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tier not to be carried too far over towards the bilge. The bilge dunnage should always be carried well up.
1. Dry goods must never be stowed under liquids.
When putting dry cargo on moist, or putting one against the other, let double mats intervene. Mat in the way of iron knees and iron stanchions; dunnage and mat round masts.
2. Fine goods, such as tea, coffee, sugar, wine, &c., must not be stowed under or near tar, turpentine, salt, oil, butter, or fish. sugar is shipped in large quantities, neither tea nor coffee is safe in the same ship ; nor is raw sugar safe in a ship that has on board a great quantity of tar; such articles are readily impregnated with the effluvia.
3. Casks of liquids must be stowed bung up, and bilge free; always stow bilge and cuntline.
4. Light goods must be stowed in the end of the ship; and the heavy goods amidships, low enough to give stability.
Plenty of quoins should be used in stowing casks, which are to be placed bung up, bilge free, and exactly fore-and-aft, upper tiers, bilge, and cuntline. The bilges should be free, not only from underneath, but from the casks also on either side; they may be stowed close, until the longer is completed, and then wedged off by driving quoins on each upper quarter. If the casks are not exactly in a fore-and-aft line, the chimes will lock and get broken, in breaking them out of their place. The space between casks should be filled up just high enough for the beds to rest upon, that the strain from the upper heights may not fall entirely upon the lower casks.
Note.-In flooring a ship it has been recommended that all casks of liquids have four beds—if spirits or wine, you must put four. When a cask is laid upon two beds it bends between them, and the bilge settles down on the skin when under pressure, and thus it gets broken; or if the beds are high, the bilge staves break outwards. But when four beds are put properly under hogsheads or puncheons, and six under pipes or butts of wine, bung up and bilge free, well quoined on the beds and quarters, they cannot start, and will bear almost any weight; when a cask is bilge free, it must not only be free of pressure from beds laid, but must also be free from pressure on the bilge on each side and on the top. A cask must be bung up, because then the pieces of the head are perpendicular.
All cases should be stowed mark up, and entered in the hold-book as stowed.
The arrangement of a ship's hold with a general eargo, should be somewhat as follows, viz. :- dead weight, railway iron, &c., between
. the fore and after hatches, in tiers up to the beams-London stevadores like to put it aft in the run, and when they do so, are forced
put dead weight forward in the eyes of the ship, this strains the vessel at sea
and makes her like a log in the water. Floor the fore-and-aft holds with hogsheads of beer, then stow spirits above the beer in the fore hold; heavy goods, machinery, &c., in the main hold, and bales and cases of fine goods in the after hold. If anything is to be stowed above salt, crates of earthenware, bottles, &c., are the best. If a ship has to
, carry much spirits, 'tween decks is a better place than to have five tiers in the lower hold. Tar, oil, grease for machinery, and herrings, must be stowed in the bottom, where they cannot damage anything, nor yet be broken by pressure. Kegs of butter, as well as jars and cans of oil, require much care in selecting a place for them-perhaps bulk beer, spirits, bottled beer-then butter or tiers of oil on top.
IRON, BAR AND RAILWAY.—In stowing a full cargo of railway iron, let the rails be laid close in the bottom, between the fore and after hatchways, as high as the keelson; then a tier athwart at right angles to the keelson, keeping the rails athwart from 8 to 16 inches apartbearing equally on the keelson and on the iron on each side of it. Stow the remainder of the cargo in alternate tiers, ath wart, and fore-and-aft, at right angles to each other, leaving enough space between each piece to raise the cargo sufficiently high to make the ship easy. It is dangerous to stow iron diagonally in a ship's hold. The athwart-ship pieces should be butted against wood-solid against the ship's side. If railway iron has to be carried in 'tween decks, extra stanchions should be set from the floor-heads in each beam. All heavy cargoes should be carried on the same principle, due allowance being made for the build of the ship. It must be borne in mind that loading with dead weight, the cargo should take the form of a pyramid, and where not too close to the side, it should be well blocked off, so that it cannot shift at sea in bad weather.
In stowing, measure for your "longers" from the pump-well forward and aft. If the pump-well throw you out in the “longers” for stowing bilge and cuntline, have the breakage on the tiers near the keelsonthe casks in the wing will then lie fair in their tiers, and all the broken stowage is in one place; with liquids you may thus gain half a cask. All packages, no matter what they are, must be laid fore-and-aft, and square, i.e., perfectly horizontal, and in a line or at right angles to the keelson; this is especially necessary in the lower tiers; also, if it can be done, take care that as much room is left under the beams in the wings as there is amidships. Casks or cases, not stowed square, (horizontally) take up more room, and casks of liquid stowed "drooping," there is danger of the head pieces shifting.
LEAD.—When pig-lead only is taken, dunnage with coal and rubble until the keelson is completely covered, in order to raise the lead and make the ship easy in a sea-way. Lay plank, and stow in the middle in stacks, placing the pigs 3 or 4 inches apart, and crossing at the same distance.
MACHINERY.—Place it in the vessel before taking any other part of the cargo, on account of its great weight, and to afford the opportunity of securing the several pieces properly by bed and chocks. Articles such as cog-wheels, and castings of a similar shape, should be lashed vertically or edgeways to the masts, taking proper care to chock them on each side with rough cases of goods, well dunnaged.
BALE Goods.—In stowing bale goods, care should be taken to put the bales on their flats in midships, and on their edges in the wings, so that in the event of leak from the deck, 1 or 2 of the pieces only might be wet, and not the whole bale. In stowing bales on casks, have wood to keep the bales clear of the iron hoops and from the iron knees in the side.
