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solicited and obtained, and “ dedication the illustrations are excellent, and the to Her Majesty” graciously permitted. whole manual is eminently practical. The copy before us belongs to the Magic, Pretended Miracles, and Na“ tenth thousand :" the work has been tural phenomena. Monthly Series. received favourably; and, under all the Religious Tract Society. circumstances of the case, well deserves the Tahtar Tribes. Monthly Series. such a reception. It comes from Scot- Religious Tract Society. land, and is a good specimen of the Our English Bible. Monthly Series. piety, thoughtfulness, and principled re- Religious Tract Society. spect for the Sabbath, so often found in The Origin and Progress of LanScotland in the class whose members guage. Monthly Series. Religious were to compete for the prize.
Tract Society. The Life of Mrs. Savage, by Sir The History of Rome, from the earliest John Bickerton Williams. A new Edi- Times to the Fall of the Empire. 12mo., tion, 18mo., pp. xxiv, 228. Religious pp. 438. Religious Tract Society. Tract Society.--Mrs. Savage was the Athens : its Grandeur and Decay. daughter of Philip Henry, and the sister 12mo., pp. 192. Religious Tract Society. of the Commentator. Some years ago, -A melancholy instance of the vicissi. Sir John Williams published what may tude of all human affairs ! Its former be termed a library edition of her Life, pre-eminence in the scale of nations compiled from a Diary, and copious renders an acquaintance with the hismanuscripts found after her death. We tory of Athens necessary to all who have are glad to see an edition in the present any claim to be thought well read or form. It is a fine exhibition of female tolerably informed. In this volume piety, especially as existing among the much is comprised in little, and it bids Nonconformists in the days of Mrs. Sa fair to be extensively circulated, and also vage. There is an excellent “Preface," popular. written by the venerable William Jay. Composition and Punctuation fami
A Manual of Prayers for the Young. liarly explained, for those who have negBy the Rev. E. Bickersteth, Rector of lected the Study of Grammar; and where. Watton, Herts. 18mo., pp. xii, 299. in Foreigners who may be learning EngSeeleys.--Properly speaking, the work is lish will also find Information calculated a “Help to Prayer," which, though de to facilitate their Progress in the Undersigned specially for the young, may be standing of the Language. By Justin very useful to all. There are not only Brenan. Sixth Edition. 18mo., pp. 192. forms of prayer, but collections of texts, Effingham Wilson. - We have been arranged under suitable heads, to be highly gratified with the perusal of this employed in prayer. To assist in acquir. volume : a desideratum long wanted is ing a proper gift for extemporary prayer, at length supplied. It abounds in plain hints, distributed under regular heads, sense; and the best-informed of our are likewise given, intended both to aid readers will find much in its pages that the memory and to be suggestive of sube will amply repay perusal. jects. Occasionally we see evidences of Hints for the Times ; or, the Religions the Calvinism (the very mild Calvinism of Sentiment, Form, and of Feeling, of the pious and esteemed author ; but contrasted with vital Godliness. By the this does not prevent us from saying, that Rev. George Smith, M.A., of Magdalen the “Manual” he has furnished, properly Hall, Oxford, late a Missionary in used, may be a very valuable aid to many. China, and Author of an “ Erploratory
The Memoir of Sarah B. Judson, Visit to the Consular Cities of China,” Member of the American Mission to Foolscap 8vo., pp. 63. Cambric, gilt Burmak. By Fanny Forester. With edges. Hatchards.-Brief, as “hints" an Introductory Notice, by Edward Bean should be: good, as those should be Underhill. 12mo., pp. xii, 180. Aylott which are intended for the present and Jones.-A valuable addition to the "times." In the section on the religion female biography of our Missionary of “forms,” there are some valuable reliterature, and in every respect worthy of marks on the Anglo-Popery of the day. preceding volumes, which have again All the sons of Oxford, happily, are not and again fanned the piety, cheered the faithless. heart, and lightened the labour, of many Grace and Peace : a brief and praca labourer on the Missionary field. tical Summary of the fundamental Doc
Astronomy, and the Use of the Globes. trines of the Gospel. Foolscap 8vo., pp. For Schools and Families. By John vii, 163. Nisbets.- The « Table of Middleton. 12mo., pp. xii, 226. Jarrold Contents" will show to what subjects and Sons. -The volume is well arranged, the volume is devoted :-“The right Mode of inquiring into the Truths of selves. The connexion, for instance, Revelation ; the Deity ; Sin; the Atone. between regeneration and adoption, the ment; the Person and Offices of Christ; first being represented as causative of the the Personality and Office of the Holy last, is not, we think, the scriptural view. Spirit; Justification ; Sanctification ; the We are not in the secret of the authorCovenant of Grace; Conclusion.” The ship; but, judging from the general chaobservations on these subjects are ortho- racter of the style, we should be inclined dox and evangelical, pious and practical, to refer it to some Calvinistically-evanand plainly designed for the general gelical Clergyman. Not that it is at all reader, rather than the student. The controversial : we only use the expres. system, however, on which they are based sion descriptively, as writing for Wesleyan is not such a one as we have adopted our readers.
