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NEW-GUINEA AND OTHER ISLANDS.
362. New-GUINEA, New-Britain, and the neighbouring islands, lying in the north-eastern part of Australasia, have been little examined.
They are rich in vegetable productions, and are distinguished as the chief residence of the bird of paradise.
363. New-CALEDONIA and the New-HEBRIDES are said to be barren and rocky islands. The people build neat huts, and subsist on roots and fish.
Questions.-1. What islands lie north of New-Holland ? What is known of them? What are east of New-Holland ? What can you say of them?
Human Sacrifice in Polynesia. 364. Polynesia includes the islands in the Pacific Ocean, which lie east of the Philippine Islands and Australasia. (See map of the World.) In almost all these islands, they have been accustomed to sacrifice human victims to their gods.
365. The climate of these islands is generally delightful, and they abound in fine fruits, especially the bread-fruit, which is used instead of bread.
366. The people are remarkably mild, polite and ingenious, for barbarians ; but dishonest, vicious, and cruel in many of their customs.
367. Most of the nations of Polynesia are Pagans ; but those of the Society and Sandwich Islands have destroyed their idols and temples, and received Christian missionaries.
Questions.-1. What is Polynesia ? What custom has been generally prevalent? In what zone do most of these islands lie! What effect must their situation as islands have upon their climate? (See § 114.) What is their climate in fact? What are some of their productions? What is the character of the people? What is their religion ?
ISLANDS NORTH OF THE EQUATOR.
368. The inhabitants of the Pelew Islands are very hospitable to strangers, and remarkable for honesty and chastity.
369. The CAROLINES are resorted to by ships after voyages in the Pacific Ocean, on account of their fine air and climate.
370. The Sandwich Islands are supposed to contain 400,000 inhabitants; Owhyhee is 180 miles long and 72 broad. Christian missionaries from the United States are now instructing the people of these islands.
Questions on the map.-I. What 3 groups of islands are N. of the Equator? In what direction from the Philippine Isles are the Ladrones and Caroline Isles? In what longitude are the Sandwich Islands? Which is the largest of the Sandwich Islands ? What others are the principal, and in what direction from Owhyhee? What are some of the small islands lying between the Sandwich and Caroline isles ?
ISLANDS SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR.
371. The people of the FRIENDLY Islands are remarkable for industry, neatness, and skill in agriculture and some kinds of manufactures.
372. The people of the NAVIGATOR's Isles are upcommonly stout and tall, and more ferocious than their neighbours.
373. The people of the Society Islands are the first example of a nation converted to Christianity by the efforts of missionaries in modern times.
374. The people of the MARQUESAS are said to be
almost as fair as Europeans, with regular forms and features.
Questions on the map.-I. What are the principal groups of islands S. df the Equator? In what longitude are the Friendly and Navigator's Isles? What is the principal island among the Friendly Islands ? What among the Navigator's Isles? In what direction are the Society Isles from the Friendly Isles ? What are the chief of these islands: Where are the Marquesas?
In what longitude are these islands? What single islands N. and E. of these groups ?
CCCLXXV. TRAVELS ON THE MAP,
In Asia, Australasia and Polynesia. If you wish to travel in Asia, it will be best to embark for Smyrna, where many American vessels go to obtain opium, figs, and other fruits, and silks.
Describe your course from the United States to Smyrna. (See map of the World.) What kind of people do you expect to see there? (307, 329) Which way will you go to visit Ephesus ? (See map of Europe.)
Travellers in Asiatic Turkey, usually suffer their beards to grow, and dress in robes and turbans, and slippers, because the Turks often insult, and even kill, those they know to be Christians, and think it is no crime.
Through what seas and straits must you pass to visit Constantinople? (See map of Europe.) How must you sit and eat here? What is the nearest Russian port to Constantinople? What sea must you cross to visit Circassia ? Where is Astrachan?
In the Eastern part of Siberia you would be amused at being drawn by dogs, but you will spend your time more profitably in other parts of the world, than in taking the long, cold, and difficult journey through it.
What have other travellers found in Siberia, and how is it used as a place of punishment? (318.) Through what port on the Caspian can you pass, to see Teflis, the capital of Georgia ? In what direction will you go to visit Jerusalem? What places shall you pass, and what can you say of them?
