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a esity degree of patient labour ; but when all is under the units, the tens under the tens, the hundreds under Que tus be is able to do his copy proves to be a failure in the hundreds, and so on, thus :sme z pests. It is out of proportion; the perspective Ines sss nos aire correctly; the curve-lines may not be zig

7653 Dat the essy sweep of his exemplar ; they are TE S ssd joists; and the perpendiculars are not beigts uz see the borizontal lines at right angles to them. 3 units

S in the less

in the taken from 6 units

leaves 3 units. 19 Deisst sdom of execution has abated, he perhaps dis

number ote these isa'ts himself; and if he makes the common

8 hundreds mated posing that the art of drawing is a gift, and that 7 thousands

9 thousands ,

2 thousands. sme penge is gician's wand, manifesting its powers only in se be see rightful owner, he may then lose heart, and

Thus, the difference is 2 thousands, 2 hundreds, 2 tens, and 3 Si shss as facalties are not adapted for the pursuit of this units, or, as it is written, according to the rules of our notation, Yes I say of our readers have unfortunately stopped

2223. so poet of their stadies, let them recover their confidence,

3. But suppose that the figures in the less number are not se ze secate their favourite pursuit under our guidance. The respectively less than the corresponding figure in the other pod method of practice, and the intelligible principles which number ; we must then proceed somewhat differently. I propose to explain and set before them, will so lead their

The method we employ depends upon the following selfisas thek eye, that ultimately they will accomplish all evident proposition, or

Axiom.--If two numbers be increased by the same quantity, Werected application does wonders in other arts, and why their di will not be altered. sos =ésving? What exercises does not a musician or a singer 4. Suppose that it be required to subtract 4789 from 5231. Servag, betore he gets command of his voice or fingers ? Place the numbers, one under the other, as beforeso esposte to arive at that dazzling rapidity of motion visible

5231 se torch the violin-player, certain and instantaneous

4789 songs is be, by any other method than that of hard and conezas parties would not be who should begin to learn the dzy instrument by attempting complete airs, and always 9 units in the less cannot be taken from 1 unit of the greater ;

e foun the exercises which a master prescribes, be add, however, 10 units to the 1 unit in the upper, and add 10 132 to si haze he began, and become no player ? Think to the lower number by changing the 8 in the tens place into a vrst as soment d labour is necessarily expended in fingering

9. The numbers are now 5 thousands, 2 hundreds, 3 tens, by the greaz pianoforte-player. Greatly less labour than is and 11 units; and 4 thousands, 7 hundreds, 9 tens, and 9 units. sity in prossconting many other arts will make an able Now, 9 units from 11 units leave 2 units. czurka, fit him for the performance of many useful works,

Again, 9 tens cannot be taken from 3 tens, but if we increase or inbre him with those principles of drawing which are the 3 in the tens place of the upper number by ten, and the aprile throughout the whole range of this art.

7 in the hundreds place in the lower by one, we shall be adding It » frezently asserted that the art of drawing, like that of the same quantity (a hundred) to each number, since 'any figure Wr44 petry, is a a natural gift; and that unless you possess indicates a number ten times as great as the same figure in a tzv. gori sever can eicel. It may be true that, to rise to the place immediately on its right. rent, eminence in any science or art, requires a peculiar bent

Then 9 tens from 13 tens leave 4 tens. Atur mind; but to acquire a useful practical knowledge of the

Again, 8 hundreds cannot be taken from 2 hundreds, but if ut A drzwing, it is by no means necessary that every one should we increase the 2 in the hundreds place of the upper number by bes quim. With regard to the sister arts--poetry and painting 10, and the 4 in the thousands place in the lower number by 1, - may be truly said, in regard to their elements, at least,

we shall be adding the same quantity (a thousand) to each tist, oser man in endowed with some ability for their acquisition number, for the reason we have already mentioned above. Erase application. Every one, for instance, is poetical when

Then, 8 hundreds taken from 12 hundreds leave 4 hundreds. he wake on a subject with which he is well acquainted, or in And 5 thousands from 5 thousands leave nothing. wania u deply interested ; and, in like manner, every one is

Hence the difference of the numbers is 4 hundreds, 4 tens, us ut, who is ready to make a sketch or a drawing of any and 2 units; that is, 442. in which he wishes to explain to another, when he finds

