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range. Before the advent of Malthus, the question was chiefly one of economy. It was simply, How shall we most cheaply feed and clotho these increasing hordes of paupers, so that there shall be no charge upon the nation of having permitted them to perish for want of food, or clothing, or shelter. After the appearance of Malthus, who exalted inhumanity into the highest philosophy, the question became, at least so far as the Malthusian doctrines pervaded English literature, not how to feed, and clothe, and lodge them, but merely how they might be permitted to perish with the least shock to existing prejudices. In France, the English system had some friends and Malthus a few disciples, chiefly among the political economists of the Smith and Say school. A few professed themselves followers of Malthus, like Dr. Chalmers, without considering the whole scope of his philosophy, merely because they agreed with him in some of his positions. Malthus was opposed to a compulsory provision for the poor, and Dr. Chalmers and many more, availing themselves of his authority upon that point, permitted their names to go abroad as endorsers for a man who virtually repudiated all charity, public, private, and religious. In truth, none but the strict political economists, a very small class out of England, ever fully approved the doctrines of Malthus. But even in their pages the Malthusian philosophy carefully hides its most revolting features.
The literature of charity and humanity in France, always far in advance of that of England, is now rapidly swelling into large dimensions. As a whole, it is not merely untinged with the worst aspects of Malthusianism, but it partakes scarcely at all of that hard, dry, calculating, spirit of economy, which regarded poorer classes as an odious burden, and pauperism as a positive nuisance, to be endured only because it could not be abated. It is not in this spirit that the subject of humanity, the science of social well-being, has been treated in France. Whatever may be some of the special faults of this department of French literature, it is so superior in tone, in taste, and in method to the equivalent branch of English literature, that it would be impossible to put them in comparison. To any one filled with earnest longings for human welfare, who has explored the English works on the poor, pauperism, and the poor-laws, with the view of finding instruction, helps for charity, or hopes to cheer the suffering classes, the utter disappointment, if not loathing, experienced, will find immediate relief by taking up the volumes in which French writers have so kindly, so earnestly, so wisely discussed questions bearing on human happiness. The connection of the whole subject with Christianity is much more frequently
pointed out and explicitly stated, and much more appreciated in France than in England. The mere question of economy in feeding the poor is scarce ever touched in France, and the English mode of considering that question would not be endured in France, where men that labour for a living, however lowly their position, or suffer the severities of famine and nakedness, for want of labour, are regarded as objects of the highest interest, social, political, and religious. They cannot endure in France that the chief question in regard to such men shall be what it may cost to feed and keep them, and whether the job of keeping them alive, or saving appearances if they are suffered to die, shall be undertaken by public authorities at the expense of a forced contribution, or be left to the spontaneous offerings of private charity or to the parish officers of an established church. In France, the whole question is as open as the day, and every topic is brought forward without reserve, and discussed with a freedom unknown in any other country in the world, and with an earnestness and ability equally unsurpassed. It would be impossible to classify the numerous productions of the French press or to point out the various schools to which they belong, as they range from the strictest conservatism through every variety of opinion, down to the wildest and absurdest schemes a diseased fancy or perverted intellect can create. To give some idea of the richness of the field, we furnish a catalogue, from which we shall select a few on the subjects of CHARITY, PAUPERISM, and LABOUR, to be specially mentioned and their contents noted as specimens of this literature, and as indicating to those inclined to such studies where they may find a rich and profitable field of study.
A CATALOGUE OF FRENCH WORKS ON CHRISTIAN CHARITY, PUBLIC
AND PRIVATE CHARITY, PAUPERISM, POPULATION, AND LABOUR.
Belly, Jehan de. Euvres de Miséricorde envers les Pauvres, ..... Paris, 1572
Exhortation to the People of France touching works of Mercy to the
1651 Christian Alms, or the Tradition of the Church touching Charity to
the Poor, collected from the Holy Scriptures and the Greek and
1679 The Advocate of the Poor, showing the Obligations of the Church
Authorities to make a good use of the Church Funds in aid of
Vernage et Paccori. Abrégé de la Loi Nouvelle, 12mo......
Summary of the whole Law--the love of God and of our Neighbour,
with a Treatise upon Charity according to St. Paul. Saint Pierre, Abbé de. Memoire sur les Pauvres, 8vo......
A Memoir upon the Begging Poor and the Means of Relieving them.
Critical History of Poverty.
A Consultation upon Alms, in which is established the Necessity of
Alms and Rules for Giving, with a Refutation of the Pretexts for
Explanation of the Characteristics of Charity as given by St. Paul.
Love to our Neighbour, and its True Character. Pallu, M. De la Charité, 12mo. ........
Love of our Neighbour; its Motives, its Duties, and its Opposite Defects. Morrice, D. Proposition pour Secours des Pauvres..
Proposition for Efficaciously Aiding the Poor. De la Morandiere. Police sur les Mendiants, 12mo.
Police for Beggars and Vagabonds. Faiguet, J. L'Ami des Pauvres, 12mo. ....
The Friend of the Poor, or Political Economy. Beaudeau, N. Idées d'un Citoyen, &c., 2 vols. 8vo...
Opinions of a Citizen upon the Wants, the Rights, and the Duties of
The Friend of the Friendless.
