« AnteriorContinuar »
IO. Tar, turpentine, rosin, &c., to have flat beds of wood under the quarters, of an inch thick, and allowed to stow 6 heights.
11. Very frequent and serious loss falls on Merchants on the upper part of cargoes, particularly in vessels that bring wheat, corn, tobacco, oil-cake, &c., arising from vapour damage imbibed by wheat, flour, or other goods, stowed in the same vessel with turpentine or other strongscented articles; the shippers are to blame for such negligence, for not making due inquiry before shipping.
12. Ships laden with full cargoes of coal, bound round Cape Horn or Cape of Good Hope, to be provided with approved ventilators, as a preventative against ignition.
NOTE.-Shippers abroad, when they know that their cargoes will be stowed properly, will give a preference, and at higher rates, to such commanders of ships as will undertake to guarantee the dunnage. The American shipowners, in the stowage of mixed cargoes in large ships, have, from experience, discovered what "pressure" flour barrels, provision casks, &c., will bear, and so avoid reclamations for damage if otherwise properly stowed; hence, in large ships above 600 tons, with dimensions exceeding in length 4 times the beam, and 21 feet depth of hold, orlop decks will come into general use, so as to relieve the pressure, by dividing a ship's hold like a warehouse, into stories. A large ship, called the "Liverpool," which left New York in December last, with an entire cargo of flour, has never since been heard of; it is supposed the lower tier of barrels gave way under the pressure, and the cargo having got loose, shifted in a gale of wind, and capsized the vessel. Ship's cargoes for Insurance, will also become a matter of special agreement between merchant and shipowner, and merchant underwriters, and the premiums vary according to the dunnage agreement. The stowage and dunnage must stand A1, and is often of more importance than the class of the vessel, as experience has proved. When ships are chartered for a lump sum, the draught of water should be limited, as it not unfrequently happens that brokers insert a clause that coals are not to be considered as dead weight, in order to fill the ship up in a case of goods falling short, to make up the chartered freight. All packages, bales, and cases, not weighing more than 25 cwt. to the cubic ton measurement, are designated as light freight.—Lloyd's, May, 1851.
MONTREAL, ETC.,-STOWAGE OF GRAIN CARGOES.
Lloyd's instructions to Masters and Mates.
1. No ship exceeding 400 tons register can be entirely loaded with grain in bulk; and all exceeding 400 tons register may take two-thirds of the cargo of grain in bulk, and one-third in bags, or rolling freight instead thereof. In the latter case, the grain in bulk should be stowed 6 inches, but not more above the beams, to allow for settling.
2. When ships take wheat, corn, &c., in bulk, it must be stowed in sections or "bins" (not to contain more than 12,000 bushels each), to be lined with thoroughly seasoned boards, grain tight, not less than 10 inches from the flat of the floor, and from 14 to 16 inches in the bilges
graduated to the sides, which must be clapboard lined to the deck. Care must be taken to preserve a water-course under the lining. Good shifting boards, secured to the stanchions, extending at least 6 feet downwards and fitted tight to the deck. The stanchions not to be removed, but firmly secured. No loose grain to be stowed in the extreme ends, and no admixture of other goods. Pumps and masts cased and covered with mats and canvas, made thoroughly grain tight, with sufficient space in the well to admit the passage of a man to the heels of the pumps, and access had to the same by means of a man-hole from the deck, or by a clear passage from the 'tween decks aft. Mats to be used for covering knees, keelsons, and stanchions, if required, but not for lining or covering the sides.
3. Grain, when stowed in bags, must be dunnaged not less than 10 inches on the floor, 14 to 16 inches on the bilges, 3 inches on 'sides up to the deck; between decks the dunnage must be laid athwartships, at least 2 inches from the deck. Shifting plank extending at least 4 feet from deck beams downwards, secured to stanchions. The dunnage in the hold must be entirely covered with boards and sails, or mats, graintight.
