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Germany, on the map, includes the kingdoms of Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Saxony and Hanover, with thirty-four small States and free Cities.

The Germanic confederation, or the whole of Germany, embraces these states, together with some parts of Austria and Prussia.

Germany is a productive country. It is remarka ble for the number of its learned men and authors, and the perfect state of the arts and sciences.

The people are distinguished for their gravity, industry and perseverance.

Questions on the map:-1. How is Germany bounded? What states does it include? What rivers pass through it? In what part of Germany is Bavaria ? What are the two principal places in Bavaria ? Where is Wurtemburg, and what is its chief city? Where is Saxony, and what is its chief city? Where is Hanover, and what is its chief city?

II. Where are the three free cities, Frankfort, Bremen, and Hamburg ? What other city do you find, celebrated for a university? Lubec, the fourth free city, is N. E. of Hamburg. (Clim. 287-Prod. 288.)

PRUSSIA.

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A Cottage in Prussia, 297. In Prussia, as in other parts of Europe, splendid palaces and cities are often contrasted with the wretched huts of the poor.

Prussia is generally a level country, with a cold moist climate. It is remarkable for its mines of amber. A part of Germany belongs to Prussia.

The Prussians are chiefly distinguished as a military nation. Many of the inhabitants are properly Germans.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Prussia bounded? What three rivers empty in it? What large river passes through it? Describe the capital.

II. Where are Konigsburg and Dantzic? What city is on the Oder? What part of Germany belongs to Prussia? Where are the universities of Prussia ? (Clim. 287-Prod. 288.)

AUSTRIA.

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The Gipseys. 298. The Gipseys, a singular people, who wander about Europe, and subsist by begging and fraud, come principally from Austria.

It is a temperate, healthy and fertile country, but poorly cultivated.

The Austrian empire is composed of several distinct nations formerly independent. Austria proper has haughty, ignorant nobles. The common people are moral, and great crimes are rare. In Hungary there is more knowledge, and also in Bohemia and Moravia. Some nations in the south-east are scarcely civilized.

Questions on the map.1. How is Austria bounded? What rivers are there? What mountains? What are the chief divia sions of Austria ? Where is the capital?

II. Where is Presburg ? What two cities below it on the Danube? What two north of Vienna? What one in the N. E.? Where is Trieste? Inspruck? Ragusa? What three Italian cities are now in Austria ? What universities are there in Austria ? (Clim. 287Prod. 288-289.)

SWITZERLAND.

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An Avalanche. 299. Avalanches, or immense masses of snow, sometimes fall from the Alps, in Switzerland, and bury houses and even whole villages.

Switzerland is a cold, mountainous and rough country, but the vallies are productive,

The Swiss are generally well educated, and are remarkable for their bravery, industry and virtue.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Switzerland bounded ? What two large rivers rise in it, and through what lakes do they pass? (See LXIII. d.) What is the capital? What are the two other principal places? What universities do you find ? II. (Cataracts, LX. a.-Lakes, LXIII. c.)

FRANCE. 300. France abounds in vineyards, which furnish wine for the common drink of the people.

It is a fertile country; and although it is in the same latitude with Canada, it has a finer and milder climate than the Middle United States.

Vineyards in France.

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The French are gay, polished, active and industri. ous, and celebrated for their ingenuity and skill in the arts and sciences. Corsica belongs to France.

Questions on the map.-1. How is France bounded? What three rivers are there in the west ? Describe the capital? What two other places on the Seine, and where? What town nearest England ?

II. What city near the northern boundary? Where is Strasburg? What is the most western city in France ? What three cities are there on the Loire? What remarkable seaport on the Garonne ? Where is Rochelle? Where is Bayonne ? What two cities between the Bay of Biscay and Gulf of Lyons ? Where does the Canal Royal pass? What town on the Rhone? What mountains west of it? What two seaports on the Mediterranean? Where is Corsica? What universities has France ? (Clim. 287Prod. 288-289.) SOUTHERN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE.

Spain-Portugal-ItalyTurkey. 301. The southern countries of Europe extend from about 35° to 45° of north latitude. They have very warm and dry climates. In most of them, snow seldom falls except on the mountains, and vegetables continue green through the winter.

302. They abound in the finest grain, vines and olives, as well as oranges, lemons, figs and other fruits of warm climates.

CCCIII. (For the Review.) a. The most important exports are these fruits, with raisins, currants, wine, brandy, and especially silk and oil.

b. The people are generally indolent, and are less virtuous, and less distinguished for learning and improvements, than other nations of Europe.

c. Bread, vegetables and fruits, with wine and oil, are the principal articles of food in these countries.

Questions.-I. Which are the southern countries of Europe? What is their situation and climate ? What can you say of their winters? What are their chief productions ?

II. What are the most important exports ? What is the general character of the inhabitants, compared with that of other nations of Europe? What are the principal articles of food ? What peculiar wind in these countries? (See CXVI. h.)

SPAIN.

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A Bull Fight. 304. It is a favourite amusement, both of males and females in Spain, to attend bull fights. Almost every town has a public place for this purpose.

Spain is a hot and dry, but fertile country. (Cli. 301.)

The Spaniards are haughty and bigoted, but brave and generous. They are now becoming more liberal and enlightened.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Spain bounded ? What river has it on the east? What rivers on the west and south? Describe the capital. What two capes on the north? What vo seaports ?

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