(FROM EVANGELICAL CHRISTENDOM.) The following account of the Mission dense mist is often seen resting :-that of the United Presbyterian Church begun is the long-sought Delta of the Niger, a at Old Calabar, West Coast of Central vast morass, extending two hundred miles Africa, on the 8th of April, 1846, was along the sea-shore and upwards of two given by the Rev. Andrew Somerville, hundred and fifty miles inland, chandeled Mission Secretary of the said Church, at by numerous streams; the mouths of the Monthly Breakfast of the Edinburgh that celebrated river, covered with manSection of the Evangelical Alliance : grove and palm-oil trees, and inhabited
In submitting a brief account of the by fierce and savage tribes, many of Old Calabar Mission, I shall speak of whom are cannibals. Sail up the Old the locality and the population, of the Calabar frith, a distance of fifty miles, religious belief and customs of the and you see two large rivers flowing into people, and of the operations of our it. The one on your left hand is the Missionaries.
Cross river, so called because it was supI. The locality and the population.- posed to communicate with the Niger, You will find these int he map which gene. and to be one of its mouths ; but it was rally accompanies a rough sketch of the explored by Captain Becroft, in 1842, a district where our Mission is situated. It is distance of one hundred and seventy-five of some importance to obtain a correct idea miles, and was found to be an indepenof the place, as this will not be got from dent stream, more than a mile in breadth, any map of this part of Africa, published with a depth of from six to seven fathoms, previously to 1842. It was in that year flowing from the east, a region yet unexonly that Captain Becroft, under the plored by Europeans, and having its direction of Mr. Robert Jamieson, of banks studded with towns and villages. Liverpool, explo, ed, in the Ethiope Enter the river on your right hand, which steamer, the rivers of Old Calabar; and is the Old Calabar river, fully threethis sketch contains Captain Becroft's fourths of a mile in width, and after discoveries. Old Calabar lies in the ascending it about eight miles, and passBight of Biafra, near the sixth degree of ing a jutting headland, you see upon the north latitude, and between the eighth right bank a cluster of towns. These and ninth degrees of east longitude. are Duke-Town, Henshaw-Town, OldThe coast there runs east and west. Town, and seven miles up the river, on Standing opposite the Old Calabar frith, the left bank, Creek-Town, the principal you look directly north. On your right towns of Old Calabar, and the seat of our hand are the Cameroon mountains, rising Mission. In front of Duke-Town you to the height of 13,000 feet; and farther perceive seven or eight large vessels at to the right, at the distance of sixty miles, anchor : these are ships from Liverpool, is the elevated and beautiful island of waiting for cargoes of palm-oi). Fernando Po; and on your left is an These towns, with the country villages, extensive level district, over which a contain a population of sixty or seventy thousand, subject to the sway of the King large expedition, sufficient, if necessary, of Old Calabar, and are accessible to our to demonstrate his power, and to show Missionaries. Each town has its King that he did not seek peace from a sense or Headman ; but the chief authority is of weakness; but he put on board his vested in Eyo Honesty, of Creek-Town, war-canoes a great quantity of valuable a man of remarkable sagacity, intelli goods, intended as a present to the enemy, gence, and integrity, who is more proud and sent before him the Canoe of Peace, of his justly-bestowed title of "honesty," decked with palm-branches. The result than he would be of any name that could was, that in a short time matters were be given. The population is divided satisfactorily adjusted, and a cordial peace into two classes, freemen and slaves ; the established. latter being the great majority. These The mode of government at Old Caare either employed on the provision labar is, in the case of freemen, by comgrounds, which are at some distance from mon consultation and agreement. They the towns, or in the operations of trade. meet together in the palaver-house, talk The freemen are all engaged in trade, over the matter, and no measure can beand are mainly dependent upon it for come law that has not a majority of votes. their support and influence. Even the The great difficulty which they feel is to