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EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. Ex. 1. 1869, June 22nd, at 6h 48m P.M.: required the depth of water on the " four-fathom Ledge” off Weston-super-mare. Ex. 2.

1869, August 14th, at 5h 6m A,M. : required the depth of water at the Fairway Buoy in the Old Formby Channel (Admiralty Soundings, 2; fathoms.)

Ex. 3. 1869, June 13th, at 10h 26m A.M., a vessel having to cross the Victoria Bar, Liverpool: required the depth of high water at that time.

Ex. 4. 1869, March 7th, at 7h 46m P.M., a vessel anchored off Weston-super-mare, in 6 fathoms : required the depth at low water.



Prepared by HENRY C, CHAPMAN & Co., Agents for Lloyd's, Liverpool.


1. Owners, Commanders, and Mates of ships, are considered in law in the same situation as common carriers, it is therefore necessary that all due precautions be taken to receive and stow cargoes in good order, and deliver the same in like good order. The law holds the shipowner liable for the safe custody of the goods when properly and legally received on board in good order, and for the delivery" to partios producing the bill of lading The captain's blank bill of lading should be receipted by the warehouse keeper, or person authorised to receive the contents. Goods are not unfrequently sent alongside in a damaged state, and letters

a of indemnity given to the captain by the shippers for signing in good order and condition; this is nothing more or less than conniving at fraud; fine goods are also often damaged in the ship’s hold by lumpors, if permitted to use cotton hooks in handling bales. All goods must be received on board according to the custom of the port where the cargo is to be taken in; and the same custom will regulate the commencement of the responsibility of the master and owners.

2. Hemp, flax, wool, and cotton, should be dunnaged 9 inches on the floors, and the upper part of the bilge, the wing bales of the second tier kept 6 inches off the side at the lower corner, and 2} inches at the sides. Sand or damp gravel ballast to be covered with boards. Pumps to be frequently sounded and attended to. Sharp bottomed ships one-third less dunnage in floor and bilges. Avoid horn shavings as dunnage from Calcutta.

3. Oil, wines, spirits, beer, molasses, tar, &c., to be stowed bung up; to have good cross beds at the quarters (and not to trust to hanging beds);


to be well chocked with wood, and allowed to stow 3 heights of pipes or

3 butts, 4 heights of puncheons, and 6 heights of hogsheads or halfpuncheons. All moist goods and liquids, such as salted hides, bales of bacon, butter, lard, grease, castor-oil, &c., should not be stowed too near, “ dry goods," whose nature is to absorb moisture. Shipowners have often to pay heavy damages for leakage in casks of molasses, arising from stowing too many heights without an intervening platform or 'twixt decks. From Bengal, goods also are frequently damaged by castor-oil.

4. Tea and flour, in barrels; flax, clover, and linseed, or rice, in tierces; coffee and cocoa, in bags; should always have 9 inches, at least, of good dunnage in the bottom, and 14 to the upper part of the bilges, with 2} inches at the sides; allowed to stow 6 heights of tierces, and 8 heights of barrels. All ships above 600 tons should have 'twixt decks or platforms laid for these cargoes to ease the pressure-caulked 'twixt decks should have scuppers in the sides, and 2 inches of dunnage laid athwartship, and not fore-and-aft ways, when in bags or sacks; and when in boxes or casks not less than 1 inch. Rice, from Calcutta, is not unfrequently damaged by indigo, for want of care in stowing.

5. Entire cargoes of sugar, saltpetre, and guano, in bags, must have the dunnage carefully attended to, as laid down for other goods. Timber ships are better without 'twixt decks if loading all timber or deals. Brown sugar to be kept separate from white sugar, and both kept from direct contact with saltpetre.

6. Pot and pearl-ashes, tobacco, bark, indigo, madders, gum, &c., whother in casks, cases, or bales, to be dunnaged in the bottom, and to the upper part of the bilges, at least 9 inches, and 2} inches at the sides.

7. Miscellaneous goods, such as boxes of cheese, kegs and tubs of lard, or other small or slight-made packages, not intended for broken stowage, should be stowed by themselves, and dunnaged as other goods.

8. Barrels of provisions and tallow casks, allowed to stow 6 heights. All metals should be stowed under, and separated from, goods liable to be damaged by contact.

9. All manufactured goods, also dry hides, bales of silk, or other valuable articles, should have 2} inches of dunnage against the side, to preserve a water-course. Bundles of sheet-iron, rods, pigs of copper or iron, or any rough hard substance, should not be allowed to come in contact with bales or bags, or any soft packages liable to be chafed. When mats can be procured, they should be used at the sides for silk, tea, &c.



10. Tar, turpentine, rosin, &c., to have flat beds of wood under the quarters, of an inch thick, and allowed to stow 6 heights.

Very frequent and serious loss falls on Merchants on the upper part of cargoes, particularly in vessels that bring wheat, corn, tobacco, oil-cake, &c., arising from vapour damage imbibed by wheat, flour, or other goods, stowed in the same vessel with turpentine or other strongscented articles; the shippers are to blame for such negligence, for not making due inquiry before shipping.

12. Ships laden with full cargoes of coal, bound round Cape Horn or Cape of Good Hope, to be provided with approved ventilators, as a preventative against ignition.

