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TO TAKE IN THE BOWSPRIT.—Having stepped and secured the foremast, carry the forward guys aft and rake the shears over the bow; toggle the lower block of the main-tackle to a garland lashed to the upper part of the bowsprit, inside of the centre. Put on the cap, and carry tackles or guys from the bowsprit-head to the cat-head, and clap on a heel-tackle or guy. Heave the bowsprit, and direct it by the small tackles and guys.

If the ship has a topgallant-forecastle, the bowsprit cannot be taken in with the shears without the assistance of a derrick, on account of the brake of the forecastle, it not being prudent to step shears on the top of it.

SENDING A TRESTLE-TREE ALOFT.—One girtline is used, tho trestletree is slung with a span, so as to hang square, and to keep the girtline clear of the midship part which is to land on the hounds of the mast.

When both trestle-trees are in their places, they are bolted together through the mast-head. (A rope is clove-hitched round the mast-head for the men to steady themselves with whilst working aloft.)

TO PLACE A LOWER Cross-TREE.-One girtline is bent to the crosstree on its own side, and is stopped to the opposite arm amidships. -"sway away." When above the trestle-tree cut the upper stop, it will then hang square. The men aloft place and bolt it down to the trestle-trees.

TO GET THE TOPS OVER THE MAST-HEADS.—Place the top on deck abaft the mast; get a girtline on each side of the mast-head, and pass the end of each under the top, through the holes in the after part; clinch them to their own parts, and stop them to the fore part of the top with slip-stops. Have a guy to the fore, and another to the after part of the top. Make the ends of a span fast to the after corners of the top, and bend a girtline from the mast-head to the bight of the span, and stop it to the forward part of the top. Sway away on the girtlines. When the fore part of the top is above the trestle-trees, cut the spanstops ; and when the after part is above them, cast off the slip-stops. When the lubber-hole is high enough to clear the mast-head, haul on the forward guy, and let the top hang horizontally by the girtlines. Lower away, place, and bolt it.

The tops may be got over without the span and girtline, by stopping the two girtlines first rove to the middle as well as to the fore part of the top, and cutting the upper stops first. The fore and main tops aro. sent up from abaft, and the mizzen from forward.

On CUTTING LOWER RIGGING.—Draw a line from the side of the partners abreast of the mast, on the deck, parallel to the channels, and

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to extend as far aft as they do. On this line mark the places of each dead-eye, corresponding to their places against the channels. Send a line

up to the mast-head, and fasten it to the mast by a nail above the bibbs, in a range with the centre of the mast, and opposite to the side the channel line is drawn upon. Then take the bight of the line around the forward part of the mast, and fasten it to the mast by a nail, opposite the first nail, so that the part between the nails will be half the circumference of the mast-head; then take the line down to the mark on the channel line for the forward dead-eye, and mark it as before;

until

you have got the distance between the mast and each mark on the channel line. Now cast off the line from the mast-head, and the distance between the end of the line and each mark will give you the length of each shroud from the lower part of the mast-head. And to make allowance for one pair of shrouds overlaying another, you may increase the length of the pair put on second-that is, the port forward ones—by twice the diameter of the rigging, the third pair by four times, and so on.

For the length of the fore, main, and mizzen-stays, take the distance from the after part of the mast-head to their hearts, or to the place where they are set up, adding once the length of the mast-head for the collar.

The standing stays should be once and a half the circumference of the shrouds.

FITTING LOWER RIGGING.—Get it on a stretch, and divide each pair of shrouds into thirds, and mark the centre of the middle third. Tar, worm, parcel, and serve the middle third. Parcel with the lay of the rope, working towards the centre; and serve against the lay, beginning where

you left off parcelling; serve as taut as possible. In some vessels the outer thirds of the swifter are served; but matting and battens are neater, and more generally used.

Formerly the middle third was parcelled over the service, below the wake of the futtock-staff. Mark an eye at the centre of the middle third, by seizing the parts together with a round seizing. The eye of the pair of shrouds that goes on first should be once and a quarter the circumference of the mast-head, and make each of the other in succession the breadth of a seizing larger than the one below it.