King, who has no revenue from his sub keep in subjection their numerous slaves. jecis, carries on trade to a great extent, This seems to be managed chiefly by the is of active business habits, keeps regular aid of superstition. They have a secret accounts, and owes all his power to the institution, called Egbo, of which the weight of his character, and the wealth King is Chief or Grand-Master, the main which he has acquired from trading design of which seems to be to awe into The slaves are generally treated with submission the common people. The kindness; and there seems to be a pro. initiated alone have a right to the privicess of internal emancipation, the children leges of Egbo, are present at the meetings of the third generation generally becom of the order, and are acquainted with its ing free. It is a happy circumstance mysteries. Egbo is supposed to be a that persons have ceased to be exported supernatural being, who resides in the as slaves from this district for a consider. bush, and who comes forth only on spe. able number of years. That horrid cial occasions, and when his services are traffic is totally suppressed in the Bight needed. He is brought into town careof Biafra. This result is to be ascribed fully concealed and guarded, attended by to the beneficial influence of a growing persons fantastically dressed, and is led in trade, and to the treaties made with the procession, preceded by the Egbo-drum Chiefs by the British Government. The and rude music, to the palaver-house, trade which is carried on at Old Calabar, into which none but the initiated are perand which is entirely in the hands of mitted to go. The Egbo-man, or the merchants in Liverpool, is chiefly in servant of Egbo, arrayed in the strangest palm-oil. The palm-oil is brought from costume, runs, on Egbo-days, through the the interior, and is exchanged for British streets of the town, brandishing a large goods. The humanizing influence of whip, and inflicting severe flagellations legitimate commerce is becoming every on all the non-initiated, especially females, year more obvious. Not only has it that come within his reach. The terror enlarged the views of the people, and to which this mysterious being inspires is a certain degree improved their manners; very great ; so much so, that the sound not only has it enabled them to have of the Egbo-drum will make the scholars comfortable houses, and to furnish them, in the school to tremble. This strange in many instances, with costly articles of personage figures in all their processions, European manufacture ; but it has taught masquerades, and numerous public cerethem that it is for their interest to live at monies; and, on certain days, called peace with their neighbours. A striking “ brass " Egbo, when a yellow flag is instance of this occurred only a few seen floating on the King's house, none months ago. Eyamba, the late King of but a few privileged gentlemen are allowOld Calabar, who died in May, 1847, ed to walk the streets. The town is as was engaged in war with the people of quiet as if it were destitute of inhabitants. Omun, a powerful tribe on the Cross It is a singular circumstance that though river. This war had the effect of dimi. our Missionaries have been there for nishing the quantity of oil that could be two years, and have been in daily and obtained from the interior, and was thus most friendly intercourse with the Kings injurious to both parties. Consequently, and Chiefs, yet they have not been able as soon as King Eyo was firmly estab- to penetrate the mystery of Egbo, nor to lished in the Government, he fitted out a find an individual that would disclose its
secrets. This remarkable fidelity to them engaged in them. Happily, these their engagements is a feature honourable things are not to be found in King Eyo's to the people, and shows that they have yard : “he prays,” he himself says, “in moral elements that may be moulded into his heart at all times." A prevalent and a noble and energetic character. It is a dreadful custom is connected with their gratifying fact, in connexion with this belief in magical or supernatural influsubject, that, by express Egbo law, the ence. They believe that one person can person of a white man is inviolable ; and so exert an evil influence upon another as thus, by the kind overruling of divine to cause his death. This custom has Providence, this mysterious institution two parts. The first leads them, when throws a shield of safety around our unwell, to consult the juju, or religious countrymen.
