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but to the foregoing verb erispelar; for when the regimen is thrown to the end of the sentence, it is better to join it to the first verb, with which it can be suitably construed, than to an intermediate verb, explicative of the former. Nothing can give a more plain, or a more apposite, meaning, than the words under examination, thus construed ; To bring them by the faith that is in me (that is, by my doctrine, the faith, 'n Tu5is being often used by the sacred writers for the object of faith, or thing believed), from darkness to light, &c.

§ 16. Thus, I have endeavoured to examine, with impartiality, Castalio's character as a translator, without assuming the province of either the accuser or the apologist. I have neither exaggerated, nor extenuated, either his faults or his virtues, and can pronounce truly, upon the whole, that though there are none (Arias and Pagnin excepted), whose general manner of translating is more to be disapproved; I know not any by which a student may be more assisted in attaining the true sense of many places, very obscure in most translations, than by Castalio's.



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Beza, the celebrated Geneva translator of the New Testament, cannot be accused of having gone to either of the extremes in which we find Arias and Castalio. In general, he is neither servilely literal, barbarous, and unintelligible, with the former; nor does he appear ashamed of the unadorned simplicity of the original, with the latter. It was, therefore, at first, my intention not to criticise his version, no more than to inquire into the manner of all the Latin translators of sacred writ, but barely to point out the most egregious faults in the plan of translating sometimes adopted, specifying, in the way of example and illustration, those versions only, wherein such faults were most conspicuous. On more mature reflection, I have judged it proper to bestow a few thoughts on Beza, as his translation has, in a great measure, been made the standard of most of the translations of the reformed churches (I do not include the Lutheran) into modern tongues. He has, perhaps, had less influence on the English translators, than on those of other countries; but he has not been entirely without influence, even on them.

And, though he writes with a good deal of purity and clearness, without florid and ostentatious ornaments; there are some faults, which it is of great moment to avoid, and with which he is, upon the whole, more chargeable, than any other translator of the New Testament I know.

§ 2. His version of the New Testament is near. ly in the same taste with that of the Old, by Junius and Tremellius, but better executed. These two translations are commonly bound together, to complete the version of holy writ. Junius and Tremellius have been accused of obtruding upon the sacred text, a number of pronouns, ille, hic, and iste, for which the original gives no warrant.

Their excuse was, that the Latin has not articles, as the Hebrew, and that there is no other way of supplying the articles, but by pronouns. But it may, with reason, be questioned, whether it were not better, except in a few cases, to leave them unsupplied, than to substitute what may darken the expression, and even render it more indefinite, nay, what may sometimes alter the sense. At the same time, I acknowledge that there are cases in which this method is entirely proper. In the edition of an emphatic epithet, the article is fitly supplied by the pronoun. Thus the words, Επεσε Βαβυλων η πολις η μεγαλη", are justly translated by Beza, Cecidit Babylon urbs illa magna : and the expression used by Nathan to David,

60 Rey. xiv. 8.

Thou art the man“, is properly rendered by Junius, Tu vir ille es. The necessity of recurring to the pronoun, in these instances, has been perceived also by the old translator and Castalio.

Nor are these the only cases wherein the Greek or Hebrew article may, not only in Latin, but even in English, which has articles, be rendered properly by the pronoun. For example, a particular species is distinguished from others of the same genus, by some attributive conjoined with it; but when the occasion of mentioning that species soon recurs, the attributive is sufficiently supplied by the article; and, in such instances, it often happens, that the article is best supplied, in another language, by the pronoun. In the question put to our Lord, Τι αγαθον ποιησω, ινα εχω ζωην αιωνιον 63, a species of life to which the question relates, is distinguished from all others, by the epithet αιωνιον. The article would contribute nothing here to the distinction. But when, in the answer 63, the same subject is referred to, the epithet is dropped, and the article is prefixed to wav, which ascertains the meaning with equal perspicuity. Ει δε θελεις εισελθειν εις την ζωην. I have seen no Latin translation, no not Beza's, which renders it, Si vis in vitam illam ingredi ; and yet it is evident, that such is, in this passage, the force of the article. The English idiom rarely permits us to give articles to abstract nouns. For this reason, it would not be a just expression of the sense to say, If thou wouldst

61 2 Sam. xii. 7.

62 Matth. xix. 16,

63 17.

, say

enter into the life, to wit, eternal life, the life inquired about. Our only way of marking the reference to the question, is by saying, If thou wouldst enter into that life. As, in French, the article is, on the contrary, added to all abstract nouns, the pronoun

is equally necessary with them as with us, for making the distinction. There is, besides, something like an impropriety in saying to the living, If thou wouldst enter into life.

But there are, unquestionably, cases in which the Genevese interpreters employ the pronoun unneces sarily, awkwardly, and even improperly. · In that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book s the English translators. Audient die illa surdi isti verba literarum, say Junius and his associate. Any person who understands Latin, on hearing the verse read by itself, will suppose that there must have been mention of some deaf persons in the foregoing verses, to which the pronoun isti, in this verse, has a reference. But, on inquiry, he will find there is no such thing; and that it is deaf persons in general of whom the Prophet speaks. The introduction of the pronoun, therefore, serves only to nrislead. Matthæus ille publicanus 65, in Beza's version, evidently suggests, that Matthew was a man famous as a publican, before he became an Apostle. Though our language has articles, the Geneva England interpreters have here copied Beza so servilely as to say, Matthew that publican. This manner, in some

64 Isaiah, xxix. 18.

05 Matth. x, 3.

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