*5. The process may also be clearly exhibited as follows:ist, language fails to convey his ideas. The art of drawing, Burdina, may be attained to a sufficient extent for practical

5231 = 5 x 1000 + 2 x 100 + 3 * 10 + 1

4789 = 4 * 1000 + 7 x 100 + 8 x 10 + 9 peryans by every one who czerts the necessary attention and

uity. The artisan, the tradesman, or the connoisseur, may The difference between these numbers is the same as the by the com a few well-directed strokes of the pencil, convey difference between w Wa A hún plana, operations, and views in relation to artistic

5 x 1000 + 12 * 100 + 13 x 10 + 11 tuma, a which the mont laboured and elegant composition,

and 5 * 1000 + 8 x 100 + natang A many hundred words, would fail to convey the For we have added the same quantity to the original numbers, bonut Impresion to the mind of the hearer or the reader.

namely :-
10 x

10 10 + 10 i.e., 1110 to the upper,

and 1000 + 100 + 10 i.e., 1110 to the lower. LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-III. The difference is clearly seen to be, therefore — SUBTRACTION,

4 * 100 + 4 × 10 + 2 1.1 leu mmber be taken away from a greater, or, as it is i.e., according to the principles of notation, 442.

tracted from it, the number left behind is called the 6. From the above analysis of the process of subtraction will Meet the two numbers, or the remainder.

be perceived the truth of the following (called minus) placed between two numbers Rule for Subtraction. — Write the less number under the at that the one before which it stands is to be subtracted greater, so that units may stand under units, tens under tens, Ir the other

etc. Beginning at the right hand, subtract each figure in the % When the dividual figures composing the larger number lower number from the figure above it, and set down the rewe roepstady larger than the corresponding figures of the mainder directly under the figure subtracted. When a figure in or sumber, the process is evident. We have only to take the lower number is larger than that above it, add 10 to the twittee of the numbers of units, tens, hundreds, etc., upper figure; then subtract as before, and add 1 to the next

ody, and the resulting number can be at once written figure in the lower number. www.Thos, for instance, suppose it be required to find the Gips between 9876 and 7653.

Articles 5 and 7 may be omitted until after the lesson on MultiWat down the pura bers one under the other, the units plication bas been read.

9 X 10 + 9

100 +

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7. It may be remarked that, instead of adding 1 to the next

OUR HOLIDAY.-II. figure of the lower number in a case where a figure is larger than the one standing above it, it would be the same thing to

GYMNASTICS.—I. THE BAG AND THE RING EXERCISES. subtract 1 from the next figure of the upper number.

It is an old and undisputed truth, though one which has frequently The truth of this will appear from exhibiting the process of been lost sight of, that no system of education is complete unless subtracting 4789 from 5231, as follows :

it provides for the development and strengthening of the bodily 5231 = 5 x 1000 + 2 x 100 + 3 * 10 + 1

powers as well as the mental faculties. Physical training is, in 4789 = 4 * 1000 + 7 x 100 + 8 x 10 + 9

fact, of as much importance as intellectual culture; and, for the The difference of these will be the same as the difference of real welfare of the individual, the two should go hand in hand.

Knowing this, the Greek sought strength as ardently as he 4 * 1000 + 11 X 100 + 12 × 10 + 11 and 4 x 1000 + 7 x 100 +

strove for wisdom, and the Roman expressed his idea of human

8 X 10 + 9 It is evidently

perfection in the phrase mens sana in corpore sano—"a sound

mind in a sound body.” It is our design, in our papers on 4 X 100 + 4 X 10 + 2, or 442.

