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the deck, take the clews as near where they will haul up on the yard as possible, brace the clews down clear to the foot of the sail, then haul taut the foot of the sail without moving the clews out of their places, then gather the foot as near the close-reef as possible, then tie the reef round the foot, then the third reef, until all the reefs are expended round the foot of the sail, minding to keep the reef-knots as near at hand as possible, to be ready for casting off. By this means the sail may be bent without exposing more than one reef at a time until the close-reefed sail is set.

NOTE.-A topsail might be sent up by the buntline and weather-clewline.


TACKING.-If the mainsail be hauled before the wind comes ahead, the mainyard will fly round of itself, but if it be not hauled until the wind comes ahead, or on the other bow, it will occasion a very dead haul. If she falls off too rapidly while swinging your head-yards, so as to bring the wind abeam or abaft, 'Vast bracing! Ease off head-sheets, and put your helm a-lee, and as she comes up, meet her and brace sharp up. If, on the other hand (as sometimes happens with vessels which carry a strong weather helm), she does not fall off after the after-sails take, be careful not to haul your head-yards until she is fully round, and if she should fly up in the wind, let go the main-sheet, and, if necessary, brail up the spanker and shiver the cross-jack yards. In staying, be careful to right your helm before she loses head-way.

TO TACK WITHOUT FORE-REACHING.-As in a narrow channel, when you are afraid to keep your head-way. If she comes slowly up to windward, haul down your jib and get your spanker-boom well over to windward. As you raise tacks and sheets, let go the lee foretopsail-brace, being careful to brace up again as soon as she takes aback. Also, hoist the jib, and trim down, if necessary, as soon as she takes on the other side.

TACKING AGAINST A HEAVY HEAD SEA.-You are under short sail, there is a heavy head sea, and you doubt whether she will stay against it. Haul down the foretopmast-staysail, ease down the helm, and raise fore-sheet. When within a point of the wind's eye, let go main-tack and sheet, lee-braces, and after bowlines, and Mainsail haul! If she loses her head-way at this time, shift your helm. As soon as she brings the wind on the other bow, she will fall off rapidly by reason of her stern-way, therefore shift your helm again to meet her, and Let go and haul! at once. Brace about the head-yard, but keep the weather-braces in, to moderate her falling off. When she gets head-way, right the helm; and as she comes up to the wind, brace up and haul aft,

MISSING STAYS.-If, after getting head to the wind, she comes to a stand and begins to fall off before you have hauled your main-yard, flatten in your jib-sheets, board fore-tack, and haul aft fore-sheet; also ease off spanker-sheet, or brail up the spanker, if necessary. When she is full again, trim the jib and spanker-sheets; and when she has recovered sufficient head-way, try it again. If, after coming head to the wind, and after the after-yards are swung, she loses head-way and refuses to go round, or begins to fall off on the same tack on which she was before, and you have shifted the helm without effect, haul up the mainsail and spanker, square the after-yards, shift your helm again a-lee, so as to assist her in falling off, and brace round the head yards so as to box her off. As she fills on her former tack, brace up the afteryards, brace round the head yards, sharp up all, board tacks, haul out and haul aft.

TO WEAR A SHIP.-Haul up the mainsail and spanker, put the helm up, and as she goes off, brace in the after yards. If there is a light breeze, the rule is to keep the mizzentopsail lifting, and the maintopsail full. This will keep sufficient head-way on her, and at the same time enable her to fall off. But if you have a good breeze, and she goes off fast, keep both the main and mizzentopsails lifting. As she goes round, bringing the wind on her quarter and aft, follow the wind with your after yards, keeping the mizzentopsail lifting, and the main either lifting or full, as is best. After a vessel has fallen off much, the less head-way she has the better, provided she has enough to give her steerage. When you have the wind aft, raise fore-tack and sheet, square in the headyards, and haul down the jib. As the wind comes upon the other quarter, brace sharp up the after yards, haul aft the mizzen and mizzenstaysailsheets, and set the mainsail. As she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head yards, keeping the sails full, board fore-tack and aft the sheet, hoist the jib, and meet her with the helm.

