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steadying the yard by both braces. Then let go the weather-sheet, and haul up the windward first. The weather-clew being up, let go the lee-sheet and haul up by the clewline and buntlines, keeping the clew, in advance of the body of the sail.
Sometimes, if the weather-brace cannot be well rounded in, as if a ship is weak-handed, the sail may be clewed up to leeward a little first -in which case, ease off the lee-sheet, and haul up on the clewline ; ease off the lee-brace and round the yard in, and when the lee-clew is about half up, ease off the weather-sheet and haul the weather-clew
Haul the buntlines up after the weather-clew, and steady the yard by the braces. There is danger in clewing up to leeward first, that the sail might be shaken and jerked so as to split, before the weather-clew is up; whereas, if clewed up to windward first, the leeclew will keep full, until the lee-sheet is started.
When coming to anchor, it is the best plan to haul the clews about half up before the halyards are let go.
In taking in a close-reefed topsail in a gale of wind, the most general practice is to clew up to windward, keeping the sail full; then lower away the halyards and ease off the lee-sheet, clew the yard down, and haul up briskly on the lee-clewline and the buntlines, bracing to the wind the moment the lee-sheet is started.
TO TAKE IN A TOPGALLANTSAIL OR ROYAL.—BLOWING FRESH.-If the wind is very fresh, and the vessel close-hauled, a good practice is to let go the lee-sheet and halyards, and clew down, rounding it at the same time on the weather-brace. Then start the weather-shrat, and haul the weather-clew chock up. Haul up the buntlines, and steady the yard by the braces.
TO TAKE IN A TOPMAST-STUDDINGSAIL.-Ease off the sheet, lower away handsomely on the halyards, clewing the yard down to the outerclew by the downhaul. Slack up the tack and lower away on the halyards, hauling down well on the sheet and downhaul, till the sail is in upon the forecastle.
TO TAKE IN A LOWER-STUDDINGSAIL.-Let go the outhaul and trip the sail till the outer clew is up to the yard. Then lower away the outer-halyards, and haul in on the sheet and tripping-line.
When the sail is in over the rail, lower away the inner-halyards.
To UNDEND A COURSE.—First furl the sail, then cast off the robands, and make the buntlines fast round the sail. Ease the earrings off together, and lower away by tl.e buntlines and clew-garnets. At sea the lee earring is cast off first, rousing in the lee body of the sail, and securing it by the earring to the buntlines.
To REEF A COURSE.—Haul up and spill the sail, as if you were going to furl it, then haul out the reef-tackles and reef it.
To SHIFT A TOPSAIL IN A GALE OF WIND.—Pass the gaskets round the sail to keep it quiet, then cast off the reef points, the robands, and the first and second reef-earring at the yard-arms, and with them make the sail fast with a marline-hitch from the yard-arm in, cast off the standing part of the reef-tackles and put a knot in them, haul taut on deck, ready to slack away, unbend the buntlines and sheets, and with a spare earring lash the clew, head, and buntline cringle all together, passing a turn or two round the sail; if the ship is by the wind and lying over, take a small rope out to the lee yard-arm and bend it on to the reef-tackle cringle to haul the sail up clear of the stay, then cast off the gaskets and earrings, slack away the lee reef-tackle, haul the sail to windward of the stay, cast off the midship-stops, lower away the clewlines; when clear of the top, lower away the weather reef-tackle and clewlines, and gather the sail in on deck.
To Close REEF A TOPSAIL, BY THE WIND, THE COURSE BEING SET.Clew the sail snugly up, haul out the reef-tackles, brace the yard by, and reef, then fill the yard and set the sail; if you start the sheets only, the sail is like a balloon, and you endanger the men on the yard.
To TREBLE OR CLOSE REEF THE TOPSAILS, GOING LARGE WITH A HEAVY SEA ON.-Put the ship dead before the wind, clow down the foretopsail-yard, and lay it and the fore-yard square, haul out the reef-tackles, haul
up the buntlines, and reef the sail while becalmed by the maintopsail ; when the foretopsail is reefed, let go the gear and hoist it up, then brace up the main and maintopsail yari (two good hands at the helm, and look out that she does not broach-to, as the main-yard goes forward), then one watch haul taut the weather braces, the other, man the lee reef-tackles and buntline, and stand by to haul out when the sail shivers; when the gear is manned, put the helm up, and bring the wind a little on the other quarter, so that the maintopsail is shivering by the lee; haul the reef-tackles well out, and bowse taut up the buntlines, and lie aloft and reef.