4. All bulk or loose grain must be taken in bins prepared for that purpose.
5. For dunnaging, deals are preferable to anything else. They should be laid fore-and-aft, about 3 inches apart, the second tier over the spaces of the first tier, the third tier over the spaces of the second, and so on. Staves or other materials generally used for dunnage to be placed so as to give free course for the water to reach the pumps. The dunnage should be raised from 10 to 12 inches from the floor, and in the bilges from 14 to 16 inches, according to the build of the ship and the discretion of the Inspector. Flat-floored wall-sided ships should be fitted with bilge pumps.
6. The studs for the bulkheads should be made of three-inch deals, placed about 2 feet apart, and firmly secured at the top and bottom, and properly braced and cleeted on the lining and to the beams (or deck), to resist the pressure of the grain.
7. The studs for the bulkheads forward, and after bulkheads for ships not exceeding 10 feet depth of hold, must be 4 by 6 inches in size, and of entire piece; of a greater depth than 16 feet, they must be 4 by 8 inches. They must be set 20 inches apart from centre to centre, firmly secured at the top and bottom, and properly braced and cleeted on the ceiling and deck, to resist the pressure of the grain.
8. The sides above the turn of the bilge must be lined on one-inch battens after the manner of clapboarding.
9. Shifting planks 2 inches thick must extend to the deck on each side of the stanchions, fitted tight under and between the beams and carlins, and extending not less than 6 feet downwards; care must be taken that the stanchions are well secured on both ends. In no case can single boards be substituted for plank, and the shifting boards must be shored from sides, midway between the stanchions.
10. Materials for bins must be perfectly seasoned; unseasoned lumber must not be used where it will come in contact with the grain. Water-tanks, whether of wood or iron, must be cased with wood to prevent damage from sweat or leakage. And all ships with grain in bulk ought to have feeders and ventilators.
II. It must be seen that the grain is well trimmed up between the beams, and the space between the beams completely filled.
12. When ships are chartered, the draught of water should be limited, and provision made for loading under inspection.
13. The load draught must be regulated by the depth of the hold, allowing 3 inches to every foot depth of hold, measured from lowest line of sheer of deck amidships to the water, when upright. Ships having an additional deck put on after construction, the depth of hold to be measured from original deck.
Ships loading grain complying strictly with the above rules, lined and loaded under the supervision of the surveyor appointed by Lloyd's agent, will be entitled to a certificate to that effect.
Applications for supervision will have to be made in writing, and a fee of 10 dollars charged for such supervision and certificate.
In preparing the ship's hold to receive cargo, all the limber boards are to be taken up, all dirt removed from the floors as high as can be reached, and the timber holes effectually cleared.
All perishable goods require dunnage; the quantity required for the different cargoes is indicated under their proper headings. As a general rule, however, their must not be less than 6 inches in the bottom, and 9 inches in the bilge. Dunnage is chiefly required about the pumpwell and bilges, masts, in the wake of the chain-plates and transoms; since, when a ship lies along she will have most water in the wake of the floor timbers, and ships are apt to strain in the wake of the chains, owing to the weight of the masts and rigging when she lies along. The 'tween deck dunnage to be laid athwartship, and the first or ground
tier not to be carried too far over towards the bilge. The bilge dunnage should always be carried well up.
1. Dry goods must never be stowed under liquids.
When putting dry cargo on moist, or putting one against the other, let double mats intervene. Mat in the way of iron knees and iron stanchions; dunnage and mat round masts.
2. Fine goods, such as tea, coffee, sugar, wine, &c., must not be stowed under or near tar, turpentine, salt, oil, butter, or fish. If raw sugar is shipped in large quantities, neither tea nor coffee is safe in the same ship; nor is raw sugar safe in a ship that has on board a great quantity of tar; such articles are readily impregnated with the effluvia. 3. Casks of liquids must be stowed bung up, and bilge free; always stow bilge and cuntline.