Gymnastics, to give the student some assistance in the practice Here we have not added anything to either number, but have of physical training, not only as a relief and diversion from his only arranged the upper one in a different form.

studies, but also as a means of acquiring vigour to pursue them The process given in the first rule is the most convenient in with success. For the influence of the condition of the body practice.

upon the powers of the mind is well known, and it will The learner is recommended to analyse the process he uses in frequently be found that one hour's physical effort in a right the first few examples which he attempts.

direction will do much to assist the scholar in his progress with 8. Tests of Correctness.-(1.) Add the remainder to the smaller his books. number; if the result so obtained be equal to the larger number, Gymnastic training is designed to secure health and strength the work may be presumed to be correct; for it is evident that by the equal development and exercise of the limbs and muscles the smaller number and the remainder are the two parts into of the body. Some exercises are better adapted to this purpose which the larger number is divided.

than others, the best being those which bring the greater (2.) Subtract the remainder from the greater of the two number of organs into play simultaneously; and the student numbers; if the difference is equal to the less number, the should select for himself, or under the advice of an experienced working may be considered to be correct.

friend, those which are best suited to his constitution and EXERCISE 5.

degree of physical strength. As in the present paper we shall

describe only some of the simpler forms of gymnastics, we shall 1. From 5843 subtract 2731

8. From 96531768 sub. 873625

not have occasion now to mention any that may not be prac2. From 89879 sub. 78654

9. From 10000000 sub. 999999 3. From 54903670 sut. 504089 10. From 99999999 sub. 100000

tised with advantage by all beginners; but the case may be 4 From 9876102 sub. 1050671 11. From 83567000 sub. 438567

otherwise with the more advanced exercises to be mentioned 5. From 4006723 gubtract 5001 12. From 34200591 sub. 8888888

hereafter. 8. From 3601900 sub. 1000000 13. From 95246300 sub. 9438675 One never-failing principle to be observed in all these 7. From 2035024 sub, 27040 14. From 76854313 sub. 59798109 pursuits, if real advantage is sought to be gained by them, 15. From 123456789 subtract 12345678

is that a violent or undue strain upon any portion of the 16. From 2468759768 subtract 1123344567

body should always be avoided. The exercises should partake 17. From 1000000000 subtract 123456789

of the character of natural and graceful movements; they 18. From 142857142857 subtract 42857142858

should proceed by easy gradations from the less to the more 19. From 6764 + 3764 take 6500 + 2430

difficult; and when the gymnast is really fatigued they should 20, From 2890 + 8407 take 4251 + 3042

cease at once. These principles we cannot too emphatically 21. From 8564 - 2573 take 4431 - 1735

impress upon our readers. They should remember that more 22. From 7561 2846 take 1734 + 2056 23. From 9687 3401 take 3021 + 1754

benefit is derived from moderate exertion than by excessive

effort. The modern system of gymnastio training, which has 24. What number is that to which 3425 being added, the done and is doing so much to make physical education popular sum will be 175250 ?

and useful, is one of light gymnastics chiefly. Some of these 25. A man having 55000 pounds, paid 7520 pounds for a exercises we proceed now to describe. We commence with that house, 3260 pounds for furniture, 2375 poands for a library. class of exercises which may be practised without implements How much had he left ?

or training of any kind. For these as well as for the higher 26. A man worth 163250 pounds bequeathed 15200 pounds gymnastics the best form of dress is a pair of loosely-fitting apiece to his two sons, 16500 pounds to his daughter, to his trousers or knickerbockers, fastened round the loins by a belt, wife as much as to his three children, and the remainder to an and a fannel shirt. It is an advantage for the trousers as hospital. How much did his wife and how much did the well as the shirt to be of flannel. hospital receive ?

1. The first thing to be done is to acquire the habit of stand27. A man bought three farms : for the first he paid 5260 ing in an erect position. Place the legs close together, the pounds, for the second 3585, and for the third as much as for heels touching, and the toer turned out at right angles. Hold the first two; he afterwards sold them all for 15280 pounds. th head well up, with the eyes looking straight in front; How much did he gain or lose ?

throw the shoulders back, and the chest well forward. Let the 28. A jockey gave 150 crowns for a horse, and meeting an arms hang down the sides, the elbows and the little fingers acquaintance, changed horses with him, giving 37 crowns to touching the body, and the palms open to the front. Practise boot; meeting another he changed again, receiving 28 crowns to this position until it becomes easy and natural. boot; he finally changed again, giving 78 crowns to boot, and 2. Next, from this position, bring the arms gradually forward, then sold his last horse for 140 crowns. What did he lose ? without bending the elbows, until they are level with the chest,

29. Find the difference between every two successive numbers and the points of the fingers meet. Then raise the extended in the squares contained in Ex. 3 on Addition (page 23), taking arms above the head as far as you can in the form of a semicare always to place the larger number uppermost—that is, for circle, bending the elbows as little as possible in the movement. the mindend.