Parcel the score of the dead-eye, and heave the shroud taut round it, turning in with the sun if right-hand laid rope, and against the sun if hawser-laid; then pass the throat seizing with nine or ten turns, the outer turns being slacker than the middle ones.

Pass the quarter seizings half way to the end, and then the end seizings, and cap the shroud, well tarred under the

сар. Make a Matthew Walker knot in one end of the lanyard, reeve the

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other end out through the dead-eye of the shroud, beginning at the sido of the dead-eye upon which the end of the shroud comes, and in through the dead-eye in the channels, so that the hauling part of the lanyard may come in-board, and on the same side with the standing part of the shroud. If the shroud is right-hand laid rope, the standing part of the shroud will be aft on the starboard, and forward on the port side, and the reverse it hawser-laid.

The neatest way of setting up the lower fore-and-aft stay3 is by reeving them down through the bull's-eye, with tarred parcelling upon the thimble, and setting them up on their ends, with three or four seizings. The collar of the stay is the length of the mast-head, and is leathered over the service. The service should go beyond the wake of the foot of the topsail, and the main stay should be served in the wako of the foremast. The main-stays are now frequently set up to strong bolts in the deck.

RIGGING THE FORE, MAIN, AND MIZZENMASTS.—Before the trestletrees are sent up, white lead the mast-head in the wake of them, overhaul down the girtlings, and bend on the trestle-trees, with the after chock out, "sway away;" when above the bibbs, slip the stops so as to let them come down gradually into their places; then the after chock is sent up, let in, and bolted. Tar the mast-head in the way of the rigging, overhaul again the girtlines for the bolsters, which are covered well with tarred canvas-sway them aloft and stop them. The girtline blocks are now lashed to the after part of the trestle-trees. Next the shrouds are hoisted over the mast-head-the starboard forward shroud first, then the port, and so on, alternately, taking care that the seizing aloft bears in a parallel direction, between the two lower dead-eyes which the shrouds will be set up to. As each pair of shrouds are put over the mast-head, drive them down as close as possible; the stay is now to be placed abast, and below all.

To RIG A BOWSPRIT.-Lash collars for the forestay, bobstays, and bowsprit shrouds, and put on tho bees for the topmast stays; fit the manropes, pass the gammoning, and set up bobstays and shrouds.

TO SEND UP A TOPMAST.-Get the topmast alongside, with its head forward. Lash a top-block to the head of the lower-mast, reeve a mast-rope through it from aft forward, and bring the end down through the trestle-trees and reeve it through the sheave-hole of the topmast, hitching it to its own part a little below the topmast head, and stopping both parts to the mast at intervals. Snatch the

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sway away. As soon as the head is through the lower cap, cast off the end of the mast-rope, letting the mast hang by the stops, and hitch it to the staple in the other end of the cap. Cast off the stops, and sway away.

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Point the head of the mast between the trestle-trees and through the hole in the lower cap, the round hole of which must be put over the square hole of the trestle-trees. Lash the cap to the mast, hoist away, and when high enough, lower a little and secure the cap to the lowermast-head. (This is when it cannot be put on by hand.) TO SEND TOPMAST CROSS-TREES UP.

:-If the cross-trees are heavy, they may be placed in the following manner :-Sway away until the topmasthead is a few feet above the lower cap. Send up the cross-trees by girtlines, and let the after part rest on the lower cap, and the forward part against the topmast. Lower away the topmast until the cross-trees fall into their place, and then hoist until they rest on the shoulders.

PLACING TOPMAST RIGGING.–Tar the mast in the wake of the rigging, and clothe the bolsters as the lower ones; then the shrouds are swayed up and placed over the topmast-head, the first pair on the starboard forward, then the port, and so on with the other pairs. Backstays are hoisted and placed the same as the shrouds-stays are swayed up and lashed abaft the topmast-head.

