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trading house? What can you say of this region? How is it inhabited ?

NEW BRITAIN. 162. New Britain is colder than the North-Western Territory. It is inhabited by a few Indians, some of whom have been taught and civilized by European missionaries.

Questions.-I. What can you say of New-Britain? What indians are found on the coast, and what in the interior? (See map.) What missionary station on the Labrador coast? (ìwo others have been established in Labrador.) What provinces lie S. of it?

BRITISH PROVINCES. Upper CanadaLower Canada--New Brunswick

Nova Scotia--Newfoundland-Prince Edward.


Falls of Niagara. 163. The cataract of Niagara, in Upper Canada, is probably the grandest in the world. The stream is three-quarters of a mile wide, divided by an island in the middle. It falls 150 feet, and the roar may be heard 15 miles.

164. The climate of Lower Canada is severely cold; that of Upper Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, is more mild. All these are productive and flourishing provinces.

165. The French inhabitants, the most numerous in

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Lower Canada, are superstitious and ignorant. The British and Americans, especially in Upper Canada, have better characters and more information.

166. Newfoundland, Cape Breton and Prince Edward are cold, barren islands. They are chiefly inhabited and resorted to, on account of the fisheries near them, and the inhabitants are rude and uneducated.

Questions.-1. How are the British Provinces divided ? How are they bounded? What great natural curiosity do they contain ? Where is Niagara, and what lake empties over these falls. (See map of the United States.) What is the climate of Canada, and the other provinces on the continent? What can you say of the people? What can you say of the provinces on the islands, and their inhabitants ?

Questions on the map.-11. Which is the most eastern British Province ? How is it bounded ? What is the chief settlement? Where are Cape Breton, and Prince Edward or St. Johns? What settlement in Cape Breton ? What other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence? What one on the coast of Nova Scotia ? How is Nova Scotia bounded? What is the capital? What other principal places ? (See map of the United States.) What cape at the south? What are the boundaries of Lower Canada and of Upper Canada ? What river divides them in part? What is the capital, and what are the other principal places of Lower Canada ? (See map of the United States.) What of Upper Canada ? How is New Bruns. wick bounded? What are its principal places? With what lakes does the St. Lawrence communicate ? What lake lies N. of Lake Huron?

THE, UNITED STATES. 167. The United States were formerly colonies, or provinces, of Great Britain.

On the 4th of July, 1776, they were declared independent, and a few years after, the present constitution, or system of government, was formed.

168. There are now twenty-four separate states, united in one republic, and four territories, besides the great western territory, or Territory of Missouri.

169. The United States are usually spoken of in four divisions—the Eastern, Western, Middle, and Southern States.

The six Eastern States are those east of the Hudson.

The Western States are those which lie on the Mississippi and its branches.

The four Middle States are between the Eastern and Western States, as far south as Maryland.

The six Southern States are those south of these, lying on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.

CLXX. (For the Review.) a. The laws of the United States are made by a Congress, which consists of a House of Representatives, chosen every two years by the people of each state according to their population; and of a Senate of two from each state, chosen for six years.

b. The laws are executed by the President, who is chosen by the votes of all the States every four years, assisted by the Secretary of State and the Secretaries of War, of the Navy, and of the Treasury.

c. The President and Senate appoint the inferior officers of government, and those of the army and navy.

d. Each of the states hag an independent government, with distinct laws for itself, much like that of the United States, with a governor at the head. The territories are under the general government.

e. On the eastern continent, especially in Europe, the laws make distinctions in the privileges of the people, according to their rank and religion.

f. The constitution of the United States does not make any distinctions of rank, except in the officers of government; and all religions are allowed which do not disturb the good order of society.

g. The climate and soil are various in different parts of the United States ; but almost all parts will produce in abundance wheat, rye, Indian corn, barley and oats, with beans, peas and other vegetables, and excellent fruits.

h. The northern parts, extending from 41° to 45° of north latitude, have severe winters and much snow.

This portion is best fitted for pasturage, and the coarser grains, rye, oats and barley; but it also produces good wheat and fine fruits.

2. The middle regions, between 41° and 36° or 3610' of

latitude, have mild winters and little snow; and the heat of summer is longer continued and more constant than it is farther north.

This portion of the United States abounds in excellent grain and fine fruits, and between 40° and 36°, is well suited for the cultivation of tobacco.

į. In the southern parts, between 36° and 30°, the climate is warm. Snow is uncommon, and cotton, rice, olives, figs, pomegranates, and other fruits of warm climates flourish.

k. South of 30°, snow is unknown, and the productions of the Torrid Zone are found.

1. The inhabitants of the United States are Europeans, or their descendants, except the African slaves, principally found in the Southern States, and about 100,000 Indians, chiefly in the Western States.

m. The value of goods imported into the United States from other countries, in one year, may be estimated at 70 millions of dollars; and the exports, most of which are produced or manufactured in the United States, are of about the same value.

n. The value of articles manufactured in the United States in 1810, was from 150 to 200 millions of dollars. The quantity and excellence of these articles has been rapidly increasing.

Questions.-I. To whom did the United States formerly belong? When did they become independent? How many states and how many territories are there? What division is commonly made of the United States ? Which are the Eastern States ? The Western States ? The Middle States ? The Southern States ?

II. By whom are the laws of the United States made ? By whom are they executed? Who appoint the inferior officers of government? What are the governments of the particular States? What distinctions are made among the people in Europe ? Do the laws of the United States make these distinctions?

II. What can you say of the climate and productions of the United States? What is the climate between 41° and 15° north latitude ? What are the chief productions ? What states are included in this region? What can you say of the middle regions ? What are their productions ? What is the latitude of Philadelphia ?-Washington ?Lexington, (Ken.) ?-Norfolk, (Vir.)? What states lie north of the parallel of 42 degrees ? What states between

42° and 361°? What states between 36° and 30°? What are their climate and productions ? What states are bounded on the parallel of 42° ? What on those of 361° and 35° ? What is the latitude of Newbern-of Charleston-of Savannah-of New Orleans? What parts of the United States lie S. of 30° ? What can you say of their climate? Who are the inbabitants of the United States ? What is the value of the imports and exports of the United States ? What is that of the manufactures ?

EASTERN STATES, OR NEW ENGLAND. Maine--New-Hampshire-Vermont-Massachusetts

Connecticut-Rhode Island.

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The Whale Fishery. 171. Commerce and the Fisheries have hitherto been the chief sources of wealth to New England.

172. This small and populous portion of the United States is colder and less fertile than the rest ; but it abounds in good pasturage, corn, and rye, and produces much fine fruit.

173. The eastern coast of New England is generally level. The western and northern parts are mountainous, and the interior is uneven and hilly.

174. The northern parts are cold, dry and healthy; the southern parts have a milder, but more variable climate ; the eastern coast is exposed to bleak, damp winds from the ocean. CLXXV.

(For the Review.) a: The Eastern States contain two of the first literáry

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