. ing which are common in only one lightful of all subjects, is one prinof the learned professions. We feel cipal cause of the aversion which
most young people feel to religious pendance on what is written, even conversation and society.
in the most familiar declarations of Dr. P.'s remarks on action, the Bible.” So, “ that indefinite though not all new, are evidently sweep of the eye, which passes from the results, pretty extensively, of one side to another of an assembly, his own observation. That they resting no where ; and that tremumay not be useless is our earnest lous, waving cast of the eye and wish, for though appropriate action winking of the eyelid, which is in is far less important than good direct contrast to an open, manly thought and correct modulation and expression of the face. Such is the emphasis, it is not unimportant. habit of fixing the eye on the floor “ The tap of Cæsar's finger was of the aisle, or on a post or pannel, enough to awe a senate.” p. 116. when it is raised from the notes, to
When we see a minister lying on avoid a direct look at the hearers." his cushion to read his sermon, we But most disgusting is the preacher feel an irresistible propensity to who “ assumes the gracefulness of sleep. When we see one sweeping a fine gentleman, as if he were praca circuit around him with his arms, tising the lessons of an assembly as if they were the sails of a wind- room." All affectation of manners, mill, we are for a season too much and all efforts at exquisite pronunattracted by the unnatural compass ciation we detest. of the gesture,to regard the thought.
Cressollius, a Jesuit, who wrote In man or woman, but far most in man, a valuable trentise on Elocution in And most of all in man that ministers Latin, thus describes a speaker
And serves the altar, in our souls we
loathe whom he heard in his day. “ When All affectation. 'Tis our perfect scorn; he turned himself to the left, he object of our implacable disgust. spake a few words accompanied by a moderate gesture of the hand, This whole chapter on action, then bending to the right, he acted is happy in its manner, and cannot the same part over again ; then be read attentively without advanback again to the left, and present- tage. ly to the right, at almost an equal The treatise is very properly acinterval of time he worked himself companied with exercises, the first up to his usual gesture and his one part of which is arranged for the kind of movement ; you could com- purpose of illustrating the principare him only to the blindfolded ples laid down in the work, and is Babylonian oxen going forward and marked with the notation adopted returning by the same path.” by the author. Fixing this notation “Some," says he,“ hold their is so much a matter of taste, that it is hands immoveable and turned to to be doubted whether all will agree one side as if made of horn. I have with the Professor as to the reading seen some who exhibited the ful- in every passage, and whether he ler's dance and expressed their will not see fit hereafter to alter wit, as the old poet says, with their some of the marks he has affixed. feet.” (See Austin's Chironomia, Whoever has learned from experip. 9.) We wish there were noth. ence the intrinsic difficulty of all ing approaching this in preachers of works of this nature, unless he witthe present day. Some of their nesses grievous errors of judgment, faults are alluded to by our author, will be disposed to obey the maxim pp. 155–7, in the notes. Such is " de gustibus non disputandum." “ the rapid, dodging cast of the eye In regard to the work as a whole, from the notes to the hearers, and though some of its parts exhibit back again ; implying a servile de- more marks of care than others, we
believe it to be executed with much of elocution, he will be abundantly good sense, and with a degree of repaid for his trouble ; and if we perspicuity and simplicity not equal. could say aught to excite interest led in any of its kind. It was un- in this subject, we feel that we dertaken, as the author says in his should be conferring a blessing on preface, at the suggestion of others, the literary world, and, particularly and we trust it will be extensively on the community of preachers. We adopted by instructors, especially are well aware that some of our in our colleges, as a classic on Elo readers, to whose judgments we cution. In reply to letters of in- would pay proper deference, think quiry addressed to several of the all directions in elocution worse Presidents of Colleges, and to oth- than useless. Let à man speak er gentlemen, whether such a pub- naturally,' say they, and let us lication was deemed necessary, a have nothing artificial.' We enconcurrent opinion was expressed, tirely accord with this sentiment. that our seminaries of learning But we would ask, How shall he greatly need a work on elocution, speak naturally? As we underdifferent in many respects from any stand the case, a great part of our thing hitherto published ; and a public speakers are so afflicted with concurrent wish was expressed that bad habits of elocution, that they the author should proceed in the never do speak naturally, except in preparation of such a work.
conversation and extemporaneous Since elocution, though old as an address. The very business of the art, is in its infancy as a science, science of elocution is, to displace we may expect treatises still more these habits by teaching such as perfect when men of talent shall ap- are true to nature. It may be reply themselves with diligence to the plied, that arbitrary rules, instead analysis of delivery. But whoever of removing all faults of elocution, writes on this branch of education, only exchange one bad habit for anwe trust will imitate the author of other. But we contend for no arthis volume, if in nothing else, at bitrary rules. We plead for those least in his independence and mod- only founded on the principles eration. Rules not founded in na- which express sense and feeling in ture, will bring the whole science animated conversation, and thus into contempt, or will increase the give it harmony, variety, and intercontempt which some exhibit to- est. It may be replied that these wards it. In regard to all empirics, principles will only barrass and conand of consequence towards most, strain the speaker, who should en(not all) of those itinerant elecution- deavour to conform to them. We ists who constitute themselves pro- cannot assent to this opinion. Evfessors of oratory, we feel an impa ery day's experience contradicts it. tience which equals, if it does not No child was born with the ability exceed, that of the Roman Crassus. to read. Reading is entirely an
“ I found,” said he, “ that their art, governed throughout by rules, new masters could teach nothing and rendered easy only by long but vanity and impudence, and that practice. We hesitate not to say, under their teaching, our youth more rules are applied in enunciawere forgetting, instead of learning ting a single sentence, than are inwhat is truly valuable. Wherefore, volved in rhetorical elocution, in when I was censor, I banished them the strict sense of that term. Once by an edict.”
these principles were not familiar, If this effort of Dr. Porter, does and then only did they produce hebut tend to excite public attention sitation and constraint. So is it in to the strangely neglected branch relation to the rules of elocution.