4. Light goods must be stowed in the end of the ship; and the heavy goods amidships, low enough to give stability.
Plenty of quoins should be used in stowing casks, which are to be placed bung up, bilge free, and exactly fore-and-aft, upper tiers, bilge, and cuntline. The bilges should be free, not only from underneath, but from the casks also on either side; they may be stowed close, until the longer is completed, and then wedged off by driving quoins on each upper quarter. If the casks are not exactly in a fore-and-aft line, the chimes will lock and get broken, in breaking them out of their place. The space between casks should be filled up just high enough for the beds to rest upon, that the strain from the upper heights may not fall entirely upon the lower casks.
NOTE.-In flooring a ship it has been recommended that all casks of liquids have four beds-if spirits or wine, you must put four. When a cask is laid upon two beds it bends between them, and the bilge settles down on the skin when under pressure, and thus it gets broken; or if the beds are high, the bilge staves break outwards. But when four beds are put properly under hogsheads or puncheons, and six under pipes or butts of wine, bung up and bilge free, well quoined on the beds and quarters, they cannot start, and will bear almost any weight; when a cask is bilge free, it must not only be free of pressure from beds laid, but must also be free from pressure on the bilge on each side and on the top. A cask must be bung up, because then the pieces of the head are perpendicular.
All cases should be stowed mark up, and entered in the hold-book as stowed.
The arrangement of a ship's hold with a general cargo, should be somewhat as follows, viz. :- dead weight, railway iron, &c., between the fore and after hatches, in tiers up to the beams-London stevadores like to put it aft in the run, and when they do so, are forced to put dead weight forward in the eyes of the ship, this strains the vessel at sea
and makes her like a log in the water. Floor the fore-and-aft holds with hogsheads of beer, then stow spirits above the beer in the fore hold; heavy goods, machinery, &c., in the main hold, and bales and cases of fine goods in the after hold. If anything is to be stowed above salt, crates of earthenware, bottles, &c., are the best. If a ship has to carry much spirits, 'tween decks is a better place than to have five tiers in the lower hold. Tar, oil, grease for machinery, and herrings, must be stowed in the bottom, where they cannot damage anything, nor yet be broken by pressure. Kegs of butter, as well as jars and cans of oil, require much care in selecting a place for them-perhaps bulk beer, spirits, bottled beer-then butter or tiers of oil on top.
IRON, BAR AND RAILWAY.-In stowing a full cargo of railway iron, let the rails be laid close in the bottom, between the fore and after hatchways, as high as the keelson; then a tier athwart at right angles to the keelson, keeping the rails athwart from 8 to 16 inches apartbearing equally on the keelson and on the iron on each side of it. Stow the remainder of the cargo in alternate tiers, athwart, and fore-and-aft, at right angles to each other, leaving enough space between each piece to raise the cargo sufficiently high to make the ship easy. It is dangerous to stow iron diagonally in a ship's hold. The athwart-ship pieces should be butted against wood-solid against the ship's side. If railway iron has to be carried in 'tween decks, extra stanchions should be set from the floor-heads in each beam. All heavy cargoes should be carried on the same principle, due allowance being made for the build of the ship. It must be borne in mind that loading with dead weight, the cargo should take the form of a pyramid, and where not too close to the side, it should be well blocked off, so that it cannot shift at sea in bad weather.
In stowing, measure for your "longers" from the pump-well forward and aft. If the pump-well throw you out in the "longers" for stowing bilge and cuntline, have the breakage on the tiers near the keelsonthe casks in the wing will then lie fair in their tiers, and all the broken stowage is in one place; with liquids you may thus gain half a cask. All packages, no matter what they are, must be laid fore-and-aft, and square, i.e., perfectly horizontal, and in a line or at right angles to the keelson; this is especially necessary in the lower tiers; also, if it can be done, take care that as much room is left under the beams in the wings as there is amidships. Casks or cases, not stowed square, (horizontally) take up more room, and casks of liquid stowed "drooping," there is danger of the head pieces shifting.
LEAD. When pig-lead only is taken, dunnage with coal and rubble