Reverse these actions, bringing the arms back to the body as 30. Find the difference between a million and a thousand before. and one.

3. Raise the arms until they are level with the shoulders ; 31. From 4850902 subtract 98998; from the remainder sub. then bring them forward until the thumbs meet, and extend tract the same number; and from every successive remainder them somewhat rapidly back as far as possible, still without subtract the same number, until a remainder at last be obtained bending the elbows. The constant practice of this simple from which it cannot be subtracted ; and then, tell how many exercise will do much to expand the chest. times the subtraction has been performed.

4. Practise the same movement, making the palms of the 32. What is the difference between a hundred thousand and hands meet behind the back each time. ten millions one thousand, and a hundred millions ten thousand 5. Starting from the erect position, bring the arms together and one?

with the fingers pointing to the ground; thon, koeping the arme

and legs perfectly straight, bend the body forward, with the through which the bags may be thrown. This, however, is not head towards the ground, and touch the feet with the points of necessary, although it tends to increase the interest of the the fingers. When this can be done with ease, touch the floor players in the exercise. in the same position. This will be difficult at first, but it will The design of the exercise is to give freedom to the muscles soon be accomplished with a little practice.

of the chest and arms, and promote a healthy movement of the 6. Place the arms "akimbo;” that is, with the elbows out body generally. For this purpose the bags are thrown from and the hands resting on the hips. Sink down to the floor one player to the other, in a until you sit upon your heels, and then rise to the erect position. variety of positions, which Repeat this several times in succession.

may be left in some measure 7. Bring the right arm level with the shoulder; then throw to their own taste and in. it back, and whirl it round at full length from the body. Exercise clination, provided it be rethe left arm and shoulder in the same way. Then begin by membered, as a rule, to keep throwing the arm forward, and whirl it as before. Practise the the legs perfectly straight, the same movements with both arms simultaneously.

body upright, and the chest 8. With the hands on the hips, raise each knee as high as well thrown forward. This you can, keeping the other leg perfectly straight. Then extend position is exemplified in Fig. each leg sideways as far as possible, remaining a few seconds in 1. Standing thus, the bag may that position.

be thrown first with the right 9. Hop on one foot several times successively, then on the arm, then with the left, then other, keeping the body erect.

with left and right alternately; Those exercises will do much for the beginner in gymnastics, now, with both hands brought and will also suggest others of a similar description which he back behind the neck, throw may practise with advantage.

the bag over the head; or, Wo would remark here that the importance of regular walking with the bag in the right hand, exercise as a means of strengthening the frame and keeping the throw it from behind round system in health must not be lost sight of, in the attention given the left arm, which is kept to purely gymnastio pursuits. No exercise is more salutary in straight to the body; throw

Fig. 3. its effects, and it has with the left hand in the the additional recom. same manner; and so on. Fig. 2 represents a more difficult mendation of taking position, from which the bag is thrown over the head. This tho pedestrian into will come easy to the learner with a little practice. the fresh air, which We pass on now to the Ring Exercises, which have received is as necessary to the very high eulogium, and prove highly amusing as well as benepreservation of life ficial to the players. The ring is made of wood, usually cherry, and health as a pro- and is one inch in thickness and six inches in diameter. This per supply of food is sufficient to enable two persons to grasp it and use it with

freedom. All the ring exercises are for two players, who should We now come to be of equal or nearly equal strength. Two rings are required the various kinds of in the course of the exercises, each player grasping one in gymnastio exercises either hand. The rings should be well polished. They are which are practised inexpensive articles, being sold occasionally as low as one shil. with the aid of appa- ling per pair; and any wood-turner will supply them at a little ratus, and will men- more than this sum. tion first those which We give two figures as examples of the exercises that may be require only the sim- practised with either one or both hands. In the first, the players, plest appliances, but standing in the position shown in Fig. 3, both pull hard with are still of high utility, the right hand, and draw the right arm from right to left and

For the introduo- from left to right; afterwards performing the same movements tion of two of these with the ring held in their left hands. Remember to keep the we are indebted to an head well up and the shoulders

