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The people are generally barbarous ; but in some parts they retain a small portion of civilization and knowledge.

Samarcand, the former capital, is said to be very large still.

It contains a celebrated Mahometan school, or university.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Independent Tartary bounded? What sea does it contain ? What rivers has it? What is the capital ? What other city?

328. This portion of Tartary occupies the greater part of the elevated plain, mentioned in the account of the middle regions of Asia.

In most parts it is very barren, and scarcely inhabited; but the eastern portion contains a number of cities, little known.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Chinese Tartary bounded? How is it separated from China ? What great river is there on the east? What place on it? What other principal places in the eastern part ? What peninsula there, and what islands? What deserts in the interior? What place in the western part of Chinese Tartary ? (Clim. 324, Desert XLIII.6.)



Turks sitting 329. Like most eastern nations, the Turks sit on the floor, and take their food with their fingers.

This country was the original seat of the empire of

the Turks, which now extends to Europe, and has its capital there.

It is warmer than Turkey in Europe, but the general character of the country and people is the same.

Armenia is inhabited by Christians, and many Greek Christians are scattered over other parts of Turkey.

The southern part, now called Syria, was formerly the residence of the Jews, with Jerusalem for its capital.

Questions on the map.-1. How is Turkey bounded? What is the capital? What chain of mountains in Asia Minor ?

II. What are the three principal divisions? What Christian province is there in Turkey, and where? What rivers run from Turkey into the Persian Gulf? What port on the Archipelago? What port on the Black Sea? What places near the Black Sea? What cities on the Tigris, beginning at its source? Where is Jerusalem? What three seaports in Syria? Where are Aleppo and Damascus ? What island on the coast of Syria ?


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Persian ladies riding and walking. 330. The Persians travel chiefly on camels. Their women are either closely shut up, or cover their faces when they go out.

A large part of Persia is covered with barren mountains and desert plains.

The air is cold and moist at the north, pure and serene in the middle, but extremely hot in the south.

The people are active, gay, polished and hospitable, but dishonest, treacherous and vicious.

Questions on the map.-I. How is Persia bounded? What is the capital? Where is Ispahan the former capital?

II. Where is Erivan? What other cities in the north? What seaport on the Gulf of Persia ? Where is Shiraz? Are there any considerable rivers ?

EAST PERSIA. 331. The eastern part of Persia, which was separaled from the rest some years since, contains a number of distinct governments, most of which are tributary to the king of Cabul. It is therefore often called Cabulistan, and sometimes Afghanistan, from the Afghans, a part of its inhabitants.

This country is mountainous, and therefore cooler than those around it.

The people, especially the Afghans, are more active and warlike than their neighbours, and have encroached on their dominions.

Questions on the map.--1. How is East Persia bounded ? Wbat are the two principal divisions? What is the capital? What mountains on the north? What separates it from Hindoostan? What city has it east of the Indus?. What city in the west, and of what size? What river and what city in the south? What place near the mouth of the Indus?



Worship of the Grand Lama. 332. In Thibet they worship the Grand Lama, or

head of their religion and government, as a divine being. When he dies, they believe his soul passes into the body of some child, who is sought and placed on the throne.

Thibet is a very dry, cold, unfruitful country, in the midst of mountains, subject to the emperor of China,

The people are mild, but indolent, timid and superstitious. They have much more knowledge and skill in the arts than the Tartars.

Questions on the map.-I. How is Thibet bounded? What is the capital? What large rivers rise in the mountains of Thibet? What is the height of the highest ? (See XLVII.)


333. These two kingdoms lie between Thibet and Hindoostan, and are tributary to Thibet.

They properly belong to Southern Asia, and have a warm, but fine climate, like the north of Italy.

By ascending the mountains near them, the inhabitants may have perpetual spring, or unchanging winter.

Questions.-1. What is the situation of these kingdoms ? What can you say of the climate and mountains ? Why are they not very hot, like Hindoostan? (Sec 113.)



Japanese trampling on the Cross. 334. The Japanese were formerly obliged every yea'

to trample on the cross, as a token of their hatred to Christianity, which was once introduced among them by Portuguese Catholics. This custom is said to be abolished.

Japan is subject to extremes of heat and cold, but is highly cultivated, and is said to be the richest of all countries in gold and silver.

The people are very ingenious, and are considered superior in arts, sciences and good laws, to most if not all other nations of Asia.

Questions on the map.-1. Where are the islands of Japan, and how many are there? Which is the largest ? What is the capital ? What is the second city? Where is the chief place of trade, Nangasaki ?


MalayaChina. 335. The southern countries of Asia lie generally on the Indian Ocean, between 10° and 30° of N. latitude.

This division of Asia contains Arabia, Hindoostan, Birmah, Tonkin, Siam, Malaya and China. China extends north to 40° of latitude, and Malaya south to the equator.

336. All these countries, except the northern parts of China, have the climate and productions of the Torrid Zone, and the choicest plants of Asia.

337. They abound in rice, which is the principal food of the inhabitants, and in cotton and silk, from which most of their clothing is made.

CCCXXXVIII. (For the Review.) a. Except Arabia, they are highly cultivated, but so crowded with inhabitants, that the common people are miserably poor, and are often led by want, to destroy or expose their children.

6. Many of these nations are from necessity, more active and industrious than others found in the Torrid Zone.

c. The chief exports of Southern Asia and its islands are coffee, tea, gums, opium, spices, precious stones and metals with numerous manufactures of silk and cotton. Questions.-1. Where do the southern countries of Asia

What countries are included in this division of Asia ?

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