A Mode of Stopping Beggary in France, by making the beggars use
ful to the public without making them unhappy.
The title of this work was the subject proposed for a prize by the Academy of Sciences in 1777. A large volume of the essays, offered in this competition, was published in 1799. Percy et Willaume. Memoire, &c.
1780 A memoir crowned by the Academy of Sciences, of Macon, upon this question : “ The Ancients—had they public establishments for aid of indigent, of orphans, or foundlings, the sick, the wounded; and if not, what had they in their place ?” Reymond, Abbé H. Droit des Pauvres, 8vo.
1781 The Rights of the Poor.
Dupont de Nemours. Idées sur les Secours, 8vo......
1786 Ideas upon the Succour to be given to the Poor in Large Towns. Clochar. Mendicitè, 8vo.
1790 Method of Stopping Beggary. Montaignao. Reflexions sur la Mendicitè, 12mo....
1790 Bussy de Henrion. De la Destruction de la Mendicitè, 8vo. ...... 1790 Volland. Memoire sur les Moyens de detruire la Mendicitè en France, 4to. 1790 Desmousseaux. De la Bienfaisance Nationale ..... Brogiran. Memoire sur les Moyens de bannir Mendicitè, 8vo.
1791 Bannefroy. Memoires sur la Mendicitè, 12mo...
1791 Bonnefoy. Memoire sur la Mendicitè, 4to...
1791 La Rochefoucauld, Liancourt. Plan pour l’Extinction de la Mendicitè, 8vo.........
1790 Plan for the Extinction of Mendicity, presented to the National As
sembly, and Report of the Committee of Mendicity upon the
Hospital of Paris.
Memoirs upon Public Houses of Charity, of Labour, of Correction, in
a political and commercial aspect.' Vasco. Memoires sur les causes de Mendicitè et les Moyens de supprimer.
1799 Bosc. Essai sur les Moyens de detruire Mendicitè, 8vo......
1800 Friedlander. Histoire des Etablissements relatifs aux pauvres,... 1821
Reprinted in Paris in 1822, with a catalogue of works published in
Germany upon the Poor. Doé. Traité sur l’Indigence, 8vo.
.1805 A Treatise upon Indigence, its principal Causes and the Means of
arresting it. Prestot. Memoire sur l'Indigence, 12mo.
1805 Upon Indigence, the Means of Curing it without a return of Beggary. Guignon, Laourens. Des Dépôts de Mendicitè, 8vo.........
1814 Houses for the Poor, and their Influence on Public Welfare. Aubert de Vitry. Recherches sur les Vrais Causes de la Misère, 8vo..... 1815
Researches upon the Real Causes of Misery and of Happiness. Mansion, H. Essai sur l'Extinction de la Mendicitè en France, 12mo... 1820 Gerando, De. Le Visiteur du Pauvre, 8vo.......
1820 Bonnefons, C. R. P. Le Chretien Charitable, 18mo.
The Charitable Christian who visits the Poor, those who are in prison,
and those who are sick. Dupin, Baron. Histoire de l'Administration des Secours Publics, 8vo... 1821 Poliniere, A. P. Memoire sur la Question suivante, 8vo........
1821 Memoir upon this Question: “What are the respective advantages
and disadvantages of Public Hospitals for the indigent sick, and of
troduced in this respect?”
Fodéré, F. E. Essai Historique sur la Pauvreté des Nations, 8vo........ 1825
Essay, Historical and Moral, upon the Poverty of Nations, Popula
tion, Mendicity, and Foundlings. Ducpetiaux. Traité des Moyens de soulageret de prevenir l'Indigence, 8vo. 1832 Morogues, De. Du Pauperisme, 8vo.....
1834 Pauperism and Mendicity, and the Means of preventing their Dread
ful Effects. Sismondi, De. Du Sort des Ouvriers dans les Manufactures,
1834 Villeneuve Bargemont, De. De l'Economie Politique Chretienne, 3 vols. 8vo......
1834 Bouvier Dumoulin. Des Causes du Malaise ......
1834 The Causes of the Uneasiness of the French Population. Beres, E. Des Classes Ouvrieres, 8vo.........
1835 The Working Classes--the means of ameliorating their lot in point
of their moral and physical well-being. Berger. Du Pauperisme dans le Canton de Vaud
1836 Vincens, Emile. De l'Organization Sociale......
1836 Duchatel, T. Consideration de l'Economie Politique sur la Bienfaisance, 8vo.......
1829 Considerations upon the Political Economy of Beneficence or Charity,
in its relation with the moral condition and the well-being of the
lower classes of society. Naville, F. M. L. De la Charité Legale, 2 vols. 8vo.......
1836 Of Legal Charity, its causes and effects; and particularly of Houses
of Labour, and of the Prevention of Begging. This author was a minister of the gospel at Geneva.
Schmidt. Recherches sur la Population, les Salaries, Pauperisme
Projects in reference to Public Health and the actual Extinction of
Of the Laws of Labour, and of the Working Classes. Labourt. Recherches sur l'Intemperance, 8vo.
Researches, Historical and Statistical, upon the Intemperance of the
Working Classes, and upon Foundlings.
Moyens d'y remedier, 8vo.
The Way of being Merciful with Advantage.
Upon this question_“What should be the organization of labour
the best fitted to augment the happiuess of the Working Classes ?”