man, a sort of professional necromancer, II. The religious belief and customs who, after performing strange ceremonies of the people. They believe in the with an appropriate apparatus of bones, existence of God and of the devil, in a teeth, and bits of snakes' skins, gives his future state, and in the immortality of opinion on the case, either enjoining the the soul; but their ideas on these sub. invalid to sacrifice an animal, or accusing jects are dim and confused, and have, by some person of being the cause of his the wickedness of the heart, and the ma- malady. The second leads them to sublignant teaching of Satan, been framed ject the accused to a process of public into a system of superstition, dark, cruel, judicial trial. The death of persons of and sanguinary. They are a people em- rank is usually ascribed to this evil influbedded in superstition, a great part of ence. Suspicion falls upon certain parwhose time is occupied in the observance ties, and these are obliged in a public of senseless and most destructive rites. manner to vindicate themselves, by drinkIt is rather curious that they regard one ing water into which a poison-nut has day of the week as a Sabbath, that they been infused; the opinion being that the all practise circumcision, that on festivals innocent escape, and that the guilty only days they sprinkle the blood of the Egbo die. But the truth is, it is a fatal goat, and that they make a covenant of draught, terminating invariably in death, friendship between parties that were at except when the stomach of the person variance, by putting on them the blood rejects it. It is fearful to think to what of a slain goat, mixed with certain ingre- an extent this custom prevails, and how dients; things which indicate the remains numerous are its victims. The journals of the patriarchal religion. Their per- of our Missionaries abound with most sonal worship, so far as it has been ascer. affecting details of its deadly operation. tained, may be divided into two parts : One specimen may be given from a that which is observed within the house, journal kept by a native Chief. When and that which takes place in the court. Duke Ephraim died, in 1834, the prin. yard. The worship within the house cipal people were summoned to the consists in adoring a human skull, stuck palaver-house for the purpose of inquiring upon the top of a stick, around the handle into the cause of his death. Suspicion of which a bunch of feathers is tied. fell upon fifteen persons, whose names This disgusting object, their domestic are mentioned, and these were obliged to idol, is said to exist in every house in chop nut, as it is called, to drink the Old Calabar. The worship in the court poisoned water; and opposite each name, yard is of this kind : in the middle of with one exception, is marked the word the yard there is a basin of water placed “dead ;” and, next morning, five wives at the foot of a small tree, which is of the deceased were made to undergo the planted for the purpose. This basin is same ordeal, and the record says, “ All never emptied of its contents, but is once dead ;” and so, Mr. Waddell adds, a week filled with a fresh supply of “the entries go on from day to day, like water; and on the day when this is a registry of executions, a regular record done, the second day of the week, called of cold blooded murders, daily comGod's day, they "offer a fowl, or some mitted.” other small thing of that sort, which is But the most desolating and sanguintied by the foot to the tree," and then ary of all their customs is the practice of they “pray to Abasi Ebum, the great sacrificing human victims, for the benefit god, but without confession of sin, and of deceased persons of rank. This horrid solely for temporal benefits." The basin custom arises from the belief that the of dirty water, the dead fowl, and the future world corresponds to the present ; small bush, are seen in the court-yard; that the same wants are felt, the same but their acts of worship are so brief relationships sustained, and the same pure that our Missionaries have never beheld suits followed; and therefore, that the
station and happiness of a person depend them up to the view of the Christian upon the number of followers and slaves church, the friends of Jesus will hasten that are killed and sent after him. The to stop the effusion of blood, and to heal effect of this belief is, that in proportion the wounds of that most miserable land. to the dignity of the departed, the rank It is a gratifying circumstance that at and power of the survivers, and the Old Calabar the people have become warmth of affection which they cherish ashamed of this practice, and do it only for the deceased, is the number of vic- in secret. The remonstrances of English tims that are seized and immolated, Captains, of British officers, and of the Acquaintances also testify their respect Missionaries have weakened its power, for the dead, and sympathy with the King Eyo has put it down in Creeksorrowing relations, by destroying a few Town, and is labouring prudently to of their slaves. The agents in this abolish it in his whole dominions; and, wholesale system of murder are the near. within these few months the Kings and est relations of the deceased, who evince Chiefs have, in compliance with the retheir affection and their grief, by exert- quest of the British Government, publicly ing themselves to catch by force, by signed a bond to abandon it altogether : stratagem, and by all manner of ways, so that there is reason to anticipate that and destroy as many of their fellow. there it will soon cease to devour. I creatures as they can. It is a season of have said that the funeral rites last for terror. The slaves, from whose ranks four months. During this period the the victims are usually taken, flee to the person is said to be sick only, not dead; bush for shelter, the doors of the houses and if he be a King, none is chosen to are fastened, and every one is afraid to fill his place. The last two weeks are go abroad. And when it is considered devoted to public mourning, when terrible that the funeral ceremonies continue for cries and lamentations are heard, volleys four months, and that at the beginning, of musketry are fired, and public procesand especially at the close of this period, sions, dances, and masquerades take when the grand carnival, or make-devil, place, in which all the wealth and splen. as they call it, takes place, great exer dour of the town are displayed. At the tions are made to obtain victims, it will beginning of the four months a devilat once be obvious that this is a practice house, as it is styled, is built ; a small which spreads terror and mourning structure, open at one end, in which are through every part of the community. exposed cloths, domestic utensils and It prevails in the greater part of western food, intended as an offering to the evil Central Africa, and is drenching the land spirit. Surely, when all these things are with blood. Mr. Bowdich, who resided considered, we may say, “ The dark for some time as British Consul at Ku- places of the earth are full of the habitamasi, the capital of Ashanti, states that tions of cruelty,” and “the things which when the mother of the King of that the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to country died, upwards of three thousand devils.” victims were slain, to do her honour. III. The operations of the MissionEven at Old Calabar, though the custom aries. - 1. Building Operations. — is less bloody than it was, several sad Their first work, after being kindly welscenes have occurred within these two comed by the Chiefs, in April, 1846, years. There is reason to fear that no was to erect Mission premises. They person of note dies, whose grave is not have put up three comfortable framewashed with human blood. In 1846, wooden houses at Duke-Town, Creekwhen a nephew of King Eyamba died, Town, and Old-Town. To avoid as at least one hundred victims were de much as possible the destructive malaria stroyed; and when Eyamba himself which prevails in that part of Africa, died, in May, 1847, as many, including these are built on elevated and airy spots, thirty of his wives, and some of the exposed to the sea-breeze. The station school-children, were cut off. Most har- at Duke-Town was a small hill, overrowing accounts of these butcheries are looking the river, about three hundred given in the journals of the Mission. It feet high, surmounted by a devil-house, is scarcely possible to over-estimate the and clothed with wood, filled with human number of victims which this one custom, skeletons. It was literally a Golgotha, this engine of the grand arch-murderer, a place of skulls, a scene where Satan had operating daily, and over so great an his seat. But the wood has been cut extent of country, destroys annually in down, the skeletons have been removed, Central Africa, and surely, now that and the devil-house has been swept away, Missionaries have removed the veil that and in its stead has been erected a house shrouded these atrocities, and have held for the worship of the living and true
VOL. IV.-FOURTH SERIES.