Amorioan physician, baok, with the feet placed at In Du Lowla, who has bostowed great attention on gymnastios right angles, in all these movefun wayatulogloud point of view, and whoso teaching and ments. In the second example, unplus are being widely adopted in Europe as well as in the players first stand back to A Thono a tho Huy aud tho Ring exercisos, which we back, with the rings held downwhull tanaw domuiba.

wards; then each lunges forThu thay Exercion, which may be used in families with great ward with the right leg, and the Baumib, ulo prtlood almply with bags Alled with beans, the hands are raised over the head, Habla tu umuy which are givou as follows by Dr Lowis as shown in Fig. 4. They reI nu cuburbad lu Hatiny bod tokiu Haga for young children turn to the back-to-back posi

Mullu, hlwe wawig novou tuchos squaro: for lacios, nino tion, and step forward with the (cha ku tadion and gentleman exercluing together, ton inches ; left log in the same manner.

oblament alone, twelve luchos. Now them with strong linen Among other ring exercises w thread, doubled, nadly three quarter of an inch from may be mentioned the following:

de Javing a small aporte at ano comer to pour in the Tho players, standing face to Wil the bus thromatov full

, and they are ready for laoo, and with one foot well adxwed daily, once in two weeks they should bo emptiod vanoed, the other thrown back,

kuda allow them to be played with aftor they are both pull with one hand and
wally sava la furnish much dust for the lungs of the push with the other, alternately;
Maida sailing the hands and clothes. There cannot boono arm thus being extended to

Fig. 4.
rogard to this point of cleanliness, its full longth, and the other
tlvat time they should bo rinsed drawn baok as far as possible, at each movement. Then, stand-
hom quite clean, when they musting in tho same way, draw back with both arms, your partner
two attorwards thia cleansing pushing his as far forward as he can, and each doing this alter-

natoly. Standing in an erect' position, each raise one hand and performed by two personu prao lower the other as far as possible, being careful not to bend the advantage, when tho praotioo is olbows. Raise and lower the arms alternately from the position from the ceiling a hoop or rings, represented in Fig. 4.

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HISTORIC SKETCHES.—II.

submission. To submission! But in what were the bishops

opposed to him? What law or ancient custom of the kingdom THOMAS À BECKET AND THE CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON.

had they disregarded ? What need was there to summon them It was a grand scene that presented itself in Westminster Hall to Westminster, and to catechise them so severely? Above all, when, in the spring of the year 1163, King Henry II. met what harm was there in the saving clause inserted by the Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest of prelates in their answer, that it should so greatly inoense the the bishops of England. On the one side appeared, in all the king ? Let us see. pomp and magnificence of prelates of the Roman Church, the For many years the clergy had been striving to effect in whole of the representatives of spiritual power in the country; England what they had actually effected in other countries—an on the other appeared, in an equally magnificent simplicity, the independence of the civil courts, and a recognition of their highest representative of the temporal power. Church and superiority above the civil power. Steadily they worked towards State were confronted. Why?

the attainment of these great objects, their doctrine of the supeThe king had a question to ask the bishops, one in which not riority of the spiritual over the temporal power ultimately he only, nor the people living at the time, but we also had a blooming out into an assertion of right even to depose princes, keen personal interest; and in order that he might get their and to absolve subjects from their allegiance. As yet this collective answer at one and the same time, he bade them meet monstrous claim had not been advanced in England, but steps him at Westminster in a body. The question he had to ask was were being taken which were meant to lead up, and actually did very simple, but also very important: “Would the bishops lead up, to it. With some show of colour, perhaps, the clergy conform to the law and ancient customs of the land, or would claimed that all questions of right to present to ecclesiastical they not ?" Timely warning had been given to the bishops of benefices should be tried in the ecclesiastical courts. They also the nature of the question to be asked, and, under the guidance claimed that, as guardians of property which was held for reliof the Archbishop of Canterbury, they had framed an answer. gious purposes, they should not be taxed nor be compelled to do They would observe the law and the ancient customs of the military service, whether in kind or by commutation, nor should realm, saving their own order. Only one prelate, Hilary, Bishop they be obliged to sit with laymen in the grand council of the of Chichester, was found to give an unqualified answer in the kingdom—that was to say, a House of Lords. The deans and affirmative, and for doing so he received the warm upbraidings chapters of cathedrals claimed the sole and exclusive right to of the primate.

