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given in the epistle to the Hebrews, when it is said, Almost all things are by the law purged with blood, and without hedding of blood there is no remiffon, chap. ix. 22. which proves
that the sacrifice was looked upon as the consideration on which the pardon was granted. Now if it can be shewn, that these sacrifices were intended to point out the nature of Christ's facrifice, or the relation which his death bears to the remiffion of our sins; then it will follow, that the death of Christ is the confideration of our forgiveness, with respect to transgressions of the moral law, as the Jewish sacrifices were the consideration of their forgiveness, with refpect to transgressions of the ceremonial and political law; and consequently, that our Lord offered a real facrifice for fin, when he offered up himself.
That the rites of the ceremonial law were intended to represent the manner of our re-. demption by Christ, is, I think, put beyond all doubt in the epistle to the Hebrews. For, not to mention here the many instances in which our redemption corresponds with those legal rites, as enumerated in that epistle, from whence one might reasonably infer a dehgned representation ; we are expressly told, that the law had a shadow of good things to come, chap. X. I. Not a shadow compared with those things, (which is undoubtedly true, though not the truth here intended) for that
might have been said of any thing unsubstantial, though it had not the least resemblance of them, and is a very different expression from that of the apostle: His words plainly intimate a resemblance, for he adds, and not the very image of the things, which words convey no meaning unless we suppose him to be speaking of a resemblance.* The whole fentence points out the imperfection of that similitude, which the legal rites afforded of good things to come, by a metaphor taken from the art of painting ; the former exhibited but the sketch or outlines, and not a finished portrait or complete picture of the latter. The
apostle uses the term Madow in another place, in conjunction with a word which likewise fixes its meaning ; The priests that offer gifts according to the law serve unto the EXAMPLE and SHA
* “ By a shadow, I apprehend, is not meant, that the “ whole apparatus of the Jewish tabernacle and temple, was " typical of the gospel scheme. Throughout the epistle “ to the Hebrews, the two schemes of Moses and Christ “ are compared, and the preference given, as in justice due, " to the latter. But the apostle never once intimates that " the one dispensation was a type of the other. All he “ fays, is, that the religious system of the Jewilh legif“ lator, when compared with the nobler one of Chrik, is
no more than a shadow compared with the fubftance.” Mr. Graham's Sermon, intitled, Repentance the only Condition of Final Acceptance, p. 9.
+ St. Paul uses the same form of speech in his epistle to the Coloffians; wherein, speaking of the ceremonial ordinances from which ch. iftians are delivered, he says, Which are a shadow of things to come ; but the body is of Christ. Chap. ii. 17.
dow of heavenly things, chap. viii. 4, 5. The fame inspired writer says, Cbrift is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the FIGURES of the true, chap. ix. 24. which expresses, with fufficient clearness, the typical nature of the ceremonial law; and that no doubt might remain of the intention to prefigure by these rites, he informs us, that the first tabernacle was a figure FOR THE TIME THEN PRESENT, ver. 9. which could not have been said of it, had it not been intended to prefigure things then future. But the evidence of this matter is not yet exhausted; for we are farther assured, that this prefiguration was designed by God himself; for the apostle, speaking of the high-priest entering into the holy of holies but once a year, adds the reason of it in these plain words, The Holy GHOST THIS SIGNIFYING, that the way into the boliest of all was not yet made manifeft, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing, chap. ix. 8. And we are also informed, that Moses was instructed concerning the typical nature of the ceremonial law by a divine admonition, The priests that offer gifts according to the law serve unto the example and shadow of beavenly things, As Moses WAS ADMONISHED GOD WHEN HE WAS ABOUT TO MAKE THE TABERNACLE, chap. viii. 5. Thus the doctrine of atonement for sin by the death of Christ is demonstrated to be a doctrine of di
vine revelation ; for no terms can be found in language more clear and express, than those which are used to declare the typical nature of the ceremonial law.
II. I might here conclude the positive proof of the doctrine I am defending; but as the priesthood and sacrifice of Christ are largely treated of in the epistle to the Hebrews, and we have, therefore, a good opportunity of learning, whether the inspired writer uses these terms in the proper or figurative fense; I shall take notice of some of the principal passages, which serve to fix their meaning.
The apostle defines, with great perspicuity, the term priest in its proper sense : A priest is one who is ordained for men, in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and facrifices for hin, Heb. v. I.
But the description which is given of our Lord's priesthood agrees with this ; Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that be might be a merciful and faithfulbigh-priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the fons of the people, chap. ii. 17. And, therefore, our Lord is a real and proper high-priest, because he has the effential characters of one. To this office he was folemnly instituted by God; for as no man taketh this honour unto himself but he that is called of God, as was Aaron : So also, Christ glorified not himself to be made an highpriest; but be that said unto him—Thou art a
priest for ever after the order of Melchizedec, ver. 45
The reality of Christ's priesthood is likewise ascertained by the declaration, that it was after the order of Melchizedec, who was, in the most proper sense of the words, priest of the Most High God; for if our Lord's priesthood was after his order, it was also real, and not figurative.
The apostle, speaking of the imperfection of the Levitical priesthood, and of its giving way to the priesthood of Christ, says, The priesthood being changed, there is made, of neCESSITY, a change also of the law, chap. vii. 12. Now this argument requires, that Christ be a true high-priest, otherwise there was no need that the law should be changed; for there were figurative priests under the law, as well as at any other period, that is, persons who offered the spiritual sacrifices of prayer and thanksgiving unto God; nay, the whole Jewish nation is called, in this sense, a kingdom of priests, Ex: xix. 6. and, therefore, the apostle could never have argued a change of the law from Christ's priesthood, had it not been a real one.
Our Lord is represented as being a more excellent priest than those of the order of Aaron, in that he was ordained to the office with an oath; Those priests were made without an oatb; but this with an oath, by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent,