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until the keelson is completely covered, in order to raise the lead and make the ship easy in a sea-way. Lay plank, and stow in the middle in stacks, placing the pigs 3 or 4 inches apart, and crossing at the same distance.

MACHINERY.-Place it in the vessel before taking any other part of the cargo, on account of its great weight, and to afford the opportunity of securing the several pieces properly by bed and chocks. Articles such as cog-wheels, and castings of a similar shape, should be lashed vertically or edgeways to the masts, taking proper care to chock them on each side with rough cases of goods, well dunnaged.

BALE GOODS.-In stowing bale goods, care should be taken to put the bales on their flats in midships, and on their edges in the wings, so that in the event of leak from the deck, 1 or 2 of the pieces only might be wet, and not the whole bale. In stowing bales on casks, have wood to keep the bales clear of the iron hoops and from the iron knees in the side.

GUANO requires a dunnage of from 12 to 15 inches, and some even recommend 2 feet, as it tends to make the cargo more secure, and the ship easier in a sea-way. It has been recommended to stow guano on a platform similar to that used when taking in copper ore, or it should be well dunnaged, as high up as the keelson; then place bags-say 2 tiers-fore-and-aft, so as to prevent any air from being drawn through by the suction of the pumps, or the powder or loose guano from finding its way between. Dunnage the ship's side not less than 3 inches, and carry a tier of bags up as high as the lower beams; the hold must be so stowed that a man can go on and around the cargo daily to inspect it. ORES.-Heavy cargoes, such as copper ore, iron ore, or lead, should be conveyed in vessels having a platform built at about a fourth of her depth from the bottom-this will cause the vessel to be lively in a seaCopper ore from South America, is stowed in cases and trunks shored up in the centre. With an entire cargo a trunk-way is built up in the hold, otherwise the ship will be considered not sea-worthy. ACIDS, LUCIFER MATCHES, &c., must be stowed on deck, and on no account below, but in such a position that if there is any breakage, they can readily be cut adrift and thrown overboard. Lucifer matches should be stowed on the upper deck. Crystallized soda always decomposes and leaks on the passage, and damages any cargo it touches.

way.

ON RIGGING SHIPS, ETC.

RIGGING SHEARS.-Shore the decks from the skin up, particularly abreast of the partners. Sling "skids" up and down the sides, for the purpose of keeping the shear-legs clear of the channels; reeve the parbuckles, and bring the shear-legs alongside, with their small ends. aft; parbuckle them on board, and their heads or after-ends resting either on the taffrail, the brake of the poop, or a spar placed in the most convenient spot-the more elevated the better. Square the heels exactly one with the other, so that when they come to be raised, the legs may be found of equal height.

As near the after ends as may be considered necessary, when crossed, put on the head-lashing of a new well stretched rope (figure 8 fashion), similar to a racking seizing, and cross with the ends. Open out the heels, carrying one over to each gangway, and placing it on a solid piece of oak or shoe, previously prepared for the purpose. Clap stout tackles on the heels, two on each-one leading forward, the other aft; set taut the after ones, and belay them. Lash a three or four fold-block, as the upper one of the main-purchase, over the main lashing (so that it will hang plumb under the cross), with canvas underneath to prevent chafing, and in such a manner that one-half the turns of the lashing may go over each horn of the shears, and divide the strain equally: also sufficiently long to secure the free action of the block. Lash the small purchase block on the after horn of the shears, sufficiently high for the falls to play clear of each other, and a girtline block above all.

Middle a couple of hawsers, and clove hitch them over the shearheads; having two ends leading forward and two abaft, led through vial blocks, and stout luffs clapt on them. These should be sufficiently strong to secure the shears while lifting the masts.

The lower purchase-block is lashed forward (perhaps round the cutwater), and the fall being rove, the shears are raised by heaving upon it, and preventing the heels from slipping forward, by means of the heel tackles previously mentioned.

Sometimes a small pair of shears are erected for the purpose of raising the heads of the large ones; in which case care must be taken to place them so as to allow the heads or horns of the other pair to pass through.

When the shears are up, or nearly perpendicular, cleet the shoes, so as to confine the heels to their places upon them. transported along the deck by means of the heel

They then can be tackle and guys to

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the situation required, taking care to make them rest upon a beam, and to have the deck properly shored up below.

Finally, give the shears the necessary rake by means of the guys.* and set taut the guys and heel tackles. Also five or six feet above the deck, on each leg put two cleets, for the purpose of applying two stout lashings from them above to the dead-eyes in the channels below, in order to give greater security; this being done, the shears may be considered ready.

TO TAKE IN THE MIZZENMAST.-Tow the mizzenmast alongside with the head aft, and the garland lashed on the forward part of the mast, above the centre; lash a pair of girtline blocks on the mast-head, and reeve the girtlines; bend the shear-head girtline to the mast below the bibbs, to cant it. Over-haul the main-purchase down abaft, thrust the strap through the eyes of the garland, toggle it, and secure the toggle by a back lashing. Take the fall to the capstan and "heave round;" when the heel rises near the rail, hook on a heel-tackle to ease it inboard. Get the mast fair for lowering by means of the girtlines, wipe, the tennon dry, and tar both it and the step; "lower away," and step

the mast.

Some distance may be saved by using no garlands, and having the purchase blocks lashed to the mast. The mast being stepped and wedged temporarily, "come up" the purchases, man the guy and heel tackles, and transport the shears forward for taking in the mainmast.

The object of taking in the mizzenmast first is, because the breadth of beam is less aft than forward, and the heels of the shears being spread more as they go forward, the head lashing consequently becomes tauter; moreover, if the mizzenmast was taken in last the bowsprit must be got in first, and thus the advantage of securing the shears to the foremast-head when getting in the bowsprit would be lost.

TO TAKE IN THE MAIN AND FOREMAST.-Proceed in the same manner as in getting in the mizzenmast, bousing the shears forward with their shoes, by means of the heel tackles. It is better not to use garlands, when the shear legs are rather short, as lashing the purchase blocks to the mast shortens the distance. If the ship has a topgallant-forecastle, it would be well to step the mast forward of the shear legs, for the brake of the forecastle comes abreast of the partners; and in a case of this kind it would be well to take in the foremast first.

The main-tackle must be brought nearly to the plum of the mast-hole.

+ The rule in this case is to take the height of the rail to the position of the lower block, when the tackle is block and block; and lash the lower block to the mast alongside, at a less distance from the heel than from the block to the rail, and must be above the part that takes the combings.

TO TAKE IN THE BOWSPRIT.-Having stepped and secured the foremast, carry the forward guys aft and rake the shears over the bow; toggle the lower block of the main-tackle to a garland lashed to the upper part of the bowsprit, inside of the centre. Put on the cap, and carry tackles or guys from the bowsprit-head to the cat-head, and clap on a heel-tackle or guy. Heave the bowsprit, and direct it by the small tackles and guys.

If the ship has a topgallant-forecastle, the bowsprit cannot be taken in with the shears without the assistance of a derrick, on account of the brake of the forecastle, it not being prudent to step shears on the top of it.

SENDING A TRESTLE-TREE ALOFT.-One girtline is used, the trestletree is slung with a span, so as to hang square, and to keep the girtline clear of the midship part which is to land on the hounds of the mast.

When both trestle-trees are in their places, they are bolted together through the mast-head. (A rope is clove-hitched round the mast-head for the men to steady themselves with whilst working aloft.)

TO PLACE A LOWER CROSS-TREE.-One girtline is bent to the crosstree on its own side, and is stopped to the opposite arm amidships. -"sway away." When above the trestle-tree cut the upper stop, it will then hang square. The men aloft place and bolt it down to the

trestle-trees.

TO GET THE TOPS OVER THE MAST-HEADS.-Place the top on deck abaft the mast; get a girtline on each side of the mast-head, and pass the end of each under the top, through the holes in the after part; clinch them to their own parts, and stop them to the fore part of the top with slip-stops. Have a guy to the fore, and another to the after part of the top. Make the ends of a span fast to the after corners of the top, and bend a girtline from the mast-head to the bight of the span, and stop it to the forward part of the top. Sway away on the girtlines. When the fore part of the top is above the trestle-trees, cut the spanstops; and when the after part is above them, cast off the slip-stops. When the lubber-hole is high enough to clear the mast-head, haul on the forward guy, and let the top hang horizontally by the girtlines. Lower away, place, and bolt it.

The tops may be got over without the span and girtline, by stopping the two girtlines first rove to the middle as well as to the fore part of the top, and cutting the upper stops first. The fore and main tops are sent up from abaft, and the mizzen from forward.

ON CUTTING LOWER RIGGING.-Draw a line from the side of the partners abreast of the mast, on the deck, parallel to the channels, and

to extend as far aft as they do. On this line mark the places of each dead-eye, corresponding to their places against the channels. Send a line up to the mast-head, and fasten it to the mast by a nail above the bibbs, in a range with the centre of the mast, and opposite to the side the channel line is drawn upon. Then take the bight of the line around the forward part of the mast, and fasten it to the mast by a nail, opposite the first nail, so that the part between the nails will be half the circumference of the mast-head; then take the line down to the mark on the channel line for the forward dead-eye, and mark it as before; and so on, until you have got the distance between the mast and each mark on the channel line. Now cast off the line from the mast-head, and the distance between the end of the line and each mark will give you the length of each shroud from the lower part of the mast-head. And to make allowance for one pair of shrouds overlaying another, you may increase the length of the pair put on second-that is, the port forward ones-by twice the diameter of the rigging, the third pair by four times, and so on.

For the length of the fore, main, and mizzen-stays, take the distance from the after part of the mast-head to their hearts, or to the place where they are set up, adding once the length of the mast-head for the collar. The standing stays should be once and a half the circumference of the shrouds.

FITTING LOWER RIGGING.-Get it on a stretch, and divide each pair of shrouds into thirds, and mark the centre of the middle third. Tar, worm, parcel, and serve the middle third. Parcel with the lay of the rope, working towards the centre; and serve against the lay, beginning where you left off parcelling; serve as taut as possible. In some vessels the outer thirds of the swifter are served; but matting and battens are neater, and more generally used.

Formerly the middle third was parcelled over the service, below the wake of the futtock-staff. Mark an eye at the centre of the middle third, by seizing the parts together with a round seizing. The eye of the pair of shrouds that goes on first should be once and a quarter the circumference of the mast-head, and make each of the other in succession the breadth of a seizing larger than the one below it.

Parcel the score of the dead-eye, and heave the shroud taut round it, turning in with the sun if right-hand laid rope, and against the sun if hawser-laid; then pass the throat seizing with nine or ten turns, the outer turns being slacker than the middle ones. Pass the quarter seizings half way to the end, and then the end seizings, and cap the shroud, well tarred under the cap.

Make a Matthew Walker knot in one end of the lanyard, reeve the

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