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among the Jews as were of greatest authority with the people ; Joseph of Arimathea, rich and honourable, and yet inferior to Nicodemus, one of the great Council of the Sanhedrim : these two, though fearful while he lived to acknowledge him, are brought by the hand of Providence to inter him; that so the prediction might be fulfilled which was delivered by Isaiah to this purpose. The counsel of his enemies, the design of the Jews, “ made his grave with the wicked,” (Isa. liii. 9.) that he might be buried with them which were crucified with him : but “ because he hath done no violence, neither was any deceit within his mouth ;” (Ibid.) because he was no ways guilty of those crimes for which they justly suffered; that there might be a difference after their death, though there appeared little distinction in it; the counsel of his father, the design of Heaven, put him “ with the rich in his death,” (Ibid.) and caused a counsellor and a ruler of the Jews to bury him.

The necessity of this part of the Article appeareth, first, in that it gives a testimony and assurance of the truth both of Christ's death preceding, and of his resurrection following: Men are not put into the earth before they die : Pilate was very inquisitive whether our Saviour “ had been any while dead, and was fully satisfied by the centurion, before he would “ give the body to Joseph” to be interred. (Mark xv. 44, 45.) Men cannot be said to rise who never died; nor can there bé a true resurrection, where there hath not been a true dissolution. That therefore we might believe Christ truly rose from the dead, we must be first assured that he died; and a greater assurance of his death than this we cannot have, that his body was delivered by his enemies from the cross, and laid by his disciples in the grave.

Secondly, A profession to believe that Christ was buried is necessary, to work within us a correspondence and similitude of his burial : For we are “ buried with him in baptism,” (Col.

even “buried with him in baptism unto death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father ; even so we also should walk in newness of life.” (Rom. I. 4.) That nothing may be done or suffered by our Saviour in these great transactions of the Mediator, but may be acted in our souls, and represented in our spirits. and these two powers ruled all them at

bic geritur. Nam propter ejus Jerusalem under the Romans. As ap crucem dictum est, Qui autem Jesu Christi peared when Agrippa prevented a war by sunt, carnem suam crucifixerunt cum passithe sudden raising of a tax: Eis dè tás onibus et concupiscentiis : propter sepultuκύμας οί τε άρχοντες και οι βουλευται μερισ ram, Consepulti sumus Christo per baplisPertas déçcus ouvenezov. Joseph. de Beli, Jud. muin in mortem : propter resurrectionem,

Ut quemadmod um Christus resurrexit a "Quicquid gestum est in cruce Christi, mortuis per gloriam Patris, ita el nos in in sepultura, in resurrectione tertio die, novitate vita ambulemus: propter adsceniu adscensione in cælum, et in sede ad dexteram Patris; ita gestum est, ut bis

sionem in cælum, sedemque ad dexteram

Patris, Si autem resurreristis cum Christo, rebus non mystice tantum dictis, sed que sursum sunt quærite, ubi Christus est etiam gestis, configuraretur vita Chris ud dexteram Dei sedens.' S. August. En

ii. 12.)



1. ii. c. 29.