BENDING A COURSE IN BLOWING WEATHER.--Stretch the head of the sail across the deck as near as possible, bend the gear, then bring the leeches of the sail as near where they will haul up on the yard as possible, then stop the sail well about every two or three feet; besides the yard buntlines, have one in midships of the sail. When ready, man altogether, and run it up to the yard; by this means the sail may be bent and furled with very little difficulty.
BENDING A TOPSAIL IN A GALE.—Reef it by the foot, which is done in the following manner :-Stretch the close-reef of the sail taut alung
the deck, take the clews as near where they will haul up on the yard as possible, brace the clews down clear to the foot of the sail, then haul taut the foot of the sail without moving the clews out of their places, then gather the foot as near the close-reef as possible, then tie the reef round the foot, then the third reef, until all the reefs are expended round the foot of the sail, minding to keep the reef-knots as near at hand as possible, to be ready for casting off. By this means the sail may be bent without exposing more than one reef at a time until the close-reefed sail is set.
Note.-A topsail might be sent up by the buntline and weather-clewline.
TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. TACKING.—If the mainsail be hauled before the wind comes ahead, the mainyard will fly round of itself, but if it be not hauled until the wind comes ahead, or on the other bow, it will occasion a very dead haul. If she falls off too rapidly while swinging your head-yards, so as to bring the wind abeam or abaft, 'Vast bracing! Ease off head-sheets, and put your helm a-lee, and as she comes up, meet her and brace sharp up. If, on the other hand (as sometimes happens with vessels which carry a strong weather helm), she does not fall off after the after-sails take, be careful not to haul your head-yards until she is fully round, and if she should fly up in the wind, let go the main-sheet, and, if necessary, brail up the spanker and shiver the cross-jack yards. In staying, be careful to right your helm before she loses head-way.
To TACK WITHOUT FORE-REACHING.–As in a narrow channel, when you are afraid to keep your head-way. If she comes slowly up to windward, haul down your jib and get your spanker-boom well over to windward. As you raise tacks and sheets, let go the lee foretopsail-brace, being careful to brace up again as soon as she takes aback. Also, hoist the jib, and trim down, if necessary, as soon as she takes on the other side.
TACKING AGAINST A HEAVY HEAD SEA.—You are under short sail, there is a heavy head sea, and you doubt whether she will stay against it. Haul down the foretopmast-staysail, ease down the helm, and raise fore-sheet. When within a point of the wind's eye, let
go main-tack and sheet, lee-braces, and after bowlines, and Mainsail haul! If she loses her head-way at this time, shift your helm. As soon as she brings the wind on the other bow, she will fall off rapidly by reason of her stern-way, therefore shift your helm again to meet her, and Let go and haul! at once. Brace about the head-yard, but keep the weather-braces in, to moderate her falling off. When she gets head-way, right the helm; and as she comes up to the wind, brace up and haul aft,
MISSING STAYS.-If, after getting head to the wind, she comes to a stand and begins to fall off before you have hauled your main-yard, flatten in your jib-sheets, board fore-tack, and haul aft fore-sheet; also ease off spanker-sheet, or brail up the spanker, if necessary. When she is full again, trim the jib and spanker-sheets; and when she has recovered sufficient head-way, try it again. If, after coming head to the wind, and after the after-yards are swung, she loses head-way and refuses to go round, or begins to fall off on the same tack on which she was before, and you have shifted the helm without effect, haul up the mainsail and spanker, square the after-yards, shift your helm again a-lee, so as to assist her in falling off, and brace round the head yards so as to box her off. As she fills on her former tack, brace up the afteryards, brace round the head yards, sharp up all, board tacks, haul out and haul aft.