Note.—Shippers abroad, when they know that their cargoes will be stowed properly, will give a preference, and at higher rates, to such commanders of ships as will undertake to guarantee the dunnage. The American shipowners, in the stowage of mixed cargoes in large ships, have, from experience, discovered what “pressure" flour barrels, provision casks, &c., will bear, and so avoid reclamations for damage if otherwise properly stowed; hence, in large ships above 600 tons, with dimensions exceeding in length 4) times the beam, and 21 feet depth of hold, orlop decks will come into general use, so as to relieve the pressure, by dividing a ship's hold like a warehouse, into stories. A large ship, called the “Liverpool,” which left New York in December last, with an entire cargo of flour, has never since been heard of; it is supposed the lower tier of barrels gave way under the pressure, and the cargo having got loose, shifted in a gale of wind, and capsized the vessel. Ship’s cargoes for Insurance, will also become a matter of special agreement between merchant and shipowner, and merchant underwriters, and the premiums vary according to the dunnage agreement. The stowage and dunnage must stand A1, and is often of more importance than the class of the vessel, as experience has proved. When ships are chartered for a lump sum, the draught of water should be limited, as it not unfrequently happens that brokers insert a clause that coals are not to be considered as dead weight, in order to fill the ship up in a case of goods falling short, to make up the chartered freight. All packages, bales, and cases, not weighing more than 25 cwt. to the cubic ton measurement, are designated as light freight.-Lloyd's, May, 1851.


Lloyd's instructions to Masters and Mates. 1. No ship exceeding 400 tons register can be entirely loaded with grain in bulk; and all exceeding 400 tons register may take two-thirds of the cargo of grain in bulk, and one-third in bags, or rolling freight instead thereof. In the latter case, the grain in bulk should be stowed 6 inches, but not more above the beams, to allow for settling.

2. When ships take wheat, corn, &c., in bulk, it must be stowed in sections or “bins” (not to contain more than 12,000 bushels each), to be lined with thoroughly seasoned boards, grain tight, not less than 10 inches from the flat of the floor, and from 14 to 16 inches in the bilges

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graduated to the sides, which must be clapboard lined to the deck. Care must be taken to preserve a water-course under the lining. Good shifting boards, secured to the stanchions, extending at least 6 feet downwards and fitted tight to the deck. The stanchions not to be removed, but firmly secured. No loose grain to be stowed in the extreme ends, and no admixture of other goods. Pumps and masts cased and covered with mats and canvas, made thoroughly grain tight, with sufficient

space in the well to admit the passage of a man to the heels of the pumps, and access had to the same by means of a man-hole from the deck, or by a clear passage from the 'tween decks aft. Mats to be used for covering knees, keelsons, and stanchions, if required, but not for lining or covering the sides.

3. Grain, when stowed in bags, must be dunnaged not less than 10 inches on the floor, 14 to 16 inches on the bilges, 3 inches on 'sides up to the deck; between decks the dunnage must be laid athwartships, at least 2 inches from the deck. Shifting plank extending at least 4 feet

. from deck beams downwards, secured to stanchions. The dunnage in the hold must be entirely covered with boards and sails, or mats, graintight.

4. All bulk or loose grain must be taken in bins prepared for that purpose.

5. For dunnaging, deals are preferable to anything else. They should be laid fore-and-aft, about 3 inches apart, the second tier over the spaces of the first tier, the third tier over the spaces of the second, and so on.

Staves or other materials generally used for dunnage to be placed so as to give free course for the water to reach the pumps. The dunnage should be raised from 10 to 12 inches from the floor, and in the bilges from 14 to 16 inches, according to the build of the ship and the discretion of the Inspector. Flat-floored wall-sided ships should be fitted with bilge pumps.

6. The studs for the bulkheads should be made of three-inch deals, placed about 2 feet apart, and firmly secured at the top and bottom, and properly braced and cleeted on the lining and to the beams (or deck), to resist the pressure of the grain.

7. The studs for the bulkheads forward, and after bulkheads for ships not exceeding 10 feet depth of hold, must be 4 by 6 inches in size, and of i entire piece; of a greater depth than 16 feet, they must be 4 by 8 inches. They must be set 20 inches apart from centre to centre, firmly secured at the top and bottom, and properly braced and cleeted on the ceiling and deck, to resist the pressure of the grain.

8. The sides above the turn of the bilge must be lined on one-inch battens after the manner of clapboarding.

9. Shifting planks 2 inches thick must extend to the deck on each side of the stanchions, fitted tight under and between the beams and carlins, and extending not less than 6 feet dotvnwards; care must be taken that the stanchions are well secured on both ends.

In no case can single boards be substituted for plank, and the shifting boards must be shored from sides, midway between the stanchions.

Materials for bins must be perfectly seasoned; unseasoned lumber must not be used where it will come in contact with the grain. Water-tanks, whether of wood or iron, must be cased with wood to prevent damage from sweat or leakage. And all ships with grain in bulk ought to have feeders and ventilators.

It must be seen that the grain is well trimmed up between the beams, and the space between the beams completely filled.

12. When ships are chartered, the draught of water should be limited, and provision made for loading under inspection.

13. The load draught must be regulated by the depth of the hold, allowing 3 inches to every foot depth of hold, measured from lowest line of sheer of deck amidships to the water, when upright. Ships having an additional deck put on after construction, the depth of hold to be measured from original deck.

Ships loading grain complying strictly with the above rules, lined and loaded under the supervision of the surveyor appointed by Lloyd's agent, will be entitled to a certificate to that effect.

Applications for supervision will have to be made in writing, and a fee of 10 dollars charged for such supervision and certificate.


In preparing the ship's hold to receive cargo, all the limber boards are to be taken up, all dirt removed from the floors as high as can be reached, and the timber holes effectually cleared.

All perishable goods require dunnage; the quantity required for the different cargoes is indicated under their proper headings. As a general rule, however, their must not be less than 6 inches in the bottom, and 9 inches in the bilge. Dunnage is chiefly required about the pumpwell and bilges, masts, in the wake of the chain-plates and transoms; since, when a ship lies along she will have most water in the wake of the floor timbers, and ships are apt to strain in the wake of the chains, owing to the weight of the masts and rigging when she lies along. The 'tween deck dunnage to be laid athwartship, and the first or ground

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