To Cross A LOWER YARD.--Bring it alongside with the opposite yard-arm forward, reeve the yard-rope through the jeer block of the mast-head, make it fast to the slings of the yard, and stop it out to the yard-arm. Sway away, and cast off the stops as the yard comes over the side, and get the yard across the bulwarks. Lower yards are rigged now with iron trusses and quarter blocks, which would be fitted before rigging the yard. Hook on the clew-garnet block-the lifts, brace pennants, and foot-ropes are spliced or hooked into rings with thimbles on an iron band round the yard-arm, next the shoulders. Reeve the lifts and braces, get two large tackles from the mast-head to the quarters of the yard, and sway away on them and on the lifts, bearing off and sluing the yard by means of guys. Secure the yard by the iron trusses and haul taut lifts and braces.

To Cross A TOPSAIL-YARD.—Proceed as with lower-yard; when above lower-stay hook brace-pennants and lifts on--sway away-when high enough, square with lifts, and parral it.

The Mizzen TOPSAIL-YARD is rigged nearly the same as the main and mizzen, but the brace-blocks are on the foreside.

JOINING SHIP AND FITTING HER OUT.-Suppose you join a ship having only her lowermasts and bowsprit standing-first, secure the bowsprit by means of the bobstays, gammoning, and shrouds; next get the tops over the mast-head, then tar and parcel the bolsters well, and place them, then get the rigging over the mast-head in the order stated betore; set the rigging up and stay it, next, get the lower cap on, the topmast up, topmast cross-tree on, topmast rigging over, &c.

ON MAKING AND TAKING IN

IN SAIL.

To Set A COURSE.—Loose the sail, and overhaul the buntlines and leech-lines. Let go the clew-garnets and overhaul them, and haul down on the sheets and tacks. If the ship is close-hauled, ease off the lee-brace, slack the weather-lift and clew-garnet, and get the tack well down to the water ways.

When the tack is well down, sharpen the yards up again by the brace, top it well up by the lift, haul aft the sheet, reeve and haul out the bowline.

If the wind is quartering, the mainsail is carried with the weatherclue hauled up and the sheet taken aft.

TO SET A TOPSAIL. -- Loose the sail, and keep one hand in the top to overhaul the rigging. Overhaul well the buntlines, clewlines, and reef-tackles; let go the topgallant-sheets and topsail-braces, and haul home on the sheets. Merchant vessels usually hoist a little on the halyards, so as to clear the sail from the top; then belay them, and get the lee-sheet chock home; then haul home the weather-sheet, shivering the sail by the braces to help it home, and hoist on the halyards until the leeches are well taut, taking a turn with the braces if the wind is fresh, and slacking them as the yard goes up.

After the sail is set, it is sometimes necessary to get the sheet closer home. Slack the halyards, lee-brace, and weather-bowline; clap the watch-tackle upon the lee-sheet first, and then the weather one, shivering the sail by the braces, if necessary. Overhaul the clewlines and reef-tackles, slack the topgallant-sheets, and hoist the sail up, taut leech, by the halyards.

To Set A TOPGALLANT-SAIL OR ROYAL.-Haul home the lee-sheet, having one hand aloft to overhaul the clewlines, then the weathersheet, and hoist up, taut leoch, by the halyards. While hauling the sheets home, if on the wind, brace up a little to shake the sail, take a turn with the weather-brace, and let go the lee one; if before the wind, let go both braces; and if the wind is quartering, the lee one.

TAKING IN A COURSE IN A GALE OF Wind.—Steady the yard as securely as possible, man the clew-garnets, buntlines, and leechlines; ease off the sheet a little, let go the bowline, and ease away the tack; haul up to windward, ease off the sheet, haul up, get the sail close to the yard and furl it.

TO TAKE IN A TOPSAIL IN A GALE OF Wind.—The yard being braced up, lower away handsomely on the halyard; get the yard down by the ciewlines and reef-tackles, rounding in ou the weather-brace, and

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