elect the bishop of their see; privilege of sanctuary both to Henry, who thought by putting a straightforward question to person and property was claimed for all churches and churchget an equally straightforward answer, was exceedingly dis. yards; and the clergy also asserted the unquestioned right to gusted at the trick of the primate, which left the whole matter excommunicate whomsoever they pleased. These and certain as much at large as it had been before the meeting. In vain he other privileges, of which the tendency was to render clerks in tried to change the mind of the bishops; and, bamed in his hope holy orders independent of the state, were not, though pertiof binding them by their own admissions, ho left the hall in a ' naciously advanced, sufficient to arouse the resolute opposition Tage, and determined to take other means of bringing them to of Henry II. There were two other claims of the churchmen

VOL. 1.

which, if once a loved. Fra 2 ces have made the clergy to be the exact opposite of what Henry had looked for in him. quiti independent, but wow i bare given them the opportunity The case which induced the king to try conclasions with and the means of whot stbretag the kingly power. They Becket and the clerical party was an exceedingly gross one. A said that if a man contracted with another to do a thing, and priest in Worcestershire had violated a gentleman's daughter, confirmed hit promise to s oath, the fact that the oath was and afterwards murdered her father. When the scoundrel was binding only on the conscience gave them jurisdiction, and in about to be brought to trial before the king's justices, Becket this way they are before the spiritual courts many questions claimed him as a clerk, and getting possession of him, degraded of ordinary contrats, dezors about which ought rightly to have him from his priesť's office, and then insisted that he could not been tried in the Ezg's carts of law, which were open to all be tried again in the king's court for the same offence. comers, and from stich an appeal lay to the king himself. The These were the circumstances under which King Henry sumlast and most important of the clerical claims, however, was moned the bishops to Westminster; and the meaning of the that which severed that no clergyman could be brought to trial words“ saving our own order" is sufficiently clear. Henry left in the king's Outrta, civil or criminal, for any breach of agres- the hall in a rage, but it was not an impotent one. By promises, ment, Doserer g1962, or for any crime, however heinous. If a by threats, by various means, he detached most of the prelates clerk was escused of crime, and was arraigned before the king's from their primate, and he won over the Archbishop of York by joon, the bishop of the diocese in which the prisoner dwelt significant hints about the next incumbent of the see of Canterat an order to the judge, notifying him that the man was in bury. Last to give in was Becket, who yielded only to the vriers, and requiring him to surrender the fellow to the bishop's universal pressure bronght to bear upon him, and repented as officer. When brought before the spiritual court the prisoner soon as he had assented. But repentance or no repentance, le was often allowed to clear himself on his simple oath, uncorro- did assent, and with the rest of the prelates professed his borated by any witnces, to the effect that he had not done that willingness to observe " the ancient customs of the kingdom"of which he was accused. If he confessed, or if the case was which did not recognise the clerical claims and to withdraw clearly proved against him, he was put to penance, sometimes the saving clause. he was put in prison, and sometimes—but rarely—he was Henry knew with whom he had to deal. He knew that a degraded from hix ccclesiastical rank. In this way crimes of confession of this sort was quite useless unless it could be the most abominablo kind, and which, if committed by laymen, embodied in some visible instrument. Taking advantage of his were punishable with death, were done with comparative im- success, of the schism in the Papacy (there were at this time two punity when clerks were the offenders. Nor was this all. By Popes, one at Rome, the other in France, and Henry played off means of an absurd test, persons who were not, nor ever meant cae against the other), and of the resolute support of the barons, to be, in holy orders, were admitted to the “ benefit of clergy.” who were only too glad to give the spiritual lords a kick down, Ability to read or write, no matter how imperfectly, was taken Henry summoned the primate and all the bishops to meet him to be of itself sufficient proof that a man was a clerk, so that a at Clarendon, a village in Wiltshire, and there, being backed, layman arraigned before the king's justicos had only to show like Stephen de Langton on a later occasion, by " the whole that he could read or write what was afterwards appropriately nobility of England," he required their sworn assent to what called "the neck verse," and he was forth with handed over to have been called the Constitutions of Clarendon. the ordinary to be put to his purgation in the ecclesiastical The “Constitutions” were dreadfully hard eating for the court.