TO WEAR UNDER COURSES.-Square the cross-jack yards, and haul up the mainsail. Square the main-yards and put the helm a-weather. As she falls off, let go the fore-bowline, ease off the fore-sheet, and brace in the fore-yard. When she gets before the wind, board the fore and main-tacks on the other side, and haul aft the main-sheet, but keep the weather-braces in. As she comes to on the other side, ease the helm amidships, trim tack and fore-sheet, brace up and haul out bowlines.

TO WEAR UNDER A MAINSAIL.-Vessels lying-to under this sail generally wear by hoisting the foretopmast-staysail, or some other head sail. If this cannot be done, brace the cross-jack yards to the wind, and, if necessary, send down the mizzentopmast and the cross-jack yard. Brace the head-yards full. Take an opportunity when she has head

way, and will fall off, to put the helm up. Ease off the main-sheet, and as she falls off, brace in the main-yard a little. When the wind, is abaft the beam, raise the main-tack. When she is dead before it, get the other main-tack down as far as possible; and when she has the wind on the other quarter, ease the helm, haul aft the sheet, and brace up.

TO WEAR UNDER BARE POLES.-To assist the vessel, veer a good scope of hawser out of the lee-quarter, with a buoy, or something for a stopwater attached to the end. As the ship sags off to leeward, the buoy, will be to windward, and will tend to bring the stern round to the wind. When she is before it, haul the hawser aboard.

If the vessel will not go off, it will be necessary, as a last resort, to cut away the mizzenmast, veer away the hawser, and use the mizzentopmast as a drag to assist in wearing.

BOX-HAULING A SHIP.-Put the helm down, light up the head-sheets and slack the lee-braces, to deaden her way. As she comes to the wind, raise tacks and sheets, and haul up the mainsail and spanker. As soon as she comes head to the wind and loses her head-way, square the after yards, brace the head-yards sharp aback, and flatten in the head-sheets. The helm being put down to bring her up, will now pay her off as she has stern-way on. As she goes off, keep the after-sails lifting, and square in the head-yards. As soon as the sails on the foremast give her head-way, shift the helm. When she gets the wind on the other quarter, haul down the jib, haul out the spanker, set the mainsail, and brace the after-yards sharp up. As she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head-yards, meet her with the helm, and set the jib.

CLUB-HAULING A SHIP.-This method of going about is resorted to when on a lee-shore, and it is expected a ship will miss stays. Cock-bill your lee-anchor, get a hawser on it for a spring, and lead it to the leequarter, range your cable, and unshackle it abaft the windlass. Helm's a-lee! and Raise tacks and sheets! as for going in stays. The moment she loses head-way, let go the anchor, and Mainsail haul! As soon as the anchor brings her head to the wind, let the chain cable go, holding on to the spring, and when the after-sails take full, cast off or cut the spring, and Let go and haul!

ON A LEE-SHORE, NOT ROOM TO VEER OR STAY-NO ANCHORAGE.-Put the helm a-lee, and when she comes head to wind, let go tacks and sheets, and haul them all aback, get in the lee-tacks, so that the vessel may pay short round on her heel, and when the mainsail shivers, haul

it up; when she gathers head-way, shift the helm, and when the wind is on the quarter, shift the spanker, mainsail, &c., and bring her close to the wind.


SCUDDING.-When scudding in a heavy gale of wind, care should be taken that sufficient of lofty sail should be carried on the vessel to keep her freely and fairly before the sea. A ship will scud better with the sea right aft than quartering. With a heavy sea, the danger to be apprehended is, that the wave, travelling faster than the ship, may overtake and break over her. For scudding, the most approved sail seems to be the close-reefed maintopsail, with a reefed foresail. The course alone might get becalmed under the lee of a high sea, and the vessel losing her way, would be overtaken by the sea from aft, whereas the topsail will always give her way enough and lift her. The foresail is of use in case she should be brought by the lee. It has been recommended that the foretopmast-staysail or fore-storm-staysail should always be set in scudding, to pay her off if she should broach-to, and with the sheets hauled flat aft.