To WEAR A SHIP.-Haul up the mainsail and spanker, put the helm up, and as she goes off, brace in the after yards. If there is a light
, breeze, the rule is to keep the mizzentopsail lifting, and the maintopsail full. This will keep sufficient head-way on her, and at the same time enable her to fall off. But if you have a good breeze, and she goes off fast, keep both the main and mizzentopsails lifting. As she goes round, bringing the wind on her quarter and aft, follow the wind with your after yards, keeping the mizzentopsail lifting, and the main either lifting or full, as is best. After a vessel has fallen off much, the less head-way she has the better, provided she has enough to give her steerage. When you have the wind aft, raise fore-tack and sheet, square in the headyards, and haul down the jib. As the wind comes upon the other quarter, brace sharp up the after yards, haul aft the mizzen and mizzenstaysailsheets, and set the mainsail. As she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head yards, keeping the sails full, board fore-tack and aft the sheet, hoist the jib, and meet her with the helm.
To WEAR UNDER COURSES.—Square the cross-jack yards, and haul up the mainsail. Square the main-yards and put the helm a-weather. As she falls off, let go the fore-bowline, ease off the fore-sheet, and brace in the fore-yard. When she gets before the wind, board the fore and main-tacks on the other side, and haul aft the main-sheet, but keep the weather-braces in. As she comes to on the other side, ease the helm amidships, trim tack and fore-sheet, brace up and haul out bowlines.
To WEAR UNDER A MAINSAIL.—Vessels lying-to under this sail generally wear by hoisting the foretopmast-staysail, or some other head sail. If this cannot be done, brace the cross-jack yards to the wind, and, if necessary, send down the mizzentopmast and the cross-jack yard. Braco the head-yards full. Take an opportunity when she has headway, and will fall off, to put the helm up. Ease off the main-sheet, and as she falls off, brace in the main-yard a little. When the wind, is abaft the beam, raise the main-tack. When she is dead before it, get the other main-tack down as far as possible ; and when she has the wind on the other quarter, ease the helm, haul aft the sheet, and
To WEAR UNDER BARE POLES.—To assist the vessel, veer a good scope of hawser out of the lee-quarter, with a buoy, or something for a stopwater attached to the end. As the ship sags off to leeward, the buoy, will be to windward, and will tend to bring the stern round to the wind. When she is before it, haul the hawser aboard.
If the vessel will not go off, it will be necessary, as a last resort, to cut away the mizzenmast, veer away the hawser, and use the mizzentopmast as a drag to assist in wearing.
Box-HAULING A SHIP.—Put the helm down, light up the head-sheets and slack the lee-braces, to deaden her way. As she comes to the wind, raise tacks and sheets, and haul up the mainsail and spanker. As soon as she comes head to the wind and loses her head-way, square the after yards, brace the head-yards sharp aback, and flatten in the head-sheets. The helm being put down to bring her up, will now pay her off as she has stern-way on. As she goes off, keep the after-sails lifting, and square in the head-yards. As soon as the sails on the foremast give her head-way, shift the helm. When she gets the wind on the other quarter, haul down the jib, haul out the spanker, set the mainsail, and brace the after-yards sharp up. As she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head-yards, meet her with the helm, and set the jib.
CLUB-HAULING A SHIP.—This method of going about is resorted to when on a lee-shore, and it is expected a ship will miss stays. Cock-bill your lee-anchor, get a hawser on it for a spring, and lead it to the leequarter, range your cable, and unshackle it abaft the windlass. Helm's a-lee! and Raise tacks and sheets ! as for going in stays. The moment she loses head-way, let go the anchor, and Mainsail haul! As soon as the anchor brings her head to the wind, let the chain cable go, holding on to the spring, and when the after-sails take full, cast off or cut the spring, and Let go and haul !
ON A LEE-SHORE, NOT ROOM TO VEER OR STAY-No ANCHORAGE.—Put the helm a-lee, and when she comes head to wind, let go tacks and sheets, and haul them all aback, get in the lee-tacks, so that the vessel may pay short round on her heel, and when the mainsail shivers, haul it up; when she gathers head-way, shift the helm, and when the wind is on the quarter, shift the spanker, mainsail, &c., and bring her close to tho wind,