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An admiral, such as we have represented in the plate, is the commander in chief of a single fleet, or squadron; and is distinguished by a flag displayed at his main-topmast-head. Thus we say, the admiral of the red, the admiral of the white, and the admiral of the blue. A vice-ADMIRAL commands the second squadron of a fleet, and has his flag set up at the fore-top-masthead; and a rear-ADMIRAL the third and last squadron : he carries his flag at the mizen-top-mast-head.


Ar the present day captains of ships are of two kinds; the one of a ship of war, by whom we mean a captain in the navy : the other is only the commander of a trading vessel.

The rank of captain of a man of war is held equivalent to that of colonel in the army. He is accountable for the ship, if lost or taken by his misconduct; and his province extends to the military government, navigation, and equipment, of the ship which he commands, and to the conduct of the inferior officers and


men, which he is required to superintend and regulate.

The pay of sea-captains in the English service was originally very small; but the defect was made up to them by many privileges which they are not now allowed, as plundering of prizes, taking what were called convoy-monies, and even carrying merchant-goods, plate, &c. King James II. taking this last privilege away, in lieu of it granted them an annual allowance of tablemonies almost equal to their whole former pay. But this not taking place on account of James's abdication of the throne, King William III. in 1693 ordered the pay of captains to be doubled; but the fund even

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for this failing at the peace of Ryswick, a new establishment was made in 1700, whereby nearly one third was retrenched from the sea-pay, and that of a first rate fixed at one pound, a second rate sixteen shillings, a third thirteen and sixpence, a fourth ten, a fifth eight, and a sixth six shillings a day.


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