bishops, divesting them as they did of nearly all their invidious This monstrous immunity, with its yet more monstrous privileges, some of which it must be confessed were sanctioned abusen, was like the last straw that broke the camel's back. . So by those "ancient customs " which the king had sworn the flagrantly unjust was it, both in principle and practice, that all bishops to observe. Suits concerning advowsons and rights of honest men were indignant, and cried aloud for some check presentation were to be decided in the civil courts; no clerk, no upon it. The king, who was by means of it and the other pre- matter of what rank, was to quit the kingdom without the royal tended rights of the clergy gradually ceasing to be master in permission; the pretended right to try questions of contracts his own dominions, resolved to apply a curb, and to wipe away made on oath was to be renounced; excommunicated persons the scandal. From the time when he mounted the throne in were not to be made to find security for their residence in any 1154 he had striven to restrain the power of the clergy, and, appointed place; laymen were not to be tried in spiritual courts aided by the clear head and bold hand of his bosom friend except by approved good witnesses; no chief tenant of the Thomas à Becket, had striven not unsuccessfully. Great had crown to be excommunicated without the king's assent; the been the wrath poured on Becket's head when, as Lord Chan- final appeal in all spiritual causes to be in the king; prelates to cellor of England, he had made havoc altogether of many a pet be regarded as barons of the realm, and to be taxed accordingly; clerical abuse. Under the idea that he would continue the same bishops not to be elected without the royal assent; the privilege policy in a sphere where that policy would have the largest of sanctuary to be curtailed ; and clerks accused of any crime possible scope, Henry offered Becket the archbishopric of Can. to bo tried in the king's courts, like other men. terbury when that see was vacant in 1161. Becket, it must in The Great Council of the barons unanimously approved the fairness be admitted, was very averse to accept the offer, and for Constitutions, and, sour as the food was, all the prelates, except thirtoon months held out a persistont refusal. Finally, how the primate, swore to accept it “legally, with good faith, and ovor, ko yielded to the earnest solicitations and orders of the without fraud or reserve.” Becket was resolute, though alone ; king, and was duly installed as Primato at Canterbury.

friends as well as foes besieged his constancy, still he held out; To the surprise of all men, and to the infinite disgust of the and it was not till Richard de Hastings, Grand Prior of the king, Beckot from the day of his consecration pursued a totally Templars, a man who seldom bent his knee, even in prayer, new course to that he had formerly takon. Nowhere was there went down on his kneos and besought him, that he gave in. 80 bold an assortor of clorical rights, nowhere a moro untiring Unwillingly, and in hope of getting the Popo to annul his worker on behalf of the power of the Church. He claimed lands oath, ho swore like the rest to accept the Constitutions " with which had once belonged to the see of Canterbury, but which good faith, and without fraud or reserve.” had long beon independent and in laymen's hands; he excom- Pope Alexander refused to ratify the treaty ; he released all municated* the owner of an advowson for ejecting a priest who had sworn from their oaths, and threatened to cxcommuniwho had been presented by himself; he asserted the right cate eterybody who should try to support the king's demands. of the spiritual courts to inquire into questions of contract A long trial of strength ensued. Becket got over to France, confirmed by oath; and in every respect he proved himself and plotted there against his former friend; Henry took the

revenues of the hostile bishops into his own hands, and by dint

of persoverance managed to keep the clergy in check; and it is Excommunication was tho expulsion of a man, by the highest probable he would have done very much more than he did had ecclesiastical authority, from the communion of Christian men.

it not been for the brutal murder of Thomas à Becket, which rights and comforts of the Church were refused to the excommuni. cated; the sacraments were not allowed to be administered to him;

was a blunder as well as a crime. he was reckoned accurged; and, in times of superstition, he was sup.

In the autumn of 1170 Becket had returned to Canterbury, posed to be eternally lost if he died without absolution. 'Excommuni nominally reconciled to the king; but the old question-which cation was the great weapon of ecclesiastics, and it was a powerful one should be the greater-being revived, Henry is reported to have lu the age of ignorance and moral darkness.

said in a hasty moment, “ Is there not one of those who eat my

The

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