Do not fail to visit Mount Ararat, in Armenia, on which the Ark rested after the deluge.
What can you say of Jerusalem and Syria ? Who formerly lived here, and what great events have taken place ? (329.)
In what direction is Egypt from Jerusalem Where will you find the splendid ruins of Palmyra? (See map of Africa.)
If you wish to see the Arabian desert, and visit Mount Sinai, you must carry water with you in bags of skins, and procure camels who can drink, at once, enough for several days.
What is the direction of Mecca from Mount Sinai? In what direction is Mocha, which produces the finest coffee.
Which are most civilized, the Arabs on the coast or in the interior ? (339) What port will you find at the head of the Red Sea ? (See map of Africa.) What course will you take by sea, to go to Bushire in Persia ?
Observe in the Persian Gulf, the poor divers, who are slaves, obliged to hazard their lives in procuring the pearl-oysters.
How do the ladies travel in Persia? (330.) Shall you see their faces ? In what direction will you go to the ancient capital? Where is the modern capital, and what can you say of these cities? How has Persia been divided? (331.) How will you go to the eastern portion of it? Are the people of this country like those of West Persia ?
What interesting objects shall you see in Independent Tartary? (327.) How do you like their mode of living here, and their food? (326.) What mountains must you cross to go into Chinese Tartary? What country will then be near you?
You may now go to see the Grand Lama. (See 332) Remember, when you go to visit a great man in Asia, always to carry a present with you of some value.
What desert must you cross to reach Eastern Tartary? Shall you find any cities there?
Perhaps you will see, as you pass, some helpless, aged people, whom their children have left to perish with hunger.
What small but wealthy kingdom is now east of you? What wall must you cross to go into China ? If you are permitted to travel in China, (which will not be unless you are in company with an ambassador) which way will you go to the capital? What is your course from thence to Nankin, and to Canton? What is the general state of the people? (348.).
You may now lay aside all your thick clothing, for it will be of no use to you in these countries.
How will you go to visit all the capitals of India without the Ganges? What mode of conveyance shall you find? (344.) What kind of houses? (345.) Will you venture to Malacca ? (See 347.) In what direction will you go to Calcutta ? What do you think of the Hindoos?
Do they need any instruction and reformation ? (341.) To what neighbouring
country can you go to avoid the heat ? (333.) What island s. of Hindoostan, and what spice can you obtain there? (342.),
In the other islands of Asia you will only be able to visit the European settlements. Beware as you go, of the treacherous Malays, who often visit vessels in a friendly manner, and then slaughter every man on board.
What course will you take to visit the chief European settlements in the islands of Asia, beginning at Sumatra? Describe the islands you will see on your voyage, so far as known, ending your course at the Spice Islands. How do you like the appearance and customs of the people of Australasia ? What Europeans shall you find in New-Holland ? What missionary stations shall you find in this portion of the world? What people in Australasia do you like best?
What Christian nation shall you find in Polynesia? (373.) Describe the islands you pass in going to them. (371, 372.)
When you reach Otaheite, you will find many Christian churches, and the people beginning to be industrious, and anxious to be acquainted with books.
What islands are north-east of these? What can you say of them? (374.) In what direction will you go to find the Sandwich Islands, where missionaries have gone from America ? What courses will you take to go home round Cape Horn, and what countries shall you pass ?
CCCLXXVI. CITIES OF ASIA. Asia abounds with large cities, but much inferior in their appearance to those of Europe. The buildings are generally mean, and crowded with inhabitants. The streets are extremely narrow, irregular and filthy, and not usually paved.
In western Asia the houses of the rich are usually of stone, or of brick, which are sometimes only sun-dried. They are generally built around a court or space in the centre, from which they receive most of their light and air, and which frequently adorned with gardens and fountains. The houses are
ten magnificent within : but they have few or no windows towards the street, and present to the traveller only a dismal succession of high walls, with here and there a lattice, producing the appearance of a range of prisons. The roofs are usually fat, so that the inhabitants can pass from one house to another without descending into the street. They frequently sleep on the house top, in the hot season. The houses of the poor are usually low and mean, built of mud, or a mixture of small stones and mortar.