Guano requires a dunnage of from 12 to 15 inches, and some even recommend 2 feet, as it tends to make the cargo more secure, and the ship easier in a sea-way. It has been recommended to stow guano on a platform similar to that used when taking in copper ore, or it should be well dunnaged, as high up as the keelson; then place þags-say 2 tiers-fore-and-aft, so as to prevent any air from being drawn through by the suction of the pumps, or the powder or loose guano from finding its way between. Dunnage the ship's side not less than 3 inches, and carry a tier of bags up as high as the lower beams; the hold must be so stowed that a man can go on and around the cargo d..ily to inspect it.
ORES.-Heavy cargoes, such as copper ore, iron ore, or lead, should be conveyed in vessels having a platform built at about a fourth of her depth from the bottom—this will cause the vessel to be lively in a seaway. Copper ore from South America, is stowed in cases and trunks shored
in the centre. With an entire cargo a trunk-way is built up in the hold, otherwise the ship will be considered not sea-worthy.
ACIDS, LUCIFER MATCHES, &c., must be stowed on deck, and on no account below, but in such a position that if there is any breakage, they can readily be cut adrist and thrown overboard. Lucifer matches should be stowed on the upper deck. Crystallized soda always decomposes and leaks on the passage, and damages any cargo it touches.
ON RIGGING SHIPS, ETC.
RIGGING SHEARS.-Shore the decks from the skin up, particularly abreast of the partners. Sling "skids” up and down the sides, for the purpose of keeping the shear-legs clear of the channels; reeve the parbuckles, and bring the shear-legs alongside, with their small ends aft; parbuckle them on board, and their heads or after-ends resting either on the taffrail, the brake of the poop, or a spar placed in the most convenient spot—the more elevated the better. Square the heels exactly
—. one with the other, so that when they come to be raised, the legs may be found of equal height.
As near the after ends as may be considered necessary, when crossed, put on the head-lashing of a new well stretched rope (figure 8 fashion), similar to a racking seizing, and cross with the ends. Open out the heels, carrying one over to each gangway, and placing it on a solid piece of oak or shoe, previously prepared for the purpose. Clap stout tackles on the heels, two on each-one leading forward, the other aft; set taut the after ones, and belay them. Lash a three or four fold-block, as the upper one of the main-purchase, over the main lashing (so that it will hang plumb under the cross), with canvas underneath to prevent chafing, and in such a manner that one-half the turns of the lashing may go over each horn of the shears, and divide the strain equally: also sufficiently long to secure the free action of the block. Lash the small purchase block on the after horn of the shears, sufficiently high for the falls to play clear of each other, and a girtline block above all.
Middle a couple of hawsers, and clove hitch them over the shearheads ; having two ends leading forward and two abast, led through vial blocks, and stout luffs clapt on them. These should be sufficiently strong to secure the shears while lifting the masts.
The lower purchase-block is lashed forward (perhaps round the cutwater), and the fall being rove, the shears are raised by heaving upon it, and preventing the heels from slipping forward, by means of the heel tackles previously mentioned.
Sometimes a small pair of shears are erected for the purpose of raising the heads of the large ones; in which case care must be taken to place them so as to allow the heads or horns of the other pair to pass through.
When the shears are up, or nearly perpendicular, cleet the shoes, so as to confine the heels to their places upon them. They then can be transported along the deck by means of the heel tackle and guys to
the situation required, taking care to make them rest upon a beam, and to have the deck properly shored up below.
Finally, give the shears the necessary rake by means of the guys.* and set taut the guys and heel tackles. Also five or six feet above the deck, on each leg put two cleets, for the purpose of applying two stout lashings from them above to the dead-eyes in the channels below, in order to give greater security; this being done, the shears may be considered ready.
TO TAKE IN THE MIZZENMAST.—Tow the mizzenmast alongside with the head aft, and the garland lashed on the forward part of the mast, above the centre; lash a pair of girtline blocks on the mast-head, and reeve the girtlines; bend the shear-head girtline to the mast below the bibbs, to cant it. Over-haul the main purchase down abaft, thrust the strap through the eyes of the garland, toggle it, and secure the toggle by a back lashing. Take the fall to the capstan and “heave round;"' when the heel rises near the rail, hook on a heel-tackle to ease it inboard. Get the mast fair for lowering by means of the girtlines, wipe, the tennon dry, and tar both it and the step; “lower away,” and step the mast.
Some distance may be saved by using no garlands, and having the purchase blocks lashed to the mast. The mast being stepped and wedged temporarily, "come up" the purchases, man the guy and heel tackles, and transport the shears forward for taking in the mainmast.
The object of taking in the mizzenmast first is, because the breadth of beam is less aft than forward, and the heels of the shears being spread more as they go forward, the head lashing consequently becomes tauter; moreover, if the mizzenmast was taken in last the bowsprit must be got in first, and thus the advantage of securing the shears to the foremast-head when getting in the bowsprit would be lost.
TO TAKE IN THE MAIN AND FOREMAST.--Proceed in the same manner as in getting in the mizzenmast, bousing the shears forward with their shoes, by means of the heel tackles. It is better not to use garlands, when the shear legs are rather short, as lashing the purchase blocks to the mast shortens the distance. If the ship has a topgallant-forecastle, it would be well to step the mast forward of the shear legs, for the brake of the forecastle comes abreast of the partners; and in a case of this kind it would be well to take in the foremast first.
* The main-tackle must be brought nearly to the plum of the mast-hole.
+ The rule in this case is to take the height of the rail to the position of the lower block, when the tackle is block and block; and lash the lower block to the mast along. side, at a less distance from the heel than from the block to the rail, and must be above the part that takes the combings.