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Thirdly, It was most convenient that those pious solemnities should be performed on the body of our Saviour, that his disciples might for ever learn what honour was fit to be received and given at their funerals. When Ananias died, though for his sin, yet they “wound him up, and carried him out, and buried him” (Acts v. 6.) when Stephen was stoned, “devout men carried him to his burial, and made great lamentation over him :” (Acts viii. 2.) and when Dorcas died, they “washed her, and laid her in an upper chamber :” (Acts ix. 37.) so careful were the primitive Christians of the rites of burial. Before, and at our Saviour's time, the Greeks did much, the Romans more, use the burning of the bodies of the dead, and reserved only their ashes in their urns; but when Christianity began to increase, the funeral flames did cease, and after a few emperors had received baptism, there was not a body burnt in all the Roman empire.* For the first Christians wholly abstained from consuming the dead bodies with fire, and followed the example of our Saviour's funeral,+ making use of precious ointments for the dead, which they refused while they lived, and spending the spices of Arabia in their graves. The description of the persons who interred Christ, and the enumeration of their virtues, and the everlasting commendation of her who brake the box of precious ointment for his burial, have chirid. ad Laur. c. 53. $. 14. And this ut creditis, ullum damnum sepulturæ was before observed by Origen, 1. ii. adv. timemus, sed veterem et meliorem Cels. 5. 69. Τα συμβεβηκέναι αναγεγραμμένα consuetudinem humandi frequentamus.' τω Ιησού ουκ εν ψιλή τη λέξει και τη ιστορία Minut. Fel. in Octavio, c. 11. and 54. την πάσαν έχει θεωρίας της αληθείας. “Εκαστον And Tertullian : ' Et hoc etiam in opinione γαρ αυτών και σύμβολόν τινος είναι παρά τους quorundam est; propterea nec ignibus συνετώτερον έντυγχάνουσι τη γραφη αποδείκνυ funerandum aiunt, parcentes superfluo ται. "Ωσπερ ούν το σταυρωθήναι αυτόν έχε animæ. Alia est autem ratio pietatis την δηλουμένην αλήθειαν εν τώ Χριστώ συνέ. istius, non reliquiis animæ adulatrix, sed σταύρωμαι» και το σημαινομένων εκ τού: 'Εμοι crudelitatis etiam corporis nomine aversaδε μη γένοιτο καυχάσθαι ει μη εν τω σταυρα trix, quod et ipsum homo non utique meτου Κυρίου ημών Ιησού Χριστού· δι' ου έμοι reatur pænali exitu impendi.' De Anima, κόσμος έσταύρωται, καγώ τω κόσμω, και ο c. 51. . At ego magis ridebo vulgus, tunc θάνατος αυτού αναγκαίος, διά το: “ο γας απέ quoque, cum ipsos defunctos atrocissime θανεν αμαρτία απέθανεν εφάπαξ και δια το exurit, quos postmodum gulosissime nutrit, λέγειν· Συμμορφούμενος το θανάτα αυτού και iisdem ignibus et promerens et offendens. το Ει γάρ συναπεθάνομεν, και συζήσομεν. O pietatein de crudelitate ludentem! saούτω και η ταφή αυτού φθάνει επί τους συμ. crificet, an insultet, cum crematis cremat ?' μόρφους των θανάτω αυτού, και τους συσταυρα Idem de Resur. Carn. c. 1. θέντας αυτό και συναποθανόντας, καθο και τα + The heathens objected it to the priΠαύλο λέλεκται το Συνετάφημεν γας αυτώ mitive Christians : Reservatis unguenta διά του βαπτίσματος, και συνανέστημεν αυτώ. funeribus. Minutius Fel. c. 12. And Ter

This appeareth by Macrobius, who tullian confesseth it: Thura plane non lived in the time of Theodosius junior, and emimus. Si Arabiæ queruntur, sciant testifieth thus much: Licet urendi cor Sabæi pluris et cariores suas merces pora defunctorum usus nostro seculo nul Christianis sepeliendis profligari, quam lus sit, lectio tamen docet, eo tempore Diis fumigandis.' Apol. c. 42. And speakquo igni dari honor mortuis babebatur.' ing of spices, lib. de Idololat. c. 11. Etiam Saturnal. I. vii. c. 7. That this was done hominibus ad pigmenta medicinalia, 20by the Christians is certain, because the bis quoque insuper ad solatia sepulturæ heathens anciently did object it to the usui sunt.' So Clemens Alex. Mupigortas Christians: Inde videlicet et exsecran οι γάρ νεκροί and again: Aί γάρ υπέρμετροι tur rogos, et damnant ignium sepulturas.' χρίσεις των μύρων κηδείας, ού συμβιώσεως And the answer given to this was: “Nec, (TOTVÉOJIV. Pædag. 1. ii. c. 8.

been thought sufficient grounds and encouragements for the careful and decent sepulture of Christians.* For as natural reason will teach us to give some kind of respect unto the bodies of men though dead, in reference to the souls which formerly inhabited them ;t so, and much more, the followers of our Saviour, while they looked upon our bodies as living "temples of the Holy Ghost,” (1 Cor. vi. 19.) and “ «bought” by Christ, (2 Pet. ii. 1.) to be made one day “like unto his glorious body," (Phil. iii. 21.) they thought them no ways to be neglected after death, but carefully to be laid up in the wardrobe of the grave, with such due respect as might become the honour of the dead, and comfort of the living. And the decent custom of the primitive Christians was so acceptable unto God, that by his providence it proved most effectual in the conversion of the heathens and propagation of the Gospel.s

