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II. Where is Valladolid? What two principal cities N. of the Douro? Where is Salamanca? What city on the Ebro ? Where is the British fortress of Gibraltar? Name the five sea-ports on the Mediterranean, beginning at the south. What two cities on the Guadalquiver? What two cities between this river and the Tagus? What chain of mountains ? What three islands on the coast of Spain, and what is their comparative population? Where are the universities of Spain? (Prod. 302.)



Treading out grain in Portugal. 305. The Portuguese are so inattentive to improvements, that they still tread out grain with oxen, as was done in ancient times. Portugal is a warm, dry and fruitful country. (Cli.301.)

The people are friendly and hospitable, but generally superstitious, haughty and revengeful.

Questions on the map.-I. How is Portugal bounded? What rivers pass through it? Where is the capital : What two cities in the north? What port in the southern part? What cape on the south? What university in Portugal ? (Prod. 302.)

ITALY, Including Sicily and Sardinia. 306. Italy is remarkable for two ancient volcanoes, Etna in Sicily, and Vesuvius near Naples. (See L.a,b,c.)

It was the country of the ancient Romans, and abounds with the ruins of their cities and buildings.


It has a fertile soil and a delightful climate. (See 301.)

The Italians are a polished people, distinguished for their skill in music, painting and sculpture. In the northern parts they are industrious, in the southern parts, indolent, and generally, they are deficient in education and morality.

Italy has the kingdom of Naples, including Sicily, in the south ; the Roman states in the middle ; and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany next. In the north-west are the small Duchies of Modena, Parma and Lucca, and the kingdom of Sardinia, which also includes the island of Sardinia.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Italy bounded? What river empties into the Gulf of Venice? What mountains run through Italy? Where is the kingdom of Naples? What is the capital of this kingdom? What volcano near this city? Where is Sicily? What volcano is there on it? What are three of the principal cities of Sicily? Where are the Roman States ? On what river does Rome stand ?

II. What is the size of Rome? Where is Bologna ? Where is St. Marino ? (It is an independent republic of only 3000 people.) Where is Tuscany? What places in it? What island on the coast ? Where is the kingdom of Sardinia ? What is the capital? What seaport of note? What is the chief city on the island of Sardinia ? To what nation does Corsica belong? Where do you find universities in Italy? (Prod. 302.)

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Ruins in Greece. 307. The southern part of this country was the ancient Greece, and abounds in the remains of Grecian buildings and sculpture, which the Turks destroy.

Turkey is a warm, productive country, but poorly cultivated. (Clim. 301.)

The Turks are generally bigoted, ignorant and vicious, but honest and hospitable. The Greeks are more lively and ingenious, and are Christians.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Turkey bounded? What are the principal rivers in it ? What chain of mountains ? Describe the capital ? Which way from it is Adrianople ?

II. What two places on the Danube? In what part of Turkey are Jassy and Bucharest? Where is Sophia ? Salonica? Where is Greece? What threc places in the south of Turkey? What is the name of the southern peninsula ? What city in the N. W. part of Turkey? What sea and straits between Constantinople and the Archipelago? What large island south of the Archipelago? What are the six principal islands in the Archipelago ? (Prod. 302.)

REPUBLIC OF THE IONIAN ISLES. 308. The Islands of Corfu, Cefalonia, Zante, Cerigo, and some others, form the Republic of the lonian Isles. They are inhabited by Greeks, under the protection of Great Britain.

They have a fine climate and fertile soil, and export wine, oil and dried currants.

Questions on the map.1. Where are the Ionian islands ? Mention the principal, beginning at the north. CCCIX. TRAVELS ON THE MAP OF EUROPE.

In travelling through Europe you will find numerous cities, which abound with magnificent buildings ; but you will see such poverty and misery and vice as we do not often see in the United States.

What is the largest city in Europe ? How will you go to it from the United States, and what ocean and channel must you pass? How many people shall you find there?

What shall you find worthy of notice in travelling through England ? (See 392.) In what direction, and how will you go to visit the Cavern of Staffa ? (293.) In what direction is Edinburgh from the Western Isles ? What object worth visiting shall you find in Ireland ? (294.) How will you go from Ireland to the Maelstrom? What food shall you find in Norway? (277.) What articles of commerce ? (CCLXXVIII. e.)

Observe the coast of Norway, lined with high rocks, and the torrents rushing down from the mountains, full of the trunks of trees, which are thus conveyed to the ocean.

Are the nights always dark here? (CCLXXVIII. a.) How long is the longest day? (See Chart and p. 45.) What port in Russia will you

find on the White Sea ? How near are you to Lapland now, in what direction must you go, and how shall you be obliged to travel there? (283.) What towns shall you pass in Finland, as you go down through Cronstadt, to Petersburgh ? (Petersburgh, see p. 127,c.)

What amusement is common here? (279.) In what direction from Petersburgh is Moscow ? How will you go from Moscow to the capital of Poland ? What do you find remarkable in Poland ? (280.) To what seaport will you go, to sail for Stockholm? What can you say of the Swedes, and their mines? (281.) How can you go from Stockholm to Amsterdam ? What places do you pass, and what peninsula ? What do you find in Holland ? (295.) How will you go to find the second city of Earope? (Paris, p. 127, b.)

What drink shall you find common here? (300.) How will you go to Berlin through the principal kingdoms of Germany? And now, how will you get to Vienna ? and what countries, rivers and mountains must you pass ? What singular class of people shall you find in Austria ? Describe Venice.

(see p. 128.) Are the nobles or the common people of Austria best? (298.)

What lofty mountains shall you find in Switzerland, and how shall you be in danger bere? (299.) In what direction is the country of the ancient Romans? (305.)

What objects of curiosity shall you find in Italy? (See p. 28, a, and (305.) What ancient country will be east of you when you reach Sicily? What shall you find interesting in Greece? What course will you take to Smyrna? What countries of Europe which you have not visited, shall you pass in going home from Smyrna? What port of Spain shall you pass, in going towards the straits of Gibraltar?

The plague often prevails in Turkey, and they will not allow you to land in Spain, until you have spent a month in quarantine on board the vessel.

Which way will you go to find the capital of Spain? What course will you take to visit the capital of Portugal, and then meet your vessel at Gibraltar?

Gibraltar is much resorted to for trade, and you will find the dress and languages of ten different nations in its streets. It is probably the strongest fortress in the world. It belongs to Great Britain. Describe your course from Gibraltar home. CCCX. CITIES OF EUROPE. (For the Review.) The cities of Europe far surpass those of America, in number, population and magnificence. They are superior to any in the world, in their universities, hospitals, museums and other public institutions, in the splendour and size of their churches and public buildings, and in the extent of their manufactures and com


In the cities on the continent of Europe, the streets are usually narrow, crooked and filthy. They are seldom furnished with side walks, and foot passengers are exposed to constant danger in the crowd of carriages.

The houses are generally of stone or brick; but in many of the towns of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia, they are built of timber. They are usually high, often from five to ten stories in large cities. They are not uniform in their appearance, and magnificent palaces are frequently surrounded with wretched huts.

The cities of Europe are much more crowded with houses and inhabitants than those of the United States. In the more populous countries, villages like those of America are rarely seen; but every collection of houses appears like a

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