With the wind quartering and a heavy sea, it is deemed that a vessel is more under command with a close-reefed foretopsail and maintopmast-staysail. The foretopmast-staysail may also be hoisted. If the ship flies off and gets by the lee, the foretopsail is soon braced about, and, with the maintopmast-staysail-sheet shifted to the other side, the headway is not lost.

SCUDDING-BROACHES-TO.-This is when a vessel is scudding, and comes up into the wind and gets aback. For such an accident the foretopmast-staysail is set, which will act as an off-sail, so that by keeping the helm up, with the maintopsail (if set) braced into the wind, she will pay off again without getting stern-way. If the close-reefed foretopsail is carried instead of the main, it can be easily filled.

SCUDDING-BROUGHT BY THE LEE.-This is when a vessel is scudding with the wind quartering, and falls off so as to bring the wind on the other side, laying the sails aback. This is more likely to occur than broaching-to, especially in a heavy sea. Suppose the vessel to be scudding under a close-reefed maintopsail and reefed-foresail, with the wind on her port quarter. She falls off suddenly and brings the wind on the starboard quarter, laying all aback. Hard a-starboard your helm, raise fore-tack and sheet, and fill the foresail, shivering the maintopsail. When she brings the wind aft again, meet her with the helm, and trim the yards for her course.

ON ROUNDING-TO IN A GALE.-An experienced seaman remarks, that when he wished to bring-to in a hard gale, when running before a heavy

sea, he always watched for a heavy sea breaking abaft the main chains, and immediately after he eased the helm down, and rounded-to at once, having previously prepared for doing so. In managing this way he found he could avoid shipping a sea.

TAKEN ABACK.-It will frequently happen when sailing close-hauled, especially in light winds, from a shift wind, from it dying away, or from inattention, that the ship will come up into the wind, shaking the square sails forward. In this case it will often be sufficient to put the helm hard up, flatten in the head-sheets, or haul their bights to windward, and haul up the spanker. If this will not recover her, and she continues to come to, box her off. Raise fore-tack and sheet, haul up the spanker and mainsail, brace the head-yards aback, haul the jib-sheets to windward, and haul out the lee-bowlines. When the after sails fill, Let go and haul! This manoeuvre of boxing can only be performed in good weather and light winds, as it usually gives a vessel stern-way.

If the wind has got round upon the other bow, and it is too late for box-hauling, square the yards fore-and-aft, keeping your helm so as to pay her off under stern-way, and, as the sails fill, keep the after yards shaking, and haul up the spanker and mainsail, squaring the head yards and shifting your helm as she gathers head-way.

Suppose that, instead of coming-to, you are taken aback in light winds. Put the helm up if she has head-way, haul up the mainsail and spanker, and square the after yards. Shift the helm as she gathers stern-way, and when the after-sails fill and she gathers head-way, shift the helm again. When she brings the wind aft, brace up the after yards, get the main-tack down and sheet aft, and haul out the spanker as soon as it will take. The head braces are not touched, but the yards remain braced as before.*


UPON THE NATURE OF SHEERING A VESSEL TO ONE SIDE OF HER ANCHOR.If the side of a ship at anchor is presented to the tide by any means, the anchor will act upon her in two ways, one in the direction of her

*The former mode of wearing by squaring the head-yards, when the after yards are full, has a great advantage over the latter method, as the vessel will go off faster when the wind is abeam and abaft, and will come-to quicker when the wind gets on the other side,

+See The Anchor Watch, an admirable little book on this subject, published by J. D. Potter, 31, Poultry, London.

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