“Ipse Dominus die tertio resurrec Civitate Dei, I. i. c. 13. turus religiosæ mulieris bonum opus præ + Ουδέν δε λυπεί ημάς, ουδε το υπό Ηραdicai, prædicandumque coinmendat, quod κλείτου λεγόμενον, όπερ Κέλσος, παρείληφεν, ότι unguentum pretiosum super membra ejus νέκυές εισι κοπρίων εκβλητότεροι, καίτοιγε είποι effuderit, atque hoc ad eum sepeliendum τις αν και περί τούτου, ότι τα μεν κόσεια fecerit. Et laudabiliter commemorantur έκβλητά έστιν, οι δ' εξ ανθρώπων νέκυες, διά in Evangelio, qui corpus ejus de cruce την ενοικήσασαν ψυχήν, και μάλιστα εάν η αacceptum diligenter atque honorifice te στειοτέρα, ούκ έκβλητοι. Κατά γάρ τους αστειgendum sepeliendumque curarunt. Verum οτέρους των νόμων, μετά της ενδεχομένης ως istæ auctoritates non hoc admonent, quod προς τα τοιαύτα τιμής, ταφής αξιούται να μη insit ullus cadaveribus sensus : sed ad υβρίζωμεν τη δυνάμει την ενοικήσασαν ψυχήν Dei providentiam, cui placent etiam talia απορριπτούντες, μετά το εξελθείν αυτήν, το pietatis officia, corpora quoque mortuorum σώμα, ως και τα των κτηνών σώματα. Orig. pertinere significant, propter fidem resur αdυ. Celsum, J. ν. 3. 24. rectionis adstruendam.' S. August. de

Νεμεσσώμαι γε μεν ουδέν
Κλαίειν, ός κε θάνησι βροτών και πότμον επίσπη.
Τούτο νυ και γέρας οίον δίζυροϊσι βροτοίσι,

Κείμασθαί τε κόμην, βαλέειν, τ' άσο δάκρυ παρειών.-Odyss. Δ. 195. • Nec ideo tamen contemnenda et ter patrem militiam Christi deseram, cui abjicienda sunt corpora defunctorum, sepulturam Christi causa non debeo, quam maximeque justorum atque fidelium, qui etiam omnibus ejus causa debeo ? S. bus tanquam organis et vasis ad omnia Hieron. Epist. 5. al. 1. ad Heliodorum, de bona opera sanctus usus est Spiritus. Si Laud, Vit, Sol. c. 3. enim paterna vestis et annulus, ac si quid This was observed by Julian the hujusmodi tanto carius est posteris, quan apostate, who, writing to an idolatrous to erga parentes major exstitit affectus ; high-priest, puts him in mind of those nullo modo ipsa spernenda sunt corpora, things by which he thought the Chrisquæ utique multo familiarius atque con tians gained upon the world, and recomjunctius quam quælibet indumenta ges mends them to the practice of the heathen tamus. Hæc enim non ad ornamentum priests. Of these he reckons three ; the vel adjutorium, quod adbibetur extrinse gravity of their carriage, their kindness cus, sed ad ipsam naturam hominis, per to strangers, and their care for the burial tinent.' S. August. de Civit. Dei, I. i. c. of the dead. Τί ούν ήμείς οιόμεθα ταύτα 13. Ταύτα τελέσας και ιεράρχης, αποτίθησιν αρκεϊν, ουδ' αποβλέπομεν και μάλιστα την αθεόεν οίκω τιμία το σώμα μεθ' ετέρων ομοταγών τητα (so he calls Christianity, because ιερών σωμάτων. Ει γάς εν ψυχή και σώματι they rejected all the heathen gods) surnú. την θεοφιλή ζωήν ο κεκοιμημένος έβίω, τίμιον ξησεν, ή περί τους ξένους φιλανθρωπία, και περί έσται μετά της οσίας ψυχής και το συναθλήσαν τάς ταφής των νεκρών προμήθεια, και η πεαίτη σώμα κατά τους ιερούς ιδρώτας, ένθεν ή πλασμένη σεμνότης κατά τον βίον ; ων έκαστον θεία δικαιοσύνη μετά του σφετέρου σώματος οίομαι χρήναι παρ' ημών αληθώς επιτηδεύεσθαι. αυτη δωρείται τάς αμοιβαίας λήξεις, ως όμοπο Epist. 49. ad Arsacium. And as Julian ρεύτη και συμμετόχο της οσίας ή της εναντίας observed the care of burial as a great {wis. Dionys. Eccl. Hierarch. c. 7. • Prop encouragement to the heathens to turn

that wbich is expounded by Maximus Taurinensis, nor in that so often inter

(scil. de sepulcro) remeatur ad cælos.'

Thus I believe the only-begotten and eternal Son of God, for the confirmation of the truth of his death already past, and the verity of his resurrection from the dead suddenly to follow, had his body, according to the custom of the Jews, prepared for a funeral, bound up with linen clothes, and laid in spices; and after that accustomed preparation, deposited in a sepulchre hewn out of the rock, in which never man was laid before, and by rolling of a stone unto the door thereof, entombed there. Thus I believe that Christ WAS BURIED.

He descended into hell: the third day he rose

again from the dead. The former part of this Article, of the descent into hell, hath not been so anciently in the CREED,* or so universally, as the Christians, so Gregory Nazianzen did ob Sardica, Antioch, Seleucia, Sirmium, &c. serve the same to the great dishonour of It is not mentioned in several confessions the apostate, comparing his funeral with of faith delivered by particular persons : his predecessors. 'o me sy yap (that is Con not in that of Eusebius Cæsariensis, prestantius) παραπέμπεται πανδήμοις ευφημίαις sented to the Council of Nice. Therderet. τε και πομπαίς, και τούτοις δε τοϊς ημετέροις Hist. Eccles. 1. i. c. 2, not in that of Marσεμνούς, υδαίς παννύχις και δαδουχίαις, αίς cellus, bishop of Ancyra, delivered to Χριστιανοί τιμάν μετάστασιν ευσεβή νομίζομεν· Pope Julius, s. Epiphan. Har. lunii. . και γίνεται πανήγυρις μετά πάθους και εκκομιδή 11. not in that of Arius and Euzoius, preTOŪ cápatos. Orat. iv. in Jul. ii. p. 118. But sented to Constantine, Socrat. I. i. c. 26. as for Julian: Μίμοι γελοίων ήγον αυτόν, και not in that of Acacius, bishop of Cæsarea, τους από της σκηνής αίσχεσιν έπομπεύετο. delivered in to the Synod of Seleucia, έως ή Ταρσέων αυτον υποδέχεται πόλις Socrat. I. ï. c. 40. not in that of Eustaένθα δε οι τέμενος άτιμον, και τάφος εξάγιστος thius, Theophilus, and Silranus, sent to και απόπτυστος, και ουδέ θεατος ευσεβών όψεσι. Liberius, Socrat. J. iv. c. 12.

There is no Ibid. p. 119, 120.

mention of it in the Creed of St. Basil, * First, It is to be observed, that the Tract. de Fide, in Asceticis, c. 4.; in the descent into hell was not in the ancient Creed of Epiphanius, in Ancorato, §. 120. creeds or rules of faith. Some tell us that Gelasius, in Biblioth. Patr. Lat. t. 5. par. it was not in the confession of Ignatius S. p. 669. Damasus, inter. Op. S. Hieron. Epist. ad Magnes. But indeed there is no t. v. p. 122. Macarius, in Hom. &c. It is confession of faith in that Epistle ; for

not in the Creed expounded by St. Cyril what is read there was tbrust in out of

(though some have produced ibat Creed Clemens's Consuitutions. In like man

to prove it), it is not in the Creed ex. ner, in vain is it objected that it was

pounded by St. Augustin, De Fide et une omitted by Polycarp, Clemens Romanns, bolo ; not in that De Symbolo ad Catechumeand Justin Martyr, because they have nos, attributed to si. Augustin ; not in not pretended any rule of faith or Creed of their times. But that which is material in this cause, it is not to be found in

preted by Petrus Chrysologus: 1 Yet in the rules of faith delivered by Irenæus, I. the 2d Homily of Maximus De passione et i. c. 2. by Origen, l. Tegi ae xão, in Proæm. cruce et sepultura Domini, we read : Post or by Tertullian, adr. Praneam, c. 2. De illam nativitatem (scil. de utero l'irg

. Virg. veland. c. 1. De Præscript. adv. Mariæ ad inferos descenditur; post have Hæret. c. 13. It is not expressed in those Creeds which were made by the Councils

And in the both Sermon, or 4th in Sym. as larger explications of the Apostles' Creed: not in the Nicene or Constanti

bolum Apostolorum, of Pet. Chrysologus: nopolitan, not in that of Ephesus or Chal

• Sepultum dicis, ut veram carnem Christi, cedon ; not in those confessious made at

mortemque non perfunctoriam p:obet confessio sepulturze, mortem suscepisse ei

rest. The first place we find it used in, was the Church of Aquileia; and the time we are sure it was used in the Creed of that church was less than 400 years after Christ. After that it came into the Roman Creed,* and others,t and hath been acknowledged as a part of the Apostles' Creed ever since.

Indeed, the descent into hell hath always been accepted, but with a various exposition ;and the Church of England at the Reformation, as it received the three Creeds, in two of which this Article is contained, so did it also make this one of the Articles of Religion, to which all who are admitted to any benefice, or received into holy orders, are obliged to subscribe. And at the first reception it was propounded with a certain explication, and thus delivered in the fourth year of King Edward the Sixth, with reference to an express place of Scripture interpreted of this descent : • That the body of Christ lay in the grave until his resurrection; but his spirit, which he gave up, was with the spirits which were detained in prison, or in hell, and preached to them, as the place in St. Peter (1 Ep. ii. 19) testifieth.' So likewise after the same manner in the CREED set forth in metre after the manner of a psalm, and still remaining at the end of the Psalms, the same exposition is delivered in this stave :

* And so he died in the flesh,
But quickened in the spirit :
His body then was buried,
As is our use and right.

His spirit did after this descend
Into the lower parts,
Of them that long in darkness were,

The true light of their hearts.' vicisse, intrasse inferos et rediisse, venisse mon, de Tempore, falsely ascribed to St. Auin jura tartari, et tartari jura solvise, non gustin, where it is attributed to Thomas est fragilitas, sed potestas.' Ed. Theo. the apostle ; and in the exposition of the Paunuud. Lugd. 1633. Editor.] nor in Creed falsely ascribed to St. Cbrysostom. that of the Church of Antioch, delivered + As in the Creed attributed to St. by Cassianus, De Incarn. I. vi. c. 3. neither Athanasius, wbich though we cannot say is it to be seen in the MS. Creeds set was his, yet we know was extant about forth by the learned Archbishop of Armagh. the year 600, by the epistle of Isidorus Indeed, it is affirmed by Ruffinus, that in Hispalensis ad Claudium Ducem. It was his time it was neither in the Roman nor also inserted into the Creed of the Council in the Oriental Creeds : Sciendum sane of Ariminum, Socrat. Hist. Eccl. l. ii. c. 37. est, quod in Ecclesiæ Romanæ Symbolo and of the fourth Council of Toledo, held in non habetur additum, descendit ad inferna; the year 633: and of the sixteenth Council sed neque in Orientis Ecclesiis habetur of the same Toledo, held in the year 693. bic sermo.' Ruff. in Exposit. Symboli, Ş. t.Quis nisi infidelis negaverit fuisse 20. It is certain therefore (nor can we apud inferos Christum? S. August. Epist. disprove it by any acknowledged evidence 99. al. 164. 5. 3. of antiquity) that the Article of the descent Ś Nam corpus usque ad resurrectiointo hell was not in the Roman or any of nem in sepulcro jacuit; Spiritus ab illo the Oriental Creeds.

emissus cum spiritibus qui in carcere sive That the descent into hell came after in inferno detinebantur fuit, illisque præwards into the Roman Creed appeareth, dicavit, ut testatur Petri locus,' &c. Arti. not only because we find it there of late, culi ann. 1552. Which place was also hut because we find it often in the Latin made use of in the Exposition of the Creed Church many ages since : as in that pro contained in the Catechism set forth by duced by Etherius against Elipandus in the authority of King Edward, in the the year 785, in the 115th al. 